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Parvula fictilibus solitum dare vela phaselis,
Et brevibus pictæ remis incumbere testæ.
Nec pænam sceleri invenies, nec digna parabis
Supplicia his populis, in quorum mente pares sunt
Et similes ira atque fames. Mollissima corda
Humano generi dare se natura fatetur,
Quæ lachrymas dedit : hæc nostri pars optima sensûs.
· Plorare ergo jubet casum lugentis amici;
Squaloremque rei; pupillum ad jura vocantem
Circumscriptorem, cujus manantia fletu
Ora puellares faciunt incerta capilli

Naturæ imperio gemimus, cum funus adulta
Virginis occurrit, vel terrá clauditur infans,
Et minor igne rogi. Quis enim bonus, aut face dignus
Arcana, qualem Cereris vult esse sacerdos,
Ulla aliena sibi credat mala ? separat hoc nos



127. Accustomed to spread, &c.] They griefs may be called a dictate of nature. made vessels of burni clay, in which See Rom. xii. 15. they sailed upon the Nile a fishing, 135. Squalid appearunce, &c.] It was

128. The short cars, &c.) They painted customary for persons arraigned in a their little earthen boats, by way of or court of judicature to appear in rags and nament, and rowed them with short oars. dirtiness, in order to move the compas

The poet mentions these circumstances sion of the judges. But as squalor sig. of their boats, to shew the contemptible- nifies sometimes, “ the sorrowful and ness and vanity of these Egyptians. mouroing estate of those that are ar.

129. Find a penalty, &c.] In short, the " raigned or accused," this idea of the baseness and wickedness of the Tenty- word may be here meant, at least inclurites exceeds all power of finding any sively. See Ainsw. Squalor, No. 3. punishment or torture adequate to their 136. His defrander.] i. e. His guardeserts.

dian, who was left in trust with his per130. In whose mind, &c.] They make son and estate during his minority, and no distinctions in their mind, between bas cheated and defrauded him. Cirthe necessity which has forced others to cumscriptor means a cozener, a cheater, eat human flesh, and doing this them one that circumvents or over-reaches selves from a mere principle of anger another. and malice.

-Girl-like hairs, &c.] The tenderness, 132. Nature confesses, &c.] From the youth, and innocence of the poor orevidence of what we feel within our- phan-his air, like that of a girl, long selves, we may gather, as from the con and hanging loose, and dishevelled; his fession of a fact the truth of it, that na smooth and delicate face, wet with the ture has furnished us with bearts suscep- tears flowing from his eyes, and his aptible of the tenderest feelings.

pearance altogether is such, as to ren. 133. Has given tears.] Those outward der it almost uncertain to the beholders symptoms of sorrow and compassion, of which sex the sufferer is, who is thus which are given to no other creature. obliged to cite his iniquitous guardian

This best part, &c.] Because by into a court of justice, in order to obtain flowing in pity and commiseration, they redress. See sat. x. 1. 222, note on bespeak the most amiable qualities of Hirrus. the mind.

138, 9. An adult virgin, &c.] When 134. She commands, therefore, &c.] To we meet the funeral of a beautiful young sympathize with our frieuds in their woman, snatched away by the hand of

Accustomed to spread little sails in earthen boats,
And to ply the short oars of a painted earthen vessel.
Nor can you find a penalty for the wickedness, nor prepare
Punishments worthy these people, in whose mind equal 130
And alike are hunger and anger. Most tender hearts
Nature confesses herself to give to human kind,
Who has given tears, this best part of our sense.
She commands, therefore, to bewail the misfortune of a mourn-

ing friend; And the squalid appearance of a criminal; an orphan calling to the laws

135 His defrauder, whose girl-like hairs make his Countenance, flowing with weeping, uncertain. By command of nature we groan, when the funeral of an adult Virgin occurs, or an infant is shut up in the earth, And less than the fire of the pile. For what good man, or worthy

140 The secret torch, such as the priest of Ceres would have him

to be, Thinks any evils alien from himself? This separates us

death in all the bloom of youth, nature Worthy to be initiated into, or to be bids us mourn—we can't resist its im- present at, the sacred rites, which were pulse.

celebrated in honour of the goddess This circumstance, here introduced by Ceres. our poet, reminds one of an exquisitely These rites were celebrated by night; fine and tender passage on a like event. the worshippers carried lamps, or lighted Hamlet, act v. sc. i. where the Queen torches, in their hands, in memory of says of the deceased Ophelia, who had Ceres, who, by fire-light, bad sought been prematurely snaiched away by after her daughter Proserpine, when death:

she was stolen by Pluto out of Sicily, [Scattering flowers. Ceres is fabled to have lighted those Sweets, to thee sweet, farewell!

fires, which have burned ever since, on I hop'd thou woud'st have been my the top of mouat Ætna. Hamlet's wife ;

