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for health and pleasure, as they go to Europe. If swift and expensive steamers were provided for the limited number of commercial travelers, the steamship lines would require an enormous subsidy in order to be saved from loss. The Cunard, North German Lloyd, and French steamers may enjoy a practical subsidy, but the largest line in the world-the Hamburg-American-has no subsidized mail service; it therefore purchases its ships wherever it is best suited. As to the naval reserve, converted merchant vessels have not played much of a rôle in naval wars. They are serviceable as transports, but transports can be obtained at any time. The American merchant marine can be put on a satisfactory basis (1) if our navigation laws are repealed; (2) if our tariff is reduced to the average in Europe; (3) if our laborers will go to sea and accept the wages paid in England or Germany.-THE EDITORS.]


There is need of close and accurate thinking, and no less plain speaking, upon the labor question in connection with the McNamaras' confession. The Outlook has several times explained the fact (but at a time when few people paid much attention to it) that the leaders of the Western Federation of Miners and the common trade-unionists base their struggle on behalf of labor on radically different grounds. The Western Federation and men of its stamp believe, or pretend to believe, that all the wealth in the world has been produced by manual labor, and that the reason that it is not still held by those who labor with their hands is because they have been "robbed" of it by men of keener intellect and greater ability, but who, possessing no moral right to the property they have thus taken, are as actually robbers as the pirate or highwayman of the Middle Ages. They believe that the property held by capital is "stolen property," and should be recaptured by those to whom it rightfully belongs; that it is not only permissible but highly patriotic to cripple one's enemies by any and every means recognized by so-called civilized warfare. They hold that there is to-day just as truly a war between capital and labor as there is between Turkey and Italy, or between the rebels and the Chinese Government. These men believe, and openly say, that those laborers who haggle about "wages are traitors to their cause, and that they should be held in as great contempt as would any one in Italy who would propose to abandon Tripoli for a money consideration, or a Chinese rebel who would agree to submit peaceably to the Manchu dynasty if paid a sufficient price, or the propagandist of Russia who would support a Stolypin Ministry if paid enough for it.

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This is the doctrine of the Western Federation of Miners, and it is openly advocated by

such men as Haywood, Moyer, and others of the extreme radical labor leaders, those whom President Roosevelt at one time designated as


undesirable citizens." Because the position held by these men has not been understood by the ordinary people, they have been left free to pursue their own course, and have accordingly grown bolder and bolder until we are suddenly confronted with the fact that we really have industrial war in this country, not in a figurative but in a very real and actual sense.

On the other hand, there is the great body of wage-earners in this country, ably and nobly led by men of the stamp of John Mitchell, who not only do not hold these views, but most of whom have not the slightest idea that any one on earth does hold them. They think capital and labor are partners, and, if not partners, then at least they are co-workers, and that the one is as necessary to the other as the other is to the one. To be sure, the ordinary trade-unionist firmly believes that capital is getting more than its share of the joint product, and that it is his duty to fight for a larger portion than he has been in the habit of getting; but with him the outcome of the struggle is not actually to destroy capital and cause every man to work at some trade with his hands (in other words, not to capture the enemy's country as is done in war), and thereby to wipe out the present government, but simply to compel what to him seems a fairer and more equitable division of the proceeds of the joint efforts of both. He believes sometimes in competition, sometimes in co-operation, but, whichever is used, he wants his share of the results.

The confession of the McNamaras has bewildered the labor world, and brought upon the unhappy victims the wrath of the labor unions, because the unions have been blind to, or ignorant of, the fact that certain loud-mouthed labor agitators (I dislike to call them labor leaders) have always held, though not always proclaimed, these same principles of warfare. And now, while the eyes and ears of the whole industrial world are alert because of the spectacular happenings at Los Angeles, is, in my opinion, the opportune time to enlighten them as to the true situation. If this opportunity shall be allowed to pass with only personal denunciations of a few of the participants, a pillorying, so to speak, of the McNamaras, the McManigals, and the Harry Orchards, those who serve only as privates on detailed duty to execute the orders of some superior, having no choice but to obey, then the great opportunity of the present occasion will have been lost, and the victims, the McNamaras on the one side and those killed by the "Times" explosion on the other, will have suffered in vain, for the world will be no whit in advance by reason of it.

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If incongruity is the basis of humor, what funny fellows some American workmen are! Here is an example: A recent fire in a newly opened hotel in New York City was started, so it is reported, by workmen who smoked cigarettes while they were unpacking furniture wrapped in excelsior! And how about the managers who permitted such an exhibition of humor?

Miss Louise F. Brown, of Wellesley College, has the distinction of being the first woman to win the prize offered biennially by the American Historical Association for the best essay on European history.


The raising of deer on plots of waste land has attracted some venturesome capitalists, whose methods are described in "Outing." Wild deer, says the owner of a successful deer farm in Texas, are easily tamed. The wildest fawn, if taken from the herd when young, will in a few hours become as gentle as a pet dog." Deer increase very rapidly; one New Jersey farmer, who began with nineteen deer, in ten years had a herd of four hundred; and a Pennsylvania hunting club has a herd of three thousand, sprung from ninety deer acquired eight years ago.

"Who is the most useful citizen of this town?" a writer in "The World To-Day" asked nine different men in Boston lately. Three of them answered: Louis D. Brandeis. Then he asked seven other men, "Who is the most troublesome man in Boston ?" and two of the seven said: Louis D. Brandeis. The vote for other useful and troublesome citizens being scattering, the plurality winner of the contest was declared elected. A larger plebiscite would doubtless confirm the verdict.

There are more than 200 foreign students at Columbia University, New York City, this year, 175 at Cornell, 167 at Harvard, and 89 at Yale. Most of these men are notable for their good scholarship, some of them are making brilliant records, and a few excel in athletics as well as in intellectual work.

The Canon of Westminster, so we are told in his recent book, "Some Pages of My Life," once asked Queen Victoria a question about Disraeli's novel "Coningsby." "Her Majesty pursed up her lips and answered that she didn't care for his novels.'" Disraeli was, she said, "an able man with a fine imagination; great, but not as great as her present Prime Minister [Lord Salisbury]." Bismarck's characterization of Lord Salisbury, it may be recalled, was less flattering-"a lath painted to look like iron."

The world's largest trade union composed entirely of women is said to be the Cotton Operatives' Union of Lancashire, England, where labor troubles are just now attracting attention. This union has 80,000 members.

A "Country Editor," apologizing for the mistakes in his paper, says, ironically, that they were certainly inexcusable, as "all he has to do is to hunt news and set type, pen short items and fold papers, talk to visitors and read the proofs, dun delinquents and hunt the shears with which to write editorials." Evidently this country editor is somewhat slothful, for he makes no mention of running the press, superintending the job department, or acting as school trustee during his leisure hours.

Roadside mirrors for motorists, which have been introduced in England, are not meant to enable dust-begrimed joy riders to "fix up" before entering a town, but are used for the utilitarian purpose of preventing accident. They are placed at dangerous road corners, and enable the motorist to see approaching vehicles. Such mirrors, says "Good Roads," are in successful use in Norwich and in other districts of England.

Getting rich quick by means of the lottery still appeals to a multitude of gullible persons. A list of several hundred lotteries is given in the "United States Official

Postal Guide," and postmasters are warned against delivering mail matter in the interest of these concerns. The list includes lottery schemes in places as remote as Tasmania, the Fiji Islands, Rumania, and Venezuela. Strange to say, the largest number of these concerns are located in Germany.

Sixty-five storage battery electric cars are now in use in New York City, more than half of these having been installed in 1911.

A thousand-foot ship is to be added to the fleet of the White Star Company; and a nine-hundred-foot skyscraper is projected to take the place of the burned Equitable Building. This would seem to be carrying things to extreme lengths on both land and sea, but, lest we become puffed up with pride, let us not forget that both Noah's ark and the Tower of Babel were built a good while ago.

At the sale of the Hoe library recently one of the curiosities disposed of was a copy of "The Vicar of Wakefield" bearing the inscription, "From the author," in Goldsmith's own handwriting. This was the first copy of the first edition. It brought $1,450.

Fulton Market in New York City, having outlived its usefulness, is soon to go the way of Centre Street Market, Catharine Market, and other markets which have been abandoned because of shifting streams of trade in the metropolis.

Professor T. N. Carver, of Harvard University, in a recent address before the American Economic Association, deplored the excessive amount of litigation in this country, with its accompanying diversion of useful talent from other occupations to the legal profession. "It is certainly as great a waste of human energy," he said, "to have a man taken out of productive industry and have him devote his time to fighting individual quarrels as it is to have another man taken out of productive industry and devote his time to fighting national quarrels."

While the Commercial Travelers' Association is trying to do away with tips, along comes a man whom the newspapers headline as a "one-day millionaire," who says his principle in the matter of tips is, "For every cent I spend I give away the same amount in tips." What can the commercial travelers do toward reforming waiters when spendthrifts like that are at large?

The Alps are becoming a great winter resort, though heretofore they have been known principally to the summer tourist. Abundant sunshine, exhilarating atmosphere, and freedom from cutting winds are the meteorological attractions, and the winter sports of tobogganing, ski-ing, curling, and bob-sleighing furnish exciting outdoor diversions. The newly discovered efficacy of cold, fresh air for pulmonary troubles has also had its effect in popularizing a winter sojourn in Switzerland.

Spraying large building surfaces with paint applied by a hose instead of with a paint-brush has proved successful as a labor-saving device, and this idea has now been imitated in the "cement gun," which sprays cement instead of paint, and gives a rock-like surface to anything against which it is directed. It has been used on the Panama Canal to strengthen crumbling rock, and may be used to cover frame houses so as to give the appearance of stone.

The director of a Paris newspaper was recently found guilty of corrupting youth, and was sentenced to a year in prison and fined five hundred francs. In a similar case in America the proprietor of a metropolitan newspaper was fined $30,000; this he calmly handed over and then walked out of court. Paris is supposed to be somewhat easy-going as to social sins, but in this matter the comparison is in her favor.



Delicate and Dainty

Their Intelligent Preparation

HERE is nothing more important to the American housewife than the preparation of wholesome, delicate and dainty foods for her family. More and more people now realize that by intelligent eating, not only can they avoid such common ills as headache and indigestion, but can do much to make good health their normal condition.

odors. No hands ever touch it, no unsanitary paddles, boats or tubs. As soon as you see Crisco, you will be impressed with its purity. It is a delicious cream white, pleasing and appetizing in appearance. The color, flavor and odor are natural, there is nothing artificial about it.

In Crisco, Fish Balls Fry in One Minute table and should be used for cooking where you now use fats of animal origin, such as butter or lard. It is in no sense a compound or mixture of oils and fats. There is absolutely no animal matter in it.

RISCO is absolutely clean and pure in origin and manufacture. It never gets strong, it stays sweet and fresh. It is put up in immaculate packages protected from dust and store

Notice its Delicate Aroma

RISCO has the fresh, pleasant odor of a vegetable product. It has none of the disagreeable features so characteristic of compounds or mixtures of oils and fats. Its use is not attended by even the slightest odor in the kitchen, nor do Crisco fried foods or pastries have any suggestion of the offensive odor or flavor which accompanies the use of cottonseed oil or lard compounds. Test it in hot biscuits. Open a Crisco biscuit when it is very hot and notice the delightful biscuit aroma. This is one of the most .pleasing qualities of Crisco, for the strong odor of the ordinary fats in common use has made them thoroughly objectionable.

Purchase a package of Crisco today. Use it throughout your cooking and see how wholesome, delicate and dainty it makes your food.


Crisco is being placed in the grocery stores as rapidly as possible. If your own grocer does not keep it, you probably will find it in one of the other stores in your neighborhood; if not, on receipt of 25c in stamps or coin, we will send you by mail or express, charges prepaid, a regular 25c package. If you order from us, write plainly your name and address, and also let us have the name of your grocer. Not more than one package will be sent direct from us to any THE PROCTER & GAMBLE CO., Dept. B, Cincinnati, Ohio.

one customer.


The Outlook

FEBRUARY 3, 1912

HAMILTON W. MABIE, Associate Editor
Contributing Editor

The Ways and Means Committee in the House has reported a bill revising the steel schedule. The bill puts on the free list iron ore, hoop and band iron, barbed wire and wire fencing, nails, horseshoes, cash registers, printing-presses, sewing-machines, and typewriters. All of the duties on other articles are changed to an ad valorem basis. According to the estimate of Mr. Underwood, the Democratic leader, the average duty on steel products will be reduced by the bill from about thirty-four per cent to about twenty-two per cent. Mr. Underwood further declares that the proposed rates would mean a reduction in revenue of nearly a million dollars if importations remained at the level of 1911, and of four million dollars if importations were the same in amount as in 1910. He predicts, however, that the rates would mean an increase in the importation of steel products amounting to $20,000,000. According to the report of the Committee, the proposed rates, which are from thirty to fifty per cent lower than in the existing tariff, are fixed on a tariff-for-revenue-only basis. The Committee also declares that a survey of the iron and steel industry shows convincingly that the industry does not need the helping hand of the Government in order to stand in competition with foreign countries. The Democratic majority in the House can undoubtedly pass the bill without delay, but what its fate will be in the Senate and at the hands of the President, if it gets so far, remains to be seen. The present Congress, with its mixed control in the two houses, has made little progress in tariff revision. But one thing it has apparently established which ought never to be undone that the tariff shall be revised schedule by schedule. This is the only method which will eliminate the most serious evils which have hitherto attended tariff-making. There is, however, another principle which in our judgment is

no less important in tariff-making-the principle that tariff schedules shall be based upon exact information prepared for Congress by impartial experts. The Republican party. is committed to a protective tariff with rates of duty based on the difference in the cost of production here and abroad, and to a scientific tariff commission for the ascertainment of the facts in regard to the difference in the cost of production. The Democratic party is apparently inclining to a tariff for revenue only, though it is difficult to believe that its leaders in Congress expect, or at least will be able, to eliminate the protective principle entirely. The proper construction of any tariff schedule based either wholly or in part upon the protective principle requires careful knowledge of certain facts the volume of importations of each item in the schedule and the amount of revenue brought in by each item, the conditions and cost of production both in this country and abroad, and the conditions under which goods manufactured in this country are sold abroad (whether, that is, goods manufactured here are regularly sold at lower prices for export than for domestic consumption. The present Tariff Board has shown that it can perform valuable service in securing accurate information upon these points. We believe that it could be of equal service in securing and tabulating the facts essential to the proper construction of a tariff schedule upon a revenue basis, and we do not believe that Congress will be able to revise the tariff intelligently and efficiently without such accurate information secured by an impartial. expert or body of experts.


Workingmen have won. a new freedom by a recent decision of the

Supreme Court of the United States in four cases, one of them coming from the State Supreme Court of Connecticut, the others

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