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Those very ships, and put under wheels: we believe deep
Rivers to have failed, and their waters drunk up when the Mede
Dined, and what things Sostratus sings with wet wings.
But what did that barbarian return, Salamis being left, 179
Who was wont to rage with whips, against the north-west and
East wind, (which never suffered this in the Æolian prison,)
Who bound Ennosigæus himself with fetters ?
That indeed was rather mild, that not worthy a mark also
He thought him.-Any of thegods would be willing to servehim.
But what manner of man returned he? Truly with one vessel
in the

185 Bloody waves, and, with slow prow, thro' thick carcases. Glory so often wished for exacted this punishment.

Give length of life, give, O Jupiter, many years ! This with upright countenance, and this, pale, alone you wish. But with what continual, and with how great evils is old age 190 Full! See the countenance deform’d, and hideous beyond

every thing,

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that he presided over the waters of the crowded with the foating carcases of sea, which made their way into the earth, the slain, that the boat could hardly and caused earthquakes.

From Gr. make its way. IVYOTIS, concussio, and gasa, terra. See 187. Glory, &c.] This haughty prince, Gellius. See the Orphic hymn, quoted who had collected so vast a force togein Parku. Heb. Lex. under 772, ther, in order to carry on the war with No. 1.

the Athenians, begun by his father Da183. Rather mild, &c.] The poet iro- rius,andinvading Greece with seven hunnically says, “ that, to be sure, all this dred thousand men of his own kingdoms, " was very gentle in Xerxes, and that he three hundred thousand auxiliaries, and “ did not carry the matter farther, must with twelve thousand ships, after beating “ be considered as very gracious in a Leonidas and taking Sparta, is defeated " man who might have thought proper by Themistocles, his army cut to pieces, " to have marked him as his slave.” his fleet destroyed, and himself forced to Stigma signifies a brand or mark set on escape in a wretched fishing-boat. All the forehead of fugitive slaves, lo which, this might well be called ihe just deno doubt, this passage alludes.

mand of vengeance against his pride, 184. Any of the gods.) As well as and mad thirst after glory. Neptune, would, doubtless, without 188. Give, &c.] The poet now satimurmuring, have served so mild and rizes the folly of ishing for long life : gracious a prince! Still speaking ironi. he supposes one praying for it. cally, in derision of the pride and folly 189. Upright countenance, &c.] i. e. of Xerxes.

Lookilig up to heaven-pale, with fear 185. What manner, &c.] After all this of death, or lest the petition should be extravagance of pride. See note on refused. 1. 179.

But, perhaps, recto vultu may here bc -One vessel.]Navis signifies any vessel a phrase to express one in youth and of the sea or river. The vessel in which health ; and the following pallidus may Xerxes made his escape, after his defeat denote a state of old age and sickness : near Salamis, was a poor fishing-boat.

comp. l. 191. 186. Bloody waves.] Made so by the Both sick and healthful,old and young, slaughter of such numbers of the Persian conspire army.

In this one silly, mischicvous desire." -Slow prow, &c.] The sca was so




Dissimilemque sui, deformem pro cute pellem,
Pendentesque genas, et tales aspice rugas,
Quales, umbriferos ubi pandit Tabraca saltus,
In vetulâ scalpit jam mater simia bucca.
Plurima sunt juvenum discrimina, pulchrior ille
Hoc, atque ille alio : multum hic robustior illo :
Una senum facies, cum voce trementia membra,
Et jam læve caput, madidique infantia nasi.
Frangendus misero gingivâ panis inermi :
Usque adeo gravis uxori, gnatisque, sibique,
Ut captatori moveat fastidia Cosso.
Non eadem vini atque cibi, torpente palato,
Gaudia : nam coitûs jam longa oblivio : vel si
Coneris, jacet exiguus cum ramice nervus;
Et quamvis totâ palpetur nocte, jacçbit.
Anne aliquid sperare potest hæc inguinis ægri
Canities ? quid, quod merito suspecta libido est,
Quæ venerem affectat sine viribus ? aspice partis
Nunc damnum alterius; nam quæ cantante voluptas,
Sit licet eximius, citharedo, sive Seleuco,
Et quibus auratâ mos est fulgere lacerna ?
Quid refert, magni sedeat quâ parte theatri,
Qui vix cornicines exaudiat, atque tubarum
Concentus ? clamore opus est, ut sentiat auris,




192. Itself.] Its former self.

he speaks of, especially when old, is in -Unsightly hide.] Here is a dis. a wrinkled state. tinction between cutis and pellis, the Dryden has well preserved the huformer signifying the skin of a man, the mour of this simile : other the hide of a beast; to the last of Suchwrinkles as a skilful handwould draw, which, by an apt catacbresis, the poet For an old grandam-ape, when, with a compares the coarse and rugged appear grace, ance of an old man's skin.