141. Such as the priest of Ceres, &c.] I thought thy bride-bed to have deck'd, None were admitted to the Eleusinian sweet maid,

mysteries (for so the rites of Ceres were “ And not t' have strew'd thy grave." called, from Eleusis, a town in Attica, See Ter. And. act i. sc. i. I. 77–109. built by Triptolemus, who, being in

139. An infunt is shut up, &c.] The structed by Ceres, taught the people to law forbad burning the bodies of infants sow corn) but those, who by the priest that died before they had lived forty were pronounced chaste and good, free days-or (according to some) before from any notorious crime. seven months old, when they bad teeth. 142. Thinks any evils, &c.]. q. d. They used to bury them in a place There is no real good man who can which was called Suggrundarium.' See think himself unconcerned in the misfor. Ainsw.

tunes of others, be they what they may: 140. Less than the fire, &c.] i. e. Too his language will be like this in Telittle to be burnt on a funeral pile. See the last note.

Homo sum, humani nihil a me alienum 140, 1. Worthy the secret torch.] i, e. puto. Hbaut. act i. sc. i. 1. 25.




A grege brutorum, atque ideo venerabile soli
Sortiti ingenium, divinorumque capaces,
Atque exercendis capiendisque artibus apti,
Sensum a cælesti demissum traximus arce,
Cujus egent prona, et terram spectantia. Mundi
Principio indulsit communis conditor illis
Tantum animas; nobis animum quoque, mutuus ut nos
Affectus petere auxilium, et præstare juberet,
Dispersos trahere in populum, migrare vetusto
De nemore, et proavis habitatas linquere sylvas :
Ædificare domos, Laribus conjungere nostris
Tectum aliud, tutos vicino limine somnos
Ut collata daret fiducia : protegere armis
Lapsum, aut ingenti nutantem vulnere civem ;
Communi dare signa tubâ, defendier îsdem
Turribus, atque una portarum clave teneri.




142. This separates us, &c.) i. e. This heaven, or the residence of the gods, is distinguishes men from brutes, who know called arx coeli. nothing of this.

Nos tua progenies, cæli quibus annuis 143. And therefore.] i. e. For this

Æn. i. 254. very end and purpose, that we may 147. Which.] i. e.

Which moral sympathize with others.

144. A venerable disposition.) A dispo. - Prone things, &c.] Beasts called sition and inclination to partake in prona, from their inclining, with the others' sorrows, is deserving the highest face stooping downward to the earth ; esteem and reverence, and this has whereas man is erect, and looks upward. fallen to the lot of mankind alone. Here seems to be an imitation of Ovid,

-Capable of divine things.) A capacity Met. lib. i. 1. 84-7. to apprehend divine things is the pro Pronaque eum spectent animalia catera perty of man alone. This is a very

terrum, great truth ; but, alas ! how sad an use Os homini sublime dedit cælumque tueri the wise men of this world made of this Jussit, et erectos ad sidera tollere vultus. gloriously-distinguished faculty, may be So Sallust. Omnes homines qui sese seen, Rom. i. 21, 22, et seq.

student præstare cæteris animalibus, &c. 145. Apt for exercising, &c.] The in- quæ natura prona, et ventri obedientia vention, understanding, and exercise of tinxit. Bell, Catil. ad init. the arts, whether mechanical, or others, 148. The common builder, &c.] i. e. are also peculiar to man.

Common nature, for Juvenal ascended 146. We have drawn.) Traximus--i. e. no higher—the God of Nature he knew we have derived, as we should say. pot. Compare l. 132-4. See Acts -Sense.] Moral sense, reason.

xvii. 23—9. -Sent down.) Demissum- let down. - To them.) i. e. To the brute creaTraximus demissum seems to be meta tion. phorical, taken from the idea of a cord, 149. Only souls.] Animas, a principle or chain, let down from on high, which of mere animal life; which is called ihe a person below takes hold of, and draws spirit of a beast, Eccl. iii. 21. down to himself.

—To us a mind also.] To us human 146. From the celestial top.] Arx sig- beings nature has not only given a prinnifies the top, peak, or ridge of any thing, ciple of animal life, but also a rational as of a rock, mountain, or hill; also mind, which we reflect, and judge, palace, temple, or tower, often built on and reason. The anima, or soul, is that high. See sat. xiv, I. 86-8. Hence by which we live; the animus, or intel

From the herd of brutes, and therefore we alone having shared A venerable disposition, and being capable of divine things, And apt for exercising and understanding arts,

145 Have drawn sense sent down from the celestial top, Which prone things, and things looking on the earth, want. The common builder of the world at the beginning indulged

to them Only souls; to us a mind also, that a mutual affection Might command us to seek, and to afford help:

