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10 Inter Socraticos notissima fossa cinædos.

Con Hispida membra quidem et duræ per brachia setæ

Promittunt atrocem animum; sed podice levi

Cæduntur tumidæ, medico ridente, mariscæ. ples
Rarus sermo illis et magna lubido tacendi

15 Atque supercilio brevior coma. Verius ergo
Et magis ingenue Peribomius. Hunc
ego fatis
Imputo, qui vultú morbum incessuque fatetur.
er Horum simplicitas miserabilis; his furor ipse
Dat veniam sed pejores, qui talia verbis
20 Herculis invadunt et de virtute loquuti

Castigas, &c. cf. Rom. ii. 1. M.

10. The most notorious sink of all the depraved pretenders to Socratic philosophy.' As Juvenal admired Socrates, xiii. 185 sqq. xiv. 320. and is here attacking hypocrisy, (Mart. IX. xlviii. R.) the

alteration of the text to Sotadicos is worse than unnecessary, for Sotades was no hypocrite. G.

11. Cf.ix. 15.xiv. 194. Mart. II. xxxvi. VI. lvi. R. Ov. Met. xiii. 850. LU. These were Stoici pæne Cynici; Cic. Off. i. 35. HR.

12. V. Flacc. i. 272. Claud. iv. Cons. Hon. 521. Spondet; vii. 134. Tira, Hom. Il. r 83. E 832. I 241. R.

Atrox animus Catonis; Hor. II Od. i. 24. R.

"But all so smooth below! the surgeon smiles, And scarcely can, for laughter, lance the piles." G.

14. The Pythagorean philosophers exacted rigid silence from their pupils. GR. ἑώρων αὐτοὺς κοσμίως βαδίζοντας, ἀναβεβλημένους εὐσταλῶς, φροντίζοντας ἀεὶ ἀῤῥε· νωποὺς ἐν χρῷ κουρίας τοὺς πλείστους, οὐδὲν ἁβρὸν οὐδ ̓ αὖ πάνυ ἐς τὸ ἀδιάφορον ὑπερεκπίπτον, ὡς ἔκπληκτον εἶναι καὶ κυνικὸν ἀτεχνῶς, ἀλλ ̓ ἐπὶ τοῦ μέσου καταστή. ματος, ὃ δὴ ἄριστον ἅπαντες εἶναι φασίν ἢ τούτων ὀλίγον σοι μέλει, ἄχρις ἂν εὐσταλὴς ἡ ἀναβολὴ καὶ ὁ πώγων βαθὺς καὶ ἐν χρῷ ἡ κουρά ; καὶ χρὴ ἀπὸ σχημάτων καὶ βαδισμάτων καὶ κουρᾶς διαγιγνώσκειν τοὺς ἀρίστους· ὃς δ ̓ ἂν μὴ ἔχῃ ταῦτα μηδὲ σκυθρωπὸς ᾖ καὶ φροντιστικὸς τὸ πρόσωπον, ἀποδοκιμαστέος καὶ ἀποβλητέος; Luc.

Hermot. 18. R.

15. The Stoics, who were the most rigid sect, (64 sq. iv. 76.) cut their hair quite close to the head; whence the proverb crine Stoicus; and detonsa juventus;

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Pers. iii. 54. LU. ἄρσεσιν οὐκ ἐπέοικε κόμη was the opinion of Phocyllides. GR. ef. 1 Cor. xi. 14. M. There is humour in the use of supercilio, as alluding to their affectation of superciliousness. v. 62. R.

Verius with more candor.' Cic. Or. ii. 86. R.

16. A fictitious name, from sgì and Bapos, in allusion perhaps to the dissolute priests of Cybele. VS.

Fatis to an unfortunate constitution.' Stupet hic vitio; Pers. iii. 32. To a malign horoscope.' PR. cf. Manil. v. 105. GR. To irresistible destiny.' R.

17. His sin and its consequences.' v. 50. ix. 49. Rom. i. 27, latter part. M. Fatetur manifests,' openly shows.' x. 172. xv. 132. Perhaps quem would be preferable to qui. R.