She sits at squat, and scrubs her leathern 193. Pendent cheeks.] It is observable, face. that, in old persons, the cheeks, not only 196. The differences, &c.] The poet is in that part of them which is immedi. here to be understood as observing, that, ately below the eyes, hang in purses however, in the days of youth, one is downwards, but also in that part which, distinguishable from another by different in youth, forms the roundness, and con beauties of countenance, and strength tributes so much to the beauty and come of body, old age renders all distinctions liness of the face, hang downwards in a void ; and, in short, one old man is too relaxed and pendent state.

like another, 10 admit of them, both 194. Tabraca, &c.] Now called Tunis, with respect to countenance, and bodily on the Mediterranean, near which was a strength. wood, wherein was a vast quantity of 199. Smooth head.] Bald with the loss apes.

of hair. 195. Her old cheek.) Bucca properly -Infancy, &c.] A running and drisignifies the cheek, or that part of it velling nose, like a young child. which swells ut on ble ; but here 200. Unarm'd gum.] Having lost all it seems (by sy nec.) to denote the whole his teeth, he has nothing left but his face, every part of which, in the animal bare gums to mumble his food withal.

And unlike itself, an unsightly hide instead of a skin:
And pendent cheeks, and such wrinkles,
As, where Tabraca extends its shady forests,
A mother-ape scratches in her old cheek.

The differences of youths are very many, one is handsomer than
This, and he than another: this far more robust than that:
The face of old men is one, the limbs trembling with the voice, ,
And now a smooth head, and the infancy of a wet nose.
Bread is to be broken by the wretch with an unarm'd gum: 200
So very burthensome, to wife, and children, and himself,
That he would move the loathing of the flatterer Cossus.
The palate growing dull, the joys of wine and food are not
The same: a long oblivion of those pleasures,
Which are in vain invited to return,

205 Tho' every

means be used to restore them. Has this important state any thing to hope for? What, but that the desire be deservedly suspected, Which, without power, affects gallantry. Now see The loss of another part--for what pleasure (has he) when a 210 Harper (tho' even the best) or Seleucus performs, And those whose custom it is to shine in a golden habit ? What signifies it in what part of a great theatre he may sit, Who can hardly hear the cornets, and the sounding of the Trumpets? There needs a bawling, that the ear may perceive

202. The flutterer Cossus.] Captator not only the case of Seleucus, but of signifies one who endeavoureth to get or others. Of this incapacity for relishing procure any thing, particularly he who music, Barzillai also speaks, 2 Sam. xix. flattereth a man to be his heir. (See 35. sat. v. I. 98, note.) This mean occupa 214. The cornets.] Cornicen (from tion was frequent in Rome, and this cornu, an horn, and cano, to sing) signiCossus seems to have been famous for fies a blower on the horn, or cornet, the it; yet old age, like what the poet has sound of which was probably very loud been describing, is sufficient, says he, and harsh, as was that of the trumpets. even to disgust Cossus himself, so as to If he be so deaf that he cannot hear keep him away from paying his court. these, he can't expect to hear the sing

203. The palate, &c.] Every thing ers, and the softer instruments. now grows insipid; all difference of 215. Baveling, &c.] His boy must meats and drinks is lost. See this bawl as loud as he can into his ear, when symptom of age mentioned by Barzillai, he would tell him who called to visit 2 Sam. xix. 35.

him, or to let him know what o'clock it 210. Another part.) The hearing. was. They had not watches and clocks

211. A harper.] Citharædus denotes as we have, but sun-dials and hour. that species of musician, who sung, and glasses, which a boy was to watch, and played the harp at the same time. acquaint the master how the time went.

- Seleucus.) A noted musician, who, Horas quinque puer nondum tibi nunaccording to the fashion of those times, tiat et tu wore a rich embroidered garment when Jam conviva mihi, Cæciliane, venis, he sang upon the stage. This is meant

Mart. lib, viii, ep. 67. in the next line by aurata lacerna, as



Quem dicat venisse puer, quot nunciet horas.
Præterea minimus gelido jam in corpore sanguis
Febre calet solâ : circumsilit agmine facto
Morborum omne genus, quorum si nomina quæras,
Promptius expediam, quot amaverit Hippia mechos,
Quot Themison ægros autumno occiderit uno;
Quot Basilus socios, quot circumscripserit Hirrus
Pupillos : quot longa viros exsorbeat uno
Maura die, quot discipulos inclinet Hamillus.
Percurram cítius, quot villas possideat nunc,
Quo tondente, gravis juveni mihi barba sonabat.
Ille humero, hic lumbis, hic coxa debillis, ambos
Perdidit ille oculos, et luscis invidet: hujus
Pallida labra cibum capiunt digitis alienis.
Ipse ad conspectum cænæ diducere rictum
Suetus, hiat tantum, ceu pullus hirundinis, ad quem
Ore volat pleno mater jejuna. Sed omni
Membrorum damno major dementia, quæ nec
Nomina servorum, nec vultum agnoscit amici,
Cum quo præterita conavit nocte, nec illos,
Quos genuit, quos

eduxit: nam codice sævo Hæredes vetat esse suos; bona tota feruntur



old age.

