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a lottery. His fondness for taking portraits never left him. He was much pleased with one of his successes. Just before George III. was secluded finally from public view, he and another artist, an old acquaintance, went one Sunday together to the Chapel Royal at Windsor, and during the service each sketched the King on one of his nails : they adjourned to an inn, and while the impression was yet fresh, transferred to a sheet of paper the likeness of the venerable monarch. On returning with it to London, Bowyer sent it for the inspection of the Prince Regent, who was so pleased with this rough pencil-drawing, that he sent word back he would never part with it, and begged to know Bowyer's price. The latter said one hundred and five pounds, which the Prince Regent immediately forwarded.
I once found Bowyer drawing at a table, a wig placed on a stick before him, and he was taking the likeness of a very old friend, who was dead and gone, from memory. In this attempt he entirely succeeded, even to the surprise of all who knew the deceased.
About ten years ago a little book, called Henry VIII. and His Contemporaries, by B. Bensley, contained, concerning the earlier impressions of the Bible, the following note:
I trust to be pardoned for introducing a little anecdote relative to the Bible, exactly three hundred years after the period about which I am writing, that is not the less appropriate for being likewise illustrative of episcopal shrewdness. [The text is recording an instance of the then Bishop of London being bitten in an arrangement with a bookseller.] The most splendid Bible ever issued was that published by Macklin, printed by my late father, and the execution of which, even his son may say, would alone hand down his name to posterity. Bouyer, publisher of another great national work--the folio edition of Hume's History of England, also a splendid specimen of my father's typography -had a copy of Macklin's Bible, which he employed his leisure during many years to illustrate, having the best opportunities, from his pursuits as an artist, publisher of prints, &c. On the completion of his labours, he valued the massy product, consisting of an immense number of prints, at 25001.; and,
after unsuccessful efforts to procure a purchaser, he put it up to be raffled for, issuing proposals to the nobility and gentry, &c. Among others, an aged bishop sent his name as a subscriber to this kind of lottery, and shortly after called at the rooms in Pall Mall to pay the two guineas; but, before he did so, he drew Mr. Bowyer apart, and gravely told him he could not quite make out how, by paying that sum, he could insure possession of the great work. Upon its being explained to his lordship, that he could only take a chance with 1249 others, he expressed surprise and vexation, and declined to pay two guineas for the chance, which he then, probably, saw was objectionable in a moral point of view, as a species of gambling! The parties are all long since dead.
BOTANICAL NOTES FROM THEOPHRASTUS.
Difficult as it often is to identify plants described therein, Theophrastus's History of Plants is full of interest, as showing the state of the science 2,100 years since, as also from its incidental illustrations of ancient manners. It may be worth mentioning, that the vegetable kingdom was subdivided by Theophrastus into trees, bushes, plants, and herbs. That he observed the sexual differences of certain flowers; the ascent of sap; the diseases of plants, such as smut and rust; and the growth of madrepores, corallines, and sponges. Wild trees and plants, however, were mostly unnamed in his time. He speaks of grafting and budding as practised by gardeners; and informs us that the roots of plants were extensively used in pharmacy, numerous receipts being given in the latter part of the work.
The following will interest the general reader :-Marsh-mallow, birch, and willow stems were used for light walking-sticks, of which the best and most fashionable were made at Sparta; and the laurel for those of old persons. Painters' tablets were manufactured from heart of pine. Drinking-cups, in Arcadia, from the tuberous nodules in the stems of trees; and in Syria, . from the black terebinth, equal to the best Thericlean pottery. Elm was the most prized for the doors of houses; and the large
doors of the Temple of Diana, at Ephesus, were made of cypress, the only wood then known to take a polish. A kind of holm oak was principally used in the manufacture of wheels, especially the single wheels of wheelbarrows. The bark of the alder was used in tanning skins generally, and the sumach in staining them white. The Persian apple and citron were used to flavor the breath, and put with clothes to keep away the moth. Double flutes were manufactured from a jointed reed, the best kinds of which grew near Orchomenos; shields, from the willow and vine; elastic couches, from the ash or beech; coblers' sharpening-strops, from the gritty wild pear; cat-traps, from elm; hinges, from elm; seals, from worm satin-wood; images (eidwla), from palm-wood; statues (ůyaluara), some of which were noted for sweating, from cedar, cypress, lotus, and box; bread, from dates as well as wheat; ships, from the pines which grew in great abundance at Sinope, but not from oak, of which five species were known.
