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The author's style, as our readers appear to have been well-killed in their will perceive from these extracts, is art, since they were foon fent for, by seldom harsh, generally neat, and fre- the King's mandate, to assist in requently vigorous.

pairing his castle of Windfor. The To this work are added seven ap- wages of the different perfons occupied pendices. The first exhibits a Latin in carrying on this work, were, to letter from Chichele to the Pope, with carpenters and fawyers, fix pence a day the Preces regiæ Dornino Papæ, tran- — masons, eight pence-stone-diggers seribed from the manuscripts in Lam- and common labourers, four pence haifbeth palace. The second contains the penny-joiners from fix pence to eight Archbishop's defense against the charges pence -- dawber, five pence—-maiterof his rival. In the third, we find an carpenter, three shillings and four pence epistle from Chichele to King Henry, a-week - carvers and image makers, taken from Duck's life. The fourth four Millings and eight pence a-week, ' is the charter of the foundation of All. bed and board found them. A womanSouls College. The fifth presents us labourer, three pence a-day, Tlie with the bull of Eugenius. .The sixth windows were glazed at one Thilling a affords a lift of the purchases and grants foot. inade for the original fcite of the col

6. From this detail of the wagas of lege. The seventh, after an account the mechanic and the labourer, at the of the stone and timber employed in period under consideration, they will the building, informs us, that “ the appear to have been, after allowing for work men were the ableft that could be the decrease of value in money, both procured. Masons were hired, in the from the diminution in the coin, and fourth year of the building of the col- the great influx of specie since that lege, from London, and the distant period, nearly double of what they are counties of Norfolk and Suffolk: who

at present.”

PHILOSOPHY. TO THE EDITOR OF THE LONDON MAGAZINE. SIR, As you have proposed to give an for so remarkable a phenomenon. That

account of new discoveries in evaporation produces cold has long Natural Philosophy, I have taken the fince been demonstrated. It is geneliberty of transmitting the following rally thought to arise from the absorpexperiments for your confideration. tion of heat by the particles, in order

It is well known, that, by mixing to their assuming a vapory state. This some liquids with others, heat or cold is certainly one cause; but there is alare produced; and that the like often fo another. happens when solids are dissolved in Into a dry quart bottle I poured liquids. Sereral confiderations had led gently about a quarter of a pint of wame to imagine that this was also the fer, and, by means of a thermometer, case when solid or liquid fubitances noted the degrees of heat of the water, are diffolved by the air. Dr. Wilson and of the air above it, which were and others observed, during the intense the same. I then withdrew the thercold in January, 1781, that at the sur- mometer, closed the mouth of the face of the snow the cold was many bottle with a cork, and agitated the degrees greater than in the body of the air and water briskly, so that part of snow, or higher up in the air, and the water inight be disolved in the air. professed themselves unable to account I then introduced the thermometer into LOND. MAG. Sept. 1783.


the living, than the lawful son of that cowardly cuckold Cawny, with his four thousand crowos." A pallage which I have been induced to mention, rather from the referablance it bears to fome erum. Itances in Shakespeare's inteielting character of Falconbridge, than from any conviction et ius thenticity,

the bottle, so as not to touch the wa- kinds of air; and it may be worth ter, and it presently sunk several de- while to enquire whether in some cases grees:

: then letting the bulb link down of aerial solution heat is not also prointo the water the mercury foon re- duced; at lealt, so far as to diminith turned to its former height. .

the cold that would otherwise arise It appears from this, that, by the from the conversion of the particles solution of water in air, cold is pro- into vapour*? for, on the latter princidụced, in the same manner as when fal ple, cold is produced by evaporation ainmoniac or nitre is dissolved in wa- even in vacuo. ter. Now, as evaporation depends, in

I am, Sir, part at least, on the solution of the li- Your obedient humble servant, quid by the superincumbent air, part

J. ELLIOT. of the cold produced by evaporation Great Marlborough-street, muft depend on solution.

dug. 12, 1783 I tried the experiment with spirit of wine, ether, and spirit of turpentine;

P. S. I some time ago began a and cold was produced in the air after course of experiments on fermentation, agitation, though more by some of which I now want leisure to re-assume. thefe than by others.

