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but in what way does not appear. He was a powerful and ambitious prelate, and a great builder. See Scr. Tres, II, 12, and, on his

buildings, Mr. Longstaffe in Durh. Arch. Trans., I, 1--8. Pope Athanasius). So the MSS. and Davies. Hunter and Sanderson say

“Paschalis II," and the date is wrong in all the MSS. and editions. Bishop Pudsey was consecrated at Rome by Anastatius IV, “in festivitate S. Thomæ Apostoli ” (Scr. Tres, 6). Stubbs says Dec. 20

(Reg. Sacr. Angl., 1897, p. 47). but a fewe yeres). The church, all but the towers, was finished about

1133-1140. at ye east end). A very usual place for a Lady Chapel, particularly when

the east end of the choir was not occupied by the shrine of a local

saint, as at Durham it was. sundry pillers). In the tract on the Origin, etc., of the Bishops of Durham,

compiled in 1603 and printed in 1779, p. 14, it is said that these pillars “ were brought by shippe ready wrought to Newcastle, and from thence by carriage to Durham.Gaufridus de Coldingham says, “A transmarinis partibus deferebantur columpnæ et bases marmoreæ."--Scr. Tres, p. 11. The pillars are of Purbeck marble, and

would be brought by sea from Poole in Dorsetshire. great riftes apperinge). The shrinking and cracks in Pudsey's intended

building doubtless arose from too little care having been taken about the foundations, although, as we are told, there were too many

The plateau of solid rock on which the church stands falls away at the east end, so that in order to obtain a good foundation it would have been necessary to go much deeper than the old builders commonly did. From the same cause that affected Pudsey's work at the east end, his Galilee at the west end of the church was at one time in danger, and, but for Langley's massive buttresses, would probably have fallen down into the river. See

Greenwell, p. 50. not acceptable to god, etc.). This suggestion, and indeed almost the whole

paragraph, is translated from Coldingham in Scr. Tres, p. 11. It

was usual for women to have access to Lady Chapels. east end

west angle). H. 45 has “east end,” “ west end”; Cos., east end,” west angle ; H. 44, the same. L., C., and Davies have

angle" in both places ; Hunter has “East Angle” and “West end” in both his editions ; Sanderson the same. The word “angle was loosely used in the sixteenth century of an outlying spot without

reference to shape. See N. E. D. on ANGLE sb. 4. called the galleley by reason, etc.). This idea has probably been suggested

by St. Jerome's explanations of Galgala as Rota, Revolutio, and Galilæa as Volubilis, founded on the Hebrew galal, to roll, hence,

The real reason is given in Ruperti Tuitensis de Div. Off., lib. v, cap. 8, and lib. vii, cap. 21—24 (Migne, P. L., Vol. 170). Sunday is the weekly festival of the Resurrection, and in the Sunday procession the person of greatest dignity goes first, the rest following him in their order, symbolizing Christ going before the disciples into Galilee after the Resurrection (St. Mark xvi, 7 ; St. Matthew xxviii, 10). “Unde locum quoque, quo suprema statione processionem ter



minamus, nos Galilæam nominamus." See also Hutchinson, Durham, II, 71n., where a note on the subject is quoted from Durham Chapter MS., A. IV, 13. The same note is printed in Rud's Catalogue of the MSS., p. 66. The Lady Chapel at Durham was called Galilæa before 1186, as appears in a charter quoted by Greenwell, p. 49n. At Ely, Bishop Eustace constructed a new Galilee at the west end.Ang. Sac., I, 634. At Lincoln the Galilee porch is at the south-west corner of the great transept, and, as at Durham, an ecclesiastical court was held in the place so named, “curia vocata le Galilee." At Byland the west porch was called the Galilee.-Hope, Fountains, in Yorks. Arch. Journal, XV, 312. There are several quotations concerning monastic Galilees in Ducange, s.v. Galilæa, and for Durham

the Index to Rolls may be consulted, under“ Galilee." a table there sett vp). As was no doubt very commonly done in such cases. ye Cantariel. Bishop Langley's chantry-chapel, founded in 1414, now

destroyed, but standing in 1603 ; upon the toppe of the doore whereof his Armes are sett" (Origin and Succession of Bishops, as printed in 1779, p. 23). “Istam cantariam ex marmore in Galilæa fundavit,

cum armis artificiose in summitate ejusdem ostii in marmore insculptis, cujus sumptibus tota Galilæa reparabatur ad summam £499 6s. 8d.,” Scr. Tres, 146. The door-head here referred to has been preserved ; it has shields with Bishop Langley's arms in the spandrels and at the sides. The chantry would be a small internal chapel with open tracery in the sides, like those of the same period (1406-37) elsewhere. It is shown by Carter's and other old plans and drawings, as well as by existing indications, that it occupied a space of about 24 feet by 13 feet, bounded on each side by two of the Galilee arches. Its floor was raised a step above that of the Galilee, as may be seen in old views, e.g., the engraving in Smith's Bede, p. 805, and Carter's drawing reproduced in Durham and

Northumb. Arch. Trans., V, Pl. iv. Our La : alter]. The mensa, with its crosses, now lies where the altar

stood. Its size is about 8 ft. 3 ins. by 4 ft. See Billings, Pl. xxxiv. Below the floor-level, to the S.W., is a sort of channel that may have

been connected with a floor-piscina. curious wainscott woorke). Wantonly destroyed in 1845, when the masonry

with which Langley closed up the great west doorway was taken down. The present unmeaning oak doors were put up in 1846. The wainscot work is shown in old drawings, and in Billings, Pl. xxxvi. Carter's drawings (one in the possession of Canon Greenwell, and B.M. Add. 29,933, Nos. 62, 63) show the reredos and canopy with the fine aumbry overhanging the doorway on the South and another on the North. Several inscriptions remained on the reredos, as, “ Sca Maria “Sca Maria regina celi,” “Sca Maria Mater Xpi,” “Sca Maria virgo virginum,” etc., but the rest are fragmentary. These inscriptions were referred to by the late Dr. Townsend in a sermon preached in the Galilee before they were destroyed. Raine says they were “in letters of gold."—Brief Acc., 83n. So Billings, p. 33.

Carter's drawings are reproduced in Durham and Northumberland Arch. Transactions, Vol. V, Plates iv,

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v, vi ; pp. 29–36. A few small portions of its perforated tracery, very like the geometrical tracery at Brancepeth Church, have been used to ornament the pulpit at Croxdale. For Langley's masonry, and the little doorway through it, see Billings, Pl. xxxiv, xxxvi, xxxviii. The Norman arcade shown in the plates seems to have been made of the old materials taken out for the fifteenth-century

doorways. was song daly by ye mr playing vpon, etc.). The meaning must be

that the singing of the parts of the mass allotted to the choir was managed by the master of the Song School, who also played on a

pair of organs which must have been placed in the Galilee. Mr John Brimley). Master of choristers and organist from 1557 to 1576.

He was one of those who were called to account in connexion with the Rising of the North in 1569, and the restoration of the mass according to the earlier rite, in Durham Cathedral. He owned that he was twice at mass, but sang not himself at mass, only played the organs, and did help to sing Salves at Matins and Evensong, and went in procession after the Cross. He received holy water, but no holy bread, to his witting, yet he knelt to be reconciled and bad others do so. He knew not what was woorde (become) of the grail that he commonly used for the teaching of the children. In his partial contormity he acted under compulsion.-Durham Depositions (Surtees Society), 148. When the sacring bell rang, Oliver Ashe, curate of St. Giles's, “looked towerd the priest, but he could not decern the elevacion ; whereupon he loked up to Mr. Bromley (sic) then in the loft over the queir door, and smiled at hym.”16., 137. Mr. Brimley was allowed to go down to his grave in peace. When examined in 1569 he was 67 years of age. He died in 1576, being then 74, and was laid to rest in the Galilee just west of the west end of the Chantry, which had not then been pulled down. Over his grave is a stone with matrices of an inscription plate and shield that have apparently belonged to some one else, and under these, with an initial pomegranate incised, the lines, “TOHN BRIMLEIS BODY HERE DOTH LY | WHO PRAYSED GOD WITH HAND AND VOICE | BY MVSICKES HEAVENLIE HARMONIE | DULL MYNDES HE MAID IN GOD REIOICE | HIS SOVL INTO THE HEAVENES IS LYFT | TO PRAYSE HIM STILL THAT GAVE THE GYFT | OBIIT A7 DNI 1576. OCTO. 13." One stanza of the epitaph of Thomas Tallis, at Greenwich (Rimbault, Cheque-book of Chapel Royal, 193, from Strype, in his edition of Stowe's Survey, 1720, Circuit Walk, p. 90), might have served for John Brimley. “He serv'd long Tyme in Chappel with grete Prayse, Fower Sovereygnes Reygnes (a Thing not often seen), I mean Kyng Henry and Prynce Edward's dayes, Quene Mary, and Elizabeth oure Quene.” In one of the old MS. music books at Durham Cathedral is “Mr Brimley

his Kerrie,” followed by a Credo. wth certaine decons). This shows that it was what is now commonly called

a High Mass, i.e. one celebrated with deacon and sub-deacon.

“ High Mass” is properly the principal mass of the day. Bushop Langlei). Thomas Langley, Dean of York, 1401 ; Lord High

Chancellor, 1405 ; in the same year Archbishop-elect of York, and

1406 to 1437 Bishop of Durham. In 1406 he ceased to be chancellor ; in 1411 he was made a cardinal ; in 1414 ambassador in France ; in 1417 to 1422 and 1423 to 1425 chancellor again. At York Minster he left a splendid memorial in the St. Cuthbert window, which was made by his direction, probably in his lifetime (Yks. Arch. Jrnl., IV, 260, 273). On his alterations in the Galilee, and other works there and elsewhere, see Scr. Tres, 146 ; Greenwell, 78–80. In his will (Scr. Tres, ccxli) he provides for his burial “in ecclesia mea Dunelmensi in capella beatæ Mariæ Virginis vocata le Galilee, in loco ad hoc jam per me disposito.” The deed of foundation of this chantry, dedicated to the Blessed Virgin and St. Cuthbert, dated June 18, 1414, is preserved in the Treasury ; zcia zciæ Pont. No. 7. For a list of his works and gifts see Durham Wills and Inventories

(Surtees Society), I, 88 ; Rolls, Index under Langley. did reedefye and buyld anew). This is over-stated. What Langley did was

to put on a new roof, insert the three central windows in the west end, and strengthen the west wall by massive buttresses, between two of thein building a small apartment which has been thought to be a vestry, but which by the discovery of a well in 1896 has been shown to be a well-house. There is a lower well-house opening on the path, where the public could dip vessels into the well, which is lined with lead at the bottom.Durham and Northumb. Arch. Trans., V, 24-28, and Plates. Bishop Langley blocked up the great west door, making new ones at the sides. In front of the doorway he placed Our Lady's altar, and before that his own tomb. For this work and for his chantry chapel and woodwork see above, p. 230. He added to the original twin shafts of Purbeck marble shafts of stone, turning them into clustered columns of four shafts, with capitals and bases to his new shafts copied from those on the old

We find in 1432-5:-Empcio lapidum. Item in 29 futhers lapidum empt. pro columpnis Galileæ, 56s. 972d. Item in 12 (ut supra) cum cariagio, 17. 7d.--Misc. Chart., Nos. 5719–20 ; Green

well, son. two . . . Aumeryes). Destroyed in 1845, shown in Billings, Pl. xxxvi.

The lower part of the one on the south side has been in a deep recess hewn out of the side of the great doorway ; see Billings, Pl. xxxiv, and note above, p. 230; also Durham and Northumb. Arch. Trans.,

V, Pl. iv, v. a faire marble Towme). This remains, and is somewhat peculiar in its

construction. The top stone is fully ten feet in length, by nearly six feet across, and quite plain on its upper surface. At its eastern end it comes close up to the altar-slab, so that the celebrating priest stood at the bishop's feet. Six feet of it project westward into the Galilee, with six stone steps on either side. Round the cornice of the projecting portion runs a chase for a marginal inscription on brass, now lost. On the west end or head of the tomb are three panels, each containing a large shield with the bishop's arms.

Scr. Tres, 147 ; Billings, Pl. xxxiv, xxxvi. he founded, etc.). Cf. Scr. Tres, 146. The Place Green is now usually

called the Palace Green. Bishop Langley's schools have been in


some sort succeeded by the present Grammar School, which claims Henry VIII as its founder, and by the Cathedral Choir School. His school buildings were reconstructed by Bishop Cosin. One, the

· Old Grammar School," is now used by the University as a lecture

room, the other as the University Museum. ye Lady of pieties alter). For another altar with this dedication, see

above, pp. 38, 41, 223, 224. On the sides of the recess in the Galilee in front of which the altar of Our Lady of Pily stood are contemporary paintings of a king and bishop, probably St. Oswald and St. Cuthbert, while within the soffit and at the back of the same recess are bands of beautiful conventional leaf pattern characteristic of the twelfth century, under which is a representation of hangings. The painting in the middle of the hangings has been defaced, and probably contained the picture of Our Lady of Pity, which seems to have been an insertion, as there are no signs of any canopy or enclosing compartment. For references concerning these paintings see C. E. Keyser, List of Buildings having Mural Decorations, 3rd edition, 1883, p. 90.

Canon Greenwell suggests that the original altar of Our Lady may have been removed by Langley from this recess to the central one when the latter was walled up, and that of Our Lady of Pity moved at the same time to this recess from the one to the north of it, when the doorway was made there. On the north side of the recess is a curious almsbox constructed in the wall, with inclined planes leading down to the slit at the top ; this is not mentioned in Rites, nor is it shown in Carter's Pl. i, which, however, is merely an ornamental title, and is incorrect in showing an unbroken line of hangings and ornament. The almsbox is indicated

in Billings, Pl. xxxiv, xxxvi. or saviours passion). No traces of these pictures are left. They were

probably on wood, tabulæ such as are frequently mentioned in

connexion with altars elsewhere. See Rolls, Index under Tabulæ. betwixt two pillers). The pillars being N. and S. of the monument, not

E. and W. Billings, Pl. iii, v, xxxvi, xxxvii. a goodly monumt]. See further in ch. XLIX, p. 96, LII, p. 103. ye said throwghe). “Through " is a tombstone or tomb.

See ch. VIII, note, p. 207, and ch. XLIV, p. 87. to drawe vp and downe). The wooden pulley still attached to the roof

seems to be too small and too far to the west to have served for lifting the cover, and as there is a similar pulley on the other side of the Galilee, in front of the site of the altar of Our Lady of Pity, both probably were for the suspension of lights. There is a rough sketch

of one of them in Durham and Northumb. Arch. Trans., V, Pl. vi. the auncyent historie). Not identified. See p. 198, but the verses on p. 45

are not in Scr. Tres. a fereter of gold & silver). “ Feretrum quoque ex auro et argento, in quo

ossa Venerabilis Bedæ presbyteri et Doctoris ferre decrevit, ex studio artificum tanta diligentia compositum, ut quid magis in eo præstet, opus an decor, attrectantibus merito veniat in dubium."Scr. Tres, p. 11.

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