150 To draw the dispersed into a people, to migrate from the old Forest, and to leave woods inhabited by our ancestors : To build houses, to join to our habitations Another roof, that safe slumbers, by a neighbouring Threshold, a contributed confidence might give: to protect with arms

155 A fallen citizen, or one staggering with a great wound: To give signs with a common trumpet, to be defended with

the same

Towers, and to be secured by one key of the gates.

lectual mind, is that by which we are wise the night-tiine particularly, when men above the brutes. See sat. vi. I. 530, sleep, and, of course, are more exposed note.

to dangers. 149. A mutuul affection.] The end for -To protect with arms, &c.] To prowhich this intellectual mind is given us, tect in war, from the hands of the enemy, so far as it relates to the purposes of a fellow-citizen who had fallen, or was society, is, to incline us to bestow, as well reeling with loss of blood from wounds. as to require, mutual good offices towards 157. To give signs, &c.] When on an each other; and therefore it disposes expedition in time of war, to obey one us to mutual affection.

common signal, given by the trumpet for 151. The dispersed, &c.] To coilect battle. men, who are naturally dispersed, and 158. Towers.] Turris signifies a tower, bring them together into society. or anything like it; so any fortified

-To migrate, &c.) To depart from place. the woods and forests, the ancient abodes -Secured by one key, &c.] To be inof the earliest ages, where men lived in closed within the same walls, and locked common with the beasts, and to coalesce up in security by the same key of the and unite in civil society. See sat. vi. gates. 1. 2–7.

The poet, by what he has said, has 153. To build houses.] For habitation, shewn the great advantages of men above instead of living in dens and caves, like brutes, in having a rational mind, which beasts.

can direct them to form societies, so that -To join, &c.] To join our houses to by mutual help and assistance, they can one another, for the greater safety and secure and protect each other. All this convenience of the whole, against rob- is agreeable to the dictates of their combers, wild beasts, &c.

mon nature, and thus it ought to be; but 155. Threshold.) Limine stands here, such is the corruption and depravity of per syn. for the house itself.

mankind, that, as the poet proceeds to -A contributed confidence.] That by shew, there is little of this to be found; thus joining houses (the original of cities on the contrary, beasts are not so cruel and towns) each might receive and im to their own species as men part a confidential notion of safety, in




Sed jam serpentum major concordia: parcit
Cognatis maculis similis fera: quando leoni
Fortior eripuit vitam leo ? quo nemore unquam
Expiravit aper majoris dentibus apri ?
Indica tigris agit rabidâ cum tigride pacem
Perpetuam : sævis inter se convenit ursis.
Ast homini ferrum lethale incude nefanda
Produxisse parum est; cum rastra et sarcula tantum
Assueti coquere, et marris ac vomere lassi
Nescierint primi gladios excudere fabri.
Aspicimus populos, quorum non sufficit iræ
Occidisse aliquem ; sed pectora, brachia, vultum
Crediderint genus esse cibi. Quid diceret ergo,
Vel quo non fugeret, si nunc hæc monstra videret
Pythagoras ? cunctis animalibus abstinuit qui
Tanquam homine, et ventri indulsit non omne legumen.


159. Concord of serpents, &c.] These made impious, as being instrumental to venomous creatures do not hurt their own the forming of this mischievous weapon. species; they agree better than men now - Is little.] Is to be looked upon as a do with each other.

trifle, in comparison of what mankind are 160. Spares his kindred spots.] The now capable of. See 1. 161–71. leopard recognizes the leopard, and Whereas.] Cum-although, albeit. avoids hurting him, whom he sees, by his -Bring accustomed, &c.] The first spots, to be related to the same species smiths set up their trade only to forge with himself.

instruments of husbandry, and made 165. But, &c.] The poet having, in nothing else. Coquere signifies, here, several instances, shewn the harmony to heat in the fire. Ainsw. and agreement which subsist among the 167. Tired with mattocks, &c.] They most fierce and savage beasts, now pro- wearied themselves daily in making ceeds to apply this to his main argument hoes or mattocks, or ploughshares, for in this place, which is to prove, that the tillage. concord between these creatures is 168. Knew not how, &c.] So far from greater than is to be found among the hammering iron into swords, they did out human race towards each other; and in even know how to set about it. deed, that man towards man is now so 169. We see people, &c.] Meaning the savage, as to fabricate weapons for their savage Tentyrites before mentioned, who mutual destruction, and this without any ate human flesh, and looked upon it as a

species of ordinary food. 166. Tu have produced, &c.] Lit. to 172. Pythagoras.] The famous philosohave lengthened out deadly iron, &c.i. e. pher, who left his country Samos, then by drawing it out, with hammering it on under the tyrant Polycrates, and travelled the anvil, into the length of a sword, a over India, through Egypt, in search of deadly weapon, and most fatal: the poet knowledge. He forbad tle eating of therefore calls the anvil on which it is animals on account of the transmigration

remorse or concern.

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