18. Of him and the like.' R. Vera simplicitate bonus; Mart. I. xl. 4. R.

‘ Το be pitied.” τούτους ἐλεεῖσθαι προσή* Gal. de Us. Part. xi. aga pos ngárioτον, ἐθελοκακήσαντα καὶ τὰ νῶτα ἐπιστρέψαντα καὶ ἀδικεῖν οὐκ ἀρνούμενον ἐπὶ τὴν κοινὴν ἐκείνην ἀπολογίαν καταφυγεῖν (λέγω δὲ τὴν τύχην καὶ μοῖραν καὶ εἱμαρμένην) καὶ παραιτεῖσθαι συγγνώμην ἔχειν μοι τοὺς ἐπιτιμῶντας, εἰδότας ὡς οὐδενὸς ἡμεῖς κύριοι, ἀλλ ̓ ὑπό τινος κρείττονος, μᾶλλον δὲ μιᾶς τῶν προειρημένων ἀγόμεθα, οὐχ ἑκόντες, ἀλλ ̓ ἀναίτιοι παντάπασιν ὄντες, ἃ ἂν λέγωμεν ἢ ποιῶμεν· Luc. ̓Απ. π. τ. ἐ. μισθ. συν. 9. R.

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19. They may be acquitted on the ground of insanity.'

With talia understand flagitia or vitia.

cf. 34.

20. Herculean,' or 'in such language as Prodicus has put in the mouth of

Clunem agitant.

Ego te ceventem, Sexte, verebor? Infamis Varillus ait. "Quo deterior te? Loripedem rectus derideat, Æthiopem albus. Quis tulerit Gracchos de seditione querentes'? 25 Quis cœlum terris non misceat et mare cœlo, Si fur displiceat Verri, homicida Miloni? Clodius accuset mochos, Catilina Cethegum?

Hercules.’GRÆ. (cf. note on Pers. v. 34 sq. PR.) Xen. Mem. ii. 1. Cic. Off. i. 32. Μ. ἀκούσατ ̓, ὦ Στώακες [or Στόακες], ἔμποροι λήρου, λόγων ὑποκριτῆρες, οἳ μόνοι πάντα τὰ ἐν τοῖς πίναξι, πρὶν ἢ τῷ σοφῷ δοῦναι, αὑτοὶ καταῤῥοφεῖτε καθ ̓ ἁλίσκεσθε ἑναντία πράσσοντες οἷς τραγῳδεῖτε θρυλλεῖτε γὰρ, ὅτι δεῖ μὴ τῶν σωμάτων, ἀλλὰ τῆς ψυχῆς ἐρᾶν Herm. in Athen. xiii. 15. p. 563. R. These Stoics affected to imitate Hercules. HR.

21. Act the wanton.'

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Ceventem indulging in lewdness. 22. Varillus, a beggarly debauchee, being threatened with punishment by Sextus, a magistrate of depraved character, takes occasion to shelter himself by recrimination. He aggravates the hypocrisy of his judge by various examples, till the accumulated force of the charge is turned upon Domitian. G. cf. Hor. II S. vii. 40 sqq. R. Pers. iv. 23 sq. GR.

23. One who has his legs twisted like a thong.' PR.

Vicinia solis usque ad speciem nigri coloris exussit Ethiopas, torrida nimirum zona subjectos; Macrob. de Som. Sc. ii. 10. Plin. ii. 78. Diod. iv. 1. PR.

Qui alterum accusat probri, eum ipsum se intueri oportet; Plaut. Truc. I. ii. 58. GR. St Matth. vii. 3-5. M. 24. Ti. and C. Sempronii Graechi were brothers, nobly descended and virtuously educated, but too ambitious for their times. To carry an Agrarian law, which they had proposed, they stuck at no means however inconsistent with that liberty of which they were the professed champions. They both met with violent deaths, the former at the hands of Scipio Nasica, the latter about thirteen years afterwards, by order of the consul Opimius. Of their characters Dio says: ἐκεῖνος μὲν ἀπ ̓ ἀρετῆς ἐς φιλοτιμίαν, καὶ ἐξ αὐτῆς ἐς κακίαν ἐξώκειλεν· οὗτος δὲ ταρα


χωδής τε φύσει ἦν, ἑκαὶ κὼν ἐπονηρεύετο· tr. 90. Cicero speaks in high terms of the abilities of the younger brother: Τ. Gracchum sequutus est C. Gracchus, quo ingenio! quanta gravitate dicendi, ut dolerent boni omnes, non illa tanta ornamentu ad meliorem mentem voluntatemque esse conversa; de Ar. Resp. 41. the present passage it appears that Juvenal thought them seditious; they certainly set a pernicious example to the ambitious men of the subsequent age. After Sylla, Marius, and Cinna had devastated the commonwealth by their sanguinary feuds and proscriptions, the people, weary of fierce contentions from which they gained nothing, threw themselves into the arms of tyranny, the ordinary refuge from the evils of licentious anarchy. G.

25. An imitation of non si terra mari miscebitur, et mare cœlo; Lucr. iii. 854. 'Who would not exclaim, O cœlum, O terra, O maria Neptuni!' Ter. Ad. V. iii. 4. LU. vi. 283 sq. Virg. Æ. i. 133. v. 790. Liv. iv. 3. Ty Tòv sugavdy avauspíxlar Luc. Prom. 9. R. all you host of heaven! O earth! What else? And shall I couple hell?" Shaksp. Ham. I. v. See note on 75.

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26. The extortions of C. Verres, in Gaul, Cilicia, and more especially in Sicily, where he was proconsul, are well known from Cicero's orations. R.

T. Annius Milo killed P. Clodius, and was defended unsuccessfully by Cicero. M.

27. P. Clodius was guilty of incest with his own sister, and of adultery with Pompeia, the wife of Cæsar. He was a bitter enemy of Cicero, and the chief author of his banishment. GRE. M. This name is the same as Claudius. R.

L. Sergius Catilina and Corn. Cethegus were accomplices in the formidable conspiracy which was frustrated by the exertions of Cicero. Sall. Cat. viii. 231. x. 287. R.



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In tabulam Sullæ si dicant discipuli tres?^
Qualis erat nuper tragico pollutus adulter
30 Concubitu, qui tunc leges revocabat amaras 12.
Omnibus atque ipsis Veneri Martique timendas,
Quum tot abortivis fecundam Julia vulvam
Solveret et patruo similes effunderet offas.
Nonne igitur jure ac merito vitia ultima fictos
35 Contemnunt Scauros et castigata remordent?
Non tulit ex illis torvum Lauronia quemdam

28. The proscription-list.' Flor. iii. 21. V. Max. ix. 2. GRÆ.

Sulla: see i. 16.

Dicere in may be either to inveigh against, as accusers,' or 'to condemn, as judges.' R.

The three disciples' are most probably the second triumvirate, Octavius, Antony, and Lepidus, who imitated Sulla in the extent and cruelty of their proscriptions: Flor. v. 4. The former triumvirate of Cæsar, Pompey, and Crassus, was formed within twenty years of Sulla's death. VS. R. Both these triumvirates might have said with Shylock, "The villainy you teach us, we will execute; and it shall go hard, but we will better the instruction;" Shaksp. M. of V. III. i. G.

29. 'Such a rigid censor was Domitian.' Suet. Dom. 8. HR. Nostine hos, qui omnium libidinum servi, sic aliorum vitiis iruscuntur, quasi invideant; et gravissime puniunt, quos marime imitantur; Plin. Ep. i. 22. FA. Euxvoi de xai ävèges nai γυναῖκες τῶν πλουσίων ἐπὶ μοιχείᾳ ἐκολάσθησαν, ὧν ἔνιαι καὶ ὑπ ̓ αὐτοῦ ἐμοιχεύθησαν· D. Cass. lxvii. 12. Nec minore scelere quam quod ulcisci videbatur, Domitianus absentem inauditamque Cornelium damnavit incesti, cum ipse fratris filiam, incesto non polluisset solum, verum etiam occidisset! Plin. iv. 11. G. Domitian, after having declined the hand of Julia the daughter of his brother Titus, seduced her, although she was then married to Sabinus. During the lifetime of her father and husband, however, he kept the intrigue secret. R. He had previously taken away Domitia Longina from her husband Ælius Lamia. M. 'Tragic,' 'full of horrors:' as were the guilty loves of Thyestes and Aerope, the passion of Phædra for her step-son Hippolytus, PR. the marriage of Edipus and Jocasta, &c. HK.


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30. The Julian and Scatinian laws;' the former against adultery, the latter against unnatural vices: 44. Suet. 8. The epigrammatist makes this re-enactment the grounds of courtly panegyric; Mart. VI. ii. IX. vii. PR. cf. vi. 368. R.

31. Omnibus shows the universal de-
pravity of the times. R.

Venus and Mars' were detected by
Vulcan. LU. Ov. M. iv. 171 sqq.

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32. Drugs to procure abortion.' vi. 368. 595 sq. R. These medicines were repeated in stronger doses, and the last proved fatal. Suet. 22. PR.

33. Her uncle' Domitian was illmade. Suet. 18. GR.

'Shapeless lumps.' xv. 11. It does not follow from the epithet fecundam and the plural offas, that more than one miscarriage was caused. R.

34. Vitia ultima, by hypallage, for 'the very worst of men;' LU. the abstract for the concrete: M. thus labes ac canum; Cic. scelus; Plaut. Bac. V. ii. 57. &c. R. Ter. And. III. v. 1. and Cóßos for φοβερόν Her. vii. 112.

35. M. Æmilius Scaurus is described as homo vitia sua callide occultans; Sall. Jug. 18. LU. Hor. I S. iii. 62. But on comparing xi. 90 sq. we may presume that the family, rather than the individual, is alluded to: Those who pretend to be Scauri.' R.

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Clamantem toties: "Ubi nunc lex Julia? dormis?"
Ad quem subridens: "Felicia tempora, quæ te
Moribus obponunt! Habeat jam Roma pudorem!
40 Tertius e cœlo cecidit Cato. Sed tamen unde
Hæc emis, hirsuto spirant opobalsama collo
Quæ tibi? Ne pudeat dominum monstrare tabernæ.
Quod si vexantur leges ac jura, citari

Ante omnes debet Scatinia. Respice primum
45 Et scrutare viros: faciunt hi plura; sed illos
Defendit numerus junctæque umbone phalanges.
Magna inter molles concordia. Non erit ullum
Exemplum in nostro tam detestabile sexu.

charges against the women in Sat. vi. but retorts them with good effect on the men. G.

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37. The Julian law,' v. 30. was enacted by Augustus, and called Julian, because Augustus was adopted into that family by the will of his great uncle, and, consequently, took the name of C. Jul. Cæsar. GR.

Ferula cessent, et idus dormiant in Octobres; Mart. X. lxii. 10 sq. pessuli dormiunt; Plaut. Curc. I. ii. 66. R. οἱ Λακεδαιμόνιοι, λύοντες ἐν χρείᾳ τὴν ἀτιμίαν τῶν ἁλόντων περὶ Πύλον, ἔφασαν “ κοιμάσθων οἱ νόμοι σήμερον” App. Pun. 112. RI. cf. 43.

38. Understand inquit. LU. Smiling ironically.' LU. Virg. Æ. x. 742. R.

39. See note on Pers. v. 178. PR. 40. Both M. Porcius Cato the Censor (thence called Censorius) and his greatgrandson, surnamed Uticensis from his death at Utica, were men of most rigid morals, and strict disciplinarians. VS. PR. Thus Stertinius is called sapientum octavus; Hor. II S. iii. 296. R. See note on 2. HR.

Any thing of extraordinary excellence (xi. 27.), or occurring unexpectedly in a time of great emergency (Liv. xxii. 29.), was said to have come down from heaven. R. A pinnace, which (Herodotus says viii. 94.) fell in with the Corinthians in πομπῇ, is called by Plutarch οὐρανοπετής.

41. Lauronia may be said to have smelt this censor out, notwithstanding his assumed odour of sanctity. M. Hirsuto, see 11. R.

Exhale fragrance:' ambrosiæque come divinum vertice odorem spiravere; Virg. Æ. i. 407.

Opobalsama was the juice which exuded from the wounds made in the balsam tree; respecting this, the xylobalsamum, and the carpobalsamum, see Plin. H. N. xii. 15 s 25. LU. Mart. XIV. lix. R.


42. By the way, I should very much like to know the shop, where you bought such lady-like perfumes; why should you be ashamed to tell me?' PR. M.

43. Vir bonus est quis? qui consulta
patrum, qui leges juraque servat
Hor. I Ep. xvi. 41. i. e. the decrees of
the Senate, the statute-law, and the
common-law.' M.

Verari to be roused into action' is
opposed to dormire. M. cf. 37.
44. See v. 30.

45. More things deserving of repro-
bation and punishment.' R.

46. Ipse metus exsolverut audax turba suos: quidquid multis peccatur, inultum est; Luc. v. 259 sq. VS. pudorem rei tollet multitudo peccantium, et desinet esse probri loco commune delictum; Sen. Ben. iii. 16. Clem. i. 22. R.

'By locking their shields one in the
other' the testudo was formed. PR.

φράξαντες σάκος σάκεϊ, ἀσπὶς ἄρ ̓ ἀσπίδ
ἔρειδε, ὣς πύκνοι ἐφέστασαν ἀλλήλοισι·
Hom. 11. N 130 sqq. П 212 sqq. R. See
note on avres rà yippa Her. ix. 61.

The phalanx' was the Macedonian
disposition of heavy infantry. LU.

47. Cf. Cat. lvii. 1. 10. similis simili gaudet, and Mart. VIII. xxxv. GR.

48. Exemplum an example or instance,' exemplar 'a pattern.' GR.


Tædia non lambit Cluviam nec Flora Catullam:
50 Hispo subit juvenes et morbo pallet utroque.
Numquid nos agimus causas? civilia jura
Novimus? aut ullo strepitu fora vestra movemus?
Luctantur paucæ; comedunt coliphia paucæ.
Vos lanam trahitis calathisque peracta refertis
55 Vellera: vos tenui prægnantem stamine fusum
Penelope melius, levius torquetis Arachne,
Horrida quale facit residens in codice pellex.
Notum est, cur solo tabulas impleverit Hister
Liberto, dederit vivus cur multa puellæ.

49. These are the real or fictitious names of notorious courtezans at Rome; as Hispo was of some infamous wretch. R. Lambit fondles not.' Catulla; x. 322. Mart. VIII. liii. R. 50. Subit' submits to be caressed by.' Prop. III. xix. 14. R.


Morbo utroque with twofold sin.

51. We trespass not on your department, therefore why should you usurp our province?' Plutarch mentions one instance of a woman's pleading her own cause, which was regarded by the Senate as portentous: Comp. Lyc. et Num. LU. Inteream, si novi civilia jura! Hor. I S. ix. 38 sq.

52. Vestra all your own.' Amæsia, Afrania, and Hortensia were considered indelicate for having spoken in the forum. V. Max. viii. 3. PR. But cf. vi. 242. R. 53. To be sure there may be some few wrestlers among us, but then they are but a few.' cf. i. 22 sq. vi. 245 sqq. Mart. Sp. vi. PR.

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Coliphia, because they make xãλa the limbs' strong. The diet of athletes. Mart. VII. lxvii. 12. J. Plaut. Pers. I. iii. 12. PR. Or from xwλnior or zwańov, diminutive of xwañ, xwλńv. SA. cf. xi. 20. R. Rump steaks." SN. BO. This etymology of our English word COLLOP has been overlooked: "Take notice what plight you find me in, if there want but a collop or a steak o'me, look to't;" Beaum. and Fl. Maid in the Mill.

54. Paucaque cum tacta perfeci stamina tela; Ov. Ep. H. xix. 49. H. Tib. I. vi. 78 sqq. R.

'In work-baskets." LU.

55. The spindle big with slender thread.' M. cf. Pers. vi. 73. PR.

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56. Penelope, queen of Ithaca, amused her importunate suitors by a promise to choose one of their number as soon as she had finished a pall which she was then weaving for Laertes; but delayed her decision by undoing at night, what was worked during the day. Hence the proverb Penelopes telam texere. LU. Hom. Od. T 137 sqq. R.

More nimbly:' levi teretem versabat pollice fusum; Ov. Met. vi. 22. λέπτ ̓ ἠλάκατα στρωφῶσα Hom. Od. P 97. R.

Arachne, a Lydian damsel, challenged Pallas in weaving, and, being vanquished, hung herself and was transformed into a spider. Ov. Met. vi. 1 sqq. LU. cf. Plin. vii. 56. PR.

57. When the mistress of a family detected any improper familiarity between a female slave and her master, she used to fasten her to a large log of wood' and keep her to constant work. VS. caudicis immundi vincula sentit: et graviora rependit iniquis pensa quasillis; Prop. IV. vii. 44 and 41. Plaut. Poen. V. iii. 34. R.

Pellex, aλλánn, a concubine,' the mistress of a married man. M.

58. Opinor omnibus et lippis notum et tonsoribus esse; Hor. I S. vii. 2 sq. LU. Virg. E. iii. 8. PR. See note on vi. 366.

Post meritum sane mirandum, omnia soli breviter dabit; xii. 124 sq. LU. vi. 601. R.

This Pacuvius Hister was an infamous wretch, who had made his fortune by legacy-hunting; xii. 111 sqq. LU.

59. During his life-time,' because it was illegal to bequeath a fortune to one's wife. PR.

Lauronia, by calling the wife puella,

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