Corinth and Boeotia were famous for radishes; Philippi for double roses; Macedonia and Boeotia for heavy, Attica and Laconia for light crops, Attica being especially a barley-growing country. The caper plant, the artichoke, spring asparagus, and lettuces, were ancient as well as modern luxuries; and Theophrastus mentions a kind of omelet soufflet (értvevmatovuevos), made of cheese, honey, and garlick, which however was so strong as to set people sneezing. It is amusing to find that walnuttrees were beaten in order to increase their bearing, in those days as well as in ours; though it may well be doubted whether the custom is much more conducive to any good end than another. Our author mentions of sowing cummin with oaths and curses in order to insure a good crop. Mushrooms, we are told, as every rustic now knows, grow in thunder; and Egyptian beer (Bputov) was made from barley.
The attention of the curious in ancient herbal lore, will be well directed to the store of anecdotes and observations in the too neglected writings of the pupil and heir of Aristotle, whose popularity was such, that his disciples are said to have numbered two thousand.
FIRST ENGLISH ENVOY TO RUSSIA.
In the review of the late embassy to China, Quarterly Review, for 1817, p. 476, is given this notice of the spirited conduct of Sir Jerom Bowes, who was sent as ambassador from Queen Elizabeth to Jan Vasilovitch :
On entering the presence chamber [at Moscow], the ambassador was desired by the Emperor to take his seat at ten paces distance, and to send to him her Majesty's letter and present. Sir Jerom thinking this not reasonable, stept forwards towards the Emperor, but was intercepted by the chancellor, who would have taken his letters; to whom the ambassador said, “that her Majesty had directed no letters to him," and so went forward and delivered them himself to the Emperor's own hands. In the course of his mission, how-. ever, he offended the Emperor, “because he would not yield to every thing he thought fit," who, with a stern and angry countenance, told him that he did not reckon the Queen of England to be his fellow." Upon which Sir Jerom - disliked these speeches," and unwilling to suffer this autocrat to derogate from the honour and greatness of her Majesty, boldly told him to his face, " that the Queen his mistress was as great a prince as any was in Christendom, equal to him that thought himself the greatest, and well able to defend herself against the malice of any whomsoever.” The Emperor on this was so enraged that he declared "if he were not an ambassador, he would throw him out of doors.” Sir Jerom replied coolly, “that he was in his power, but that he had a mistress who would revenge any injury done unto him.” The Emperor unable to bear it longer, bade him “get home," when Sir Jerom, with no more reverence than such usage required, saluted the Emperor and departed.
This Juan Vasilowidg nailed a French ambassador's hat to his head. Sir Jerom Boze, a while after, came as ambassador, and put on his hat and cocked it before him; at which, he sternly demanded how he durst do so, having heard how he chastised the French ambassador. Sir Jerom answered, he represented a cowardly King of France, but I am the ambassador of the invincible Queen of England, who does not vail her bonnet, nor bare her head,
any prince living; and if any of her ministers shall receive any affront abroad, she is able to revenge her own quarrel. Look you there (quoth Juan Vasilowidg to his boyars), there is a brave fellow, indeed, that dares do and say thus much for his mistress; which whoreson of you all dare do so much for me, your master? This made them envy Sir Jerom, and persuade the Emperor to give him a wild horse to tame; which he did, managing him with such rigour, that the horse grew so tired and tamed, that he fell down dead under him. This being done, he asked His Majesty if he had any more wild horses to tame ? The Emperor afterwards much honoured him, for he loved such a daring fellow as he was, and a mad blade to boot.—Dr. Collins' Present State of Russia, 120, 1671 ; quoted in Retrospective Review, xiv. 40.
Pepys, under the date September 5, 1662, has the following entry:
To Mr. Bland's, the merchant, by invitation : where I found all the officers of the customs, very grave, fine gentlemen, and I am glad to know them: viz., Sir Job Harvy, &c., very good company. And among other discourse, some was of Sir Jerom Bowes, ambassador from Queen Elizabeth to the Emperor of Russia; who, because some of the noblemen there would go up stairs to the Emperor before him, he would not go up till the Emperor had ordered those two men to be dragged down stairs, with their heads knocking upon every stair, till they were killed. And when he was come up, they demanded his sword of him before he entered the room. He told them if they would have his sword, they should have his boots too; and so he caused his boots to be pulled off, and his nightgown, and nightcap, and slippers, to be sent for; and made the Emperor stay till he could go in his nightdress, since he might not go as a soldier. And lastly, when the Emperor, in contempt, to show his command of his subjects, did command one to leap from the window down, and broke his neck in the sight of our ambassador, he replied, that his mistress did set more by, and make better use of, the necks of her subjects; but said, that to show what her subjects would do for her, he would and did fling down his gauntlet before the Emperor; and challenged all the nobility there to take it up in defence of the Emperor against his Queen; for which, at this very day, the name of Sir Jerom Bowes is famous and honoured there.