218. Wurm from fever.] The blood is them into the form of a province, which, so cold, and circulates so slowly, that being subject to Rome, was governed by nothing can warm or quicken it but a Roman prætor, and the inhabitants that hectic, feverish habit, which fre were called socii, allies, and, indeed, quently is an attendant un the decays of looked upon, in all respects, as such,

not daring to refuse a confederacy with Gelidus tardante senecta

their conquerors. Basilus was one of Sanguis hebet, &c. Æn. v. l. 395, 6. these prætors, who shamefully plundered -Leap around, &c.] Surround him on his province. all sides, ready to rusb upon him, like -Hirrus.) Some read Irus. Whoever wild beasts leaping on their prey. this was, his character is here noted, as

-Form'd into a troop.] A whole troop a cheater and circumventer of youth, of diseases, in array against him. Ag- committed to his care and guardian. mine facto. See Virg. Æn, i. 86. from ship. whence our poet borrows this expression. He that had the tuition of a ward See sat, iji. 162, and note.

was called tutor. The ward was called 220. Hippia.] See sat. vi. 82. a wopupillus. The pupilli were orphans, man famous for her debaucheries. who had lost their parents, and thus

221. Themison.) A physician much fell under the tuition of guardians, who commended by Pliny and Celsus, though frequently, instead of protecting them, here spoken of in no very favourable plundered and cheated them out of • light. Perhaps Juvenal gives this name their patrimony. to some empiric, in derision,

223. Maura.] See sat. vi. 1. 306, note. · Autumn.] The autumn was usu 224. Hamillus.] A school-master, faally a sickly time at Rome. See sat. mous for unnatural practices with his iv. 1. 56, 7, and notes.

.scholars. 222. Allics, &c.] When the Romans 226. Who clipping.] See sat. i. 25, had conquered any people, they reduced and notes.

Whom his boy may say has come, how many hours he may

bring word of.
Beside, the very little blood, now in his cold body, ,
Is only warm from fever; there leap around, form'd into a

All kind of diseases, the names of which were you to ask,
I could sooner unfold, how many adulterers Hippia has loved,

many sick Themison has killed in one autumn; 221
How many of our allies Basilus, how many orphans Hirrus
Has cheated. How many gallants the tall Maura can
Dispense with in a day, how many disciples Hamillus may

Sooner run over how many country-houses he may now possess,
Who clipping, my beard,

troublesome to me a youth, sounded.
One is weak in his shoulder, another in his loins, another in
Another has lost both his eyes, and envies the blind of one:
The pale lips of this take food from another's fingers :
He, at the sight of a supper, accustomed to stretch open his 230
Jaw, only gapes, like the young one of a swallow, to whom

The fasting dam flies with her mouth full. But, than all the loss
Of limbs, that want of understanding is greater, which neither
Knows the names of servants, nor the countenance of a friend,
With whom he supp'd the night before, nor those 235
Whom he hath begotten, whom brought up: for, by a cruel will,
He forbids them to be his heirs; all his goods are carried

his hip,

Cinnamus was a barber at Rome, lects; bis memory now failing. who got a knight's estate, and, growing 234. The names of servants.] The poet very rich, had several villas, and lived here brings his old man into the last in a sumptuous manner; but, at last, he stage of superannuation, when the unbroke, and fed into Sicily. See Mart. derstanding and memory fail, which, vii, epigr. 64.

as he says, is worse than all the 227. One is weak, &c.] That host of rest. diseases, mentioned 1. 218, 19. are here 236. Brought up.] Though he has not represented as making their attacks on only begotten, but brought up his chil. different parts of the body.

dren, so that they must have lived much 229. Of this.] Hujus—i. c. hominis. with him, yet they are forgotten: he

Takc food, &c.) So feeble and makes a will, by which he disinherits childish that he can't feed himself, and them, and leaves all he has to some artis forced to be fed by another.

ful strumpet who has got possession of 230. He, at the sight, &c.] As soon as him. supper is served, he, as it were mecha -A cruel will.] Codex, or caudex, nically, stretches open his jaws; but, literally means, the trunk, stem, or body unable to feed himself, he only gapes, of a tree. Hence, by metonym. a talike a young swallow in the nest, when it ble-book, made of several boards joined sees the old one flying towards it with together, of which they used to write ; food in her mouth. This natural image hence any writing, as a deed, will, &c. is beautifully expressed.

See sat. vii, 110. 233, 4. Neither knows.] i. c. Recol 237: Forbids them. ] He excludes then


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