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great clearness, and harmony, and discrimination, from lifeless things, and if we contend and strive to introduce much meaning into these insignificant sounds; how much more necessary is it, to follow that which is significant, in living and rational men, and in spiritual gifts ! On the 1st Epist. to Corinth. c. 14, hom. 35.


Against Images.

Who in his senses would not smile to see a man, after his brilliant and philosophical disputations upon God, or upon the gods, turn his eyes to statues, and either offer prayers to them, or endeavour by contemplating them, as some conspicuous sign, to raise his mind to the conception of the intelligent Deity !-Book 7, against Celsus, tom. 2. Latin edit. printed at Basil, 1571.

Christians and Jews refrain from these on account of that precept of the law, “ Thou shalt fear the Lord thy God and him only shalt thou serve;" also upon account of that commandment, “ Thou shalt have none other gods but me, thou shalt not make to thyself an image, or the likeness of these things which are in heaven, or on earth under the heaven,” &c. Which so prohibit to us altars and images, that we ought to die rather than contaminate our faith to God with such impieties ? - In the same. (Edit. as above.)

The images that are to be dedicated to God, are not the works of artists, but what are wrought and formed within us by the word of God, namely, virtues in imitation of the first-born of every creature. -Book 8, against Celsus. (Edit. as above.)

The Sufficiency of Scripture. As all gold, whatsoever it be, that is without the temple, is not holy, so every sense, which is without the divine Scripture, however admirable it may appear to some, is not holy, because it is foreign to the Scripture.—25th Hom. upon Matt. (Latin edit. Basil.)

And there a vigilant perception and an earnest mind are required, which can discern either the simplicity of the sheep in the fold, or the latent rapacity of the wolf. Consider how imminent their danger is, who neglect to study the Scriptures, in which alone the discerument of this matter can be ascertained.-- Book 10, c. 16, upon Romans. (Edit. as above.)

επιθειναι την σημασιαν, πολλω μαλλον εν τοις εμψυχοις και λογικους ανθρωπους, και EV TOLS, Tvevpatikois xapiouage to evonjov dwnEtv dit.In 1 Epist. ad Cor. c. 14, hom, 35, tom. 11, p. 390.


Was born in the year 185. Latin edit. Basileæ, 1571.

Quis enim sanæ mentis non rideat eum, qui, post egregias illas et valde philosophicas de Deo sive Diis disputationes, statuas respicit et aut preces eis offert, aut per earum contemplationem tanquam signi alicujus conspicui conatur animum erigere ad imaginationem intelligibilis numinis ?-Contra Celsum, lib. 7, tom. 2.

Christiani homines et Judæi sibi temperant ab his propter illud legis : Dominum Deum tuum timebis, et ipsi soli servies ; itein propter illud, non erunt tibi alieni Dii præter me, et non facies tibi ipsi simulachrum nec ullain effigiem eorum quæ in cælo sunt et in terrâ subo cælo, &c. quæ adeo nos prohibent ab aris et simulachris, ut etiam emori jubeant, citius quam contaminemus nostram de Deo fidem talibus impietatibus.-Ibidem.

Simulachra autem Deo dicanda, non sunt fabrorum opera, sed a verbo Dei dedolata formataque in nobis, videlicit virtutes ad imitationem primogeniti totius creaturæ.-Lib. 8. contra Celsum.

Sicut omne aurum quodcumque fuerit extra templum non est sanctificatum, sic omnis sensus qui fuerit extra divinam Scripturam, quamvis admirabilis videatur quibusdam, non est sanctus quia continetur a sensu Scripturæ.-Latin edit. Basileæ. In Matt. hom. 25.

Et ided vigilans sensus et mens intenta requiritur; quæ probare noverit vel ovis in propatulo simplicitatem, vel lupi latentem rapacitatem. Vide quam proximi periculis fiant hi, qui exerceri in divinis literis negligunt, in quibus solis hujusmodi examinationis agnoscenda discretio est.-Orig. c. 16. In Rom. lib. 10.

Peter not the sole Rock. But if you think that the whole church is built by God upon Peter only, what will you say of John the son of Thunder, and of each of the apostles ? Shall we dare to say that the gates of hell were not to prevail against Peter in particular, and that they should prevail against the rest of the apostles and the perfect ? and that it was not said concerning all and each of them that the gates of hell should not prevail against it? Are the keys of the kingdom of heaven given indeed by Christ to Peter only, and shall no other holy man receive them ? But if this saying, "To thee will I give the keys of the kingdom of heaven, is common also to the rest, why not also those words, which precede, and which seem directed to Peter ?- Comment. on the 16th chap. of Matt. (Rouen, 1668.)

Anti-transubstantiation. The meal, which is sanctified by the word of God and prayer, as respects its material part, goes in the stomach

but as regards the prayer, which is added to it, according to the proportion of faith, it profits, enlightening the mind, which beholds that which is profitable. Neither is it the natter of the bread, but the words spoken over it, which profit him that doth eat not unworthily. And these things I speak of the typical and symbolical body.-Comm. on Matt. (Rouen, 1668.)

If ye are the children of the church, if ye are well embued with the mysteries of the Gospel, and if the Word made flesh dwelleth in you, acknowledge what I say, because it is of the Lord, lest, not knowing it, you may not be known by bim. Acknowledge that some things written in the holy books are figures, and therefore examine and understand the things which are said, as spiritual men : for if you receive them as carnal men, they injure you. There is in the New Testament a letter wbich killeth him who does not understand spiritually the things which are said. For if you take this according to the letter, Except ye eat my flesh and drink my blood, this letter killethHom. 7, on the 10th chap. of Leviticus. (Latin edit. Basil, 1571.)

But if, as these affirm, he had neither flesh nor blood, of what flesh and of what body and of what blood are the bread and cup which he delivered the images by these symbols he commended his memory to his disciples. The third Dialogne against the Mar. cionites.-(Edit. as above.)

Against Prayers to Angels or Saints. We must pray to Him alone who is God over all, and we must pray to the only begotten Word of God, the first-born of every creature, and

Ει δε επι τον ενα εκεινον Πετρον νομιζεις υπο του θεου οικοδομεισθαι την πασαν εκκλησιαν μονον, τι αν φησεις περι Ιοαννα τα της βροντης υι8, η εκατα των Αποσολων και αλλως τε αρα τολμησομεν λεγειν οτι Πετρου μεν ιδιως πυλαι αδε και κατιςχυσασιν, των δε λοιπων αποτολον, και των τελειων κατισχυσεσιν, εχι δε και επι παντων, και εφ' εκάσω αυτων το προειρημενον, το πυλαι αδε ου κατισχυσεσιν αυτης; αρα δε τω Πετρω μονω διδονται υπο το Κυριου αι κλειδες της των ουρανων βασιλειας, και ουδεις ετερος των μακαριων αυτας ληψεται και ειδε κοινον εσι και προς ετερους το δωσω σοι τας κλειδας της βασιλειας των ουρανων', πως ουχα και παντα τα τε προειρημενα, και τα επιφερομενα ως προς τον Πετρον λελεγμενα.-Commentar, τη Matt. c. 16. (Rothomagi. 1668.)

Το αγιαζομον βρωμα δια λογου θεα και εντευξεως, κατ' αυτο μεν το υλικον εις την χειλιαν χωρει, (και εις αφεδρωνα εκβαλλεται) κατα δε την επιγενομενην αυτω ευχην, κατα την αναλογιαν της πιςεος, ωφελιμον γινεται, και της το νου αιτιον διαβλεψεως, ορωντος επι το ωφελουν. Και ουκ η υλη το αρτο, αλλ' ο επ' αυτο ειρημενος λογος εσιν ο ωφελων τον μη αναξιως το κυριου εσθιοντα αυτον. Και ταυτα μεν περι τα τυπικα, και συμβολικα σωματος.

Comment. in Matt. Rothomagi. 1668. Rouen.

Sed vos si filii estis ecclesiæ, si evangelicis imbuti mysteriis, si verbum caro factum babitat in vobis, agnoscite quæ dicimus, quia Domini sunt, ne forte qui ignorat ignoretur. Aguoscite quia figuræ sunt, quæ in divinis voluminibus scripta sunt, et ided tanquam spiritales examinate et intelligite quæ dicuntur, si enim carnales ista suscipitis lædunt vos Est et in Novo Testamento littera quæ occidit eum qui non spiritualiter ea quæ dicuntur adverterit. Si enim secundum litteram sequeris hoc ipsum quod dictum est, nisi manducaveritis carnem meam, et biberitis sanguinem meum, occidit hæc littera.--Orig. in Lev. c. 10, hom. 7. (Latin edit. Basileæ, 1571.)

At si ut isti aiunt, neque carnem habuit, neque sanguinem, cujusmodi carnis, aut cujus corporis, et qualis tandem sanguinis imagines, videlicit panem et poculum tradidit? ac per hæc symbola memoriam sui præcepit suis discipulis.Orig. Dial. tertius contra Marc. (Latin edit. Basil, 1571.)

Μονω γαρ προσευκτεον τω επι πασι θεω, και προσευκτεονγε τω μονογενει και πρωτοτοκω πασης κτισεως λογω θεε, και αξιωτεον αυτον ως αρχιερεα τον επι αυτο φθα.

we must entreat him as our high priest to present our prayers when they come to him, to his God and our God, and to his father, and the Father of them that frame their lives according to the word of God.-Eighth book against Celsus. The Greek is quoted by Usher. The quotation has been verified in the Latin edit. printed at Basil, 1575.

Origen in a passage extracted from his Commentary on the first Psalm, and mentioned by Eusebius, lib. 6, c. 25, reckons also twoand-twenty books, but he takes'in Esther, joining Ruth with Judges.Complete History of the Canon of the Old and New Testament, by Dupin.

Prayers in the Vulgar Tongue. The rest of the Christians use not the very words of the Scriptures in their prayers, but they that are Greeks use the Greek tongue, and they that are Romans use the Roman tongue, and every one according to his own dialect prays to God, and makes promises to him according to his ability; and he that is Lord of every language hears the prayers which are put up to him in every language.-Eighth book against Celsus, quoted by Archbishop Usher, and verified in the Latin edit. printed at Basil, 1571.


Flourished about the year 335 or 340.

Against Creature-Worship. Peter the apostle admonished Cornelius who desired to worship him, saying, I also am a man. The angel in the Apocalypse admonished John, who desired to worship him, saying, See thou do it not, I am thy fellow seryant, and of thy brethren the prophets, and of them that keep the sayings of this book, worship God. Therefore it appertains to God only to be worshipped, and the angels themselves are aware of this, for although they surpass others in glory, they are all creatures, and are not beings to be worshipped, but beings who worship the Lord. The angel, therefore, admonished Manoal the father of Sampson, who wished to sacrifice to him, saying, Offer not to me, but to God.-Third Oration against the Arians, printed at Paris, 1627.

The Scriptures the sole Rule of Faith. If then ye are the disciples of the Gospel, speak not unrighteousness against God, but walk in the things that are written. But if you

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