By these it appears that the dephlogistiThe cold at the surface of the frow, cated part of the common air, or what therefore, probably proceeded from the Scheele calls empyreal air, is absorbed' solution of the snow by the air. Ard by the fermenting liquid, and comthose who are acquainted with the bines with the phlogiston, thereby new doctrine concerning heat, will see forming the fixed air that is thrown that a greater degree of cold must be out during this process. Hence the produced by the solution of snow in necessity of admitting the air; and air, than of water.

hence also it appears that fermentation As this is a new field, those who is a kind of combustion via humida. have leisure (for I have not at present) But this subject, I find, is taken up by would do well to profecute the expe. a much abler perfon, I mean the ingeriment with various substances, and nious Mr. Henry, of Manchester, alnote the degrees of cold produced, as ready known to the world by several is already done with regard to the fo- ingenious discoveries, and from whore lution of folids in liquids. They may labours, therefore, we may entertain also make the experiment in different the most fanguine hopes.

* The heat in combustion, for example, is produced by the solution of phlogiston in air.

A CHARACTER. O record descriptions of eminent men forms no inconsiderable province of

, , in the duty which we owe the Public, if we omitted the following traits, which marked the character of Mr. William Bewley, who was at once a learned and a virtuous member of society. He died on the 5th of September, 1783, while he was paying a visit at the house of his friend Dr. Burney, in St. Martin's Street, London, at the age of fifty-seven years. His fancy retained its wonted liveliness: his ardour for acquiring knowledge continued unabated; and his faculties were in full vigour, until a few hours before his diffolution.

The few, who enjoyed the happiness of his acquaintance, will peruse, with pleasure, this attempt to delineate his virtues and his talents. The


who knew him by reputation, will eagerly attend to this short character.

The circle of his acquaintance was small: which was occasioned by his diffidence, as well as by a residence of thirty years in fo retired a situation as Malsingham. Justly, however, was he esteemed an ornament to the literary world, ánd, on account of the general tenor of his pursuits, we have aligned a place to this character, in the department of our Miscellany allotted to philoiophical subir to


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R. WILLIAM BEWLEY, of compositions, but also a good per-

Mallingham in Norfolk, will former on the violin. He cultivated be long lamented by all men of science, the art and science of music, as a relief to whose notice his great abilities, par- from severer pursuits; and applied to ticularly in anatomy, electricity, and it, in his hours of relaxation, with that chemistry, had penetrated through the ardour which characterised all his unobfcurity of his abode, and through the dertakings. Though his life was a life natural modeity and diffidence of his of labour, his exquilite tafte taught him disposition. The depth, indeed, and to value and cultivate the finer arts. extent of his knowledge, in every use- A love for every liberal science, and ful branch of philosophy and literature, an infatiable curiosity after whatever could only be equalled by the rectitude was connected with them, were his of his heart, and the fimplicity of his ruling passions. So ftrongly indeed manners, the utility of his labours, and did they operate, that he desired fome the purity of his life, which were all books might be brought to him, on seasoned by an unfought wit, and a the evening before he died, when the natural humour, of a cast 'the most excruciating pains of his disorder had original, lively, and inoffensive. a little abated. He was, however, un

In his profeffion, as apothecary and able to read himself, yet, ftill drank in furgeon, he was skilful, tender, and hu- knowledge at his ears, with his wonted mane. His loss will be severely felt eagerness, and in the neighbourhood where he resided.

-With his latest breath, His literary abilities* were not more “ Thusthew'd his ruling passion strong in death." diftinguished than his knowledge in all the various branches of medicine; In the last century, Hobbes, whole while the success of his labours was as chief writings were levelled against the remarkable as the integrity of his man- religion of his country, was called, from ners.

the place of his residence, The philosopher He was a warm friend, and an of Malmesbury. The life of Mr. Bew. excellent husband. The few who was devoted to laborious re. enjoyed the pleasure of his familiar searches. His days were employed in correspondence will bear witness to exploring the works of nature, in faw the diversified and entertaining ta- cilitating the improvements of arts, in lents which every letter displayed. exposing oftentatious and trifling soHis style might be confidered as a mo- phiftry, in communicating found and del for epistolary compositions: at useful knowledge, and in relieving the once easy and elegant: learned with- painful diseases of his fellow creatures. out pedantry, pleasant without affecta- With how much more truth and protion.

priety has such a writer, and such a Mr. Bewley had naturally a fine ear, man, been distinguished in Norfolk by and was particularly fond of music. the respectable title of The PhilosoHe was not only an excellent judge of PHER OF MASSINGHAM!

L 12



* Such readers of this little sketch of Mr. Bewley's character, as may have been unacquainted with his literary and scientiii: abilities, will naturally inquire, what were the productions of his pen? To this we can, at present, only answer, that they were, for the most part, anonimous; though well® known, and much admired, in the circle of his learned acquaintance.-By the discerning public, too, they were sufficiently distinguished, though the writer was unknown; and still, from certain motives of peculiar delicacy,, which sublisted during his life, and yet sublist, we are forbidden to point them out, at this time. At a future opportunity we may, perhaps, find ourselves at liberty to communicate fome particulars concerning them to the readers of the London Magazine, and thoroigh that channel to the learned world in generala




HERE is not, perhaps, any branch ever, some hints dropped by Sir ISAAC

of natural philosophy that has Newton in the 30th and 31st queries, more engaged the attention of the published at the end of his book on learned, or that has been more success. Optics, were suficient inducement to fully cultivated than the nature and the late worthy and ingenious Dr. properties of common air. The study HALES to resume these experiments, of it muit, indeed, have been coeval in the course of which he confirmed, with mankind, as it could not long and greatly extended the discoveries escape his notice that it was absolutely of Mr. Boyle; as he not only shewed necessary to his own existence, as well that air enters, in very large quantias to that of fire and vegetabie lise. Its ties, into the composition of most boless obvious properties, however, elaf- dies, but also the proportion it bore ticity and gravitation, were not disco- to the rest of the composition. It vered until the beginning of the 121 does not, however, appear that this century, when LORD BACON and Ga- excellent philofopher apprehended that LILEO applied themselves to the study the fluid he thus produced differed from of this element. The former, by many common atmospheric air. experiments, discovered its elasticity; Two of these kinds of fa&itious and the latter that it had weight, and air, or at least the effects of them, have consequently was subject, with other been long known. One formerly calbodies, to the laws of gravitation. led mephitic, but now generally known TORRICELLI, the pupil of Galileo, by, by the name of fixed air, is the same one happy and decisive experiment, with that first discovered by MR. discovered the pressure of the atmos- Boyle; and which Sir Jorn PRIN

BOYLE JOHN phere; and PASCALL observed that this GLE, DR. MACERIDE, DR. BROWNpressure varied according to the heights Rigg, MR. LANE, and others, have, io which he carried nis barometer, in some cases, applied fo fuccessfully But, all this time it was not suspected in medicine. This air has been found that there were several kinds of this by the Honourable Mr. HENRY CAfuid, the properties of which were to- VENDISH to be heavier than common ully different from one another. It air, in the proportion of 2 to 1, in was the celebrated Mr. Boyle, who, consequence of which the common air from a thorough conviction of the vast Hoats upon it, and it is not found but in importance air is of to animal life, the bottoms of mines, where it is was trying a number of experiments known to the miners by the name of to produce it by art; and found, that the choke-damp. The other has

genethough he could, from a variety of rally been known to philosophers by the substances, as well mineral and animal name of infiammable air; and has lately as vegetable, produce a permanent been suspected by the Rev. Dr.WATSON clastic Huid (till then the only crite- and Mr. Kirwan to constitute that rion of air) yet found, also, that these principle in bodies, usually called phlonew productions were effentially dif- giiton: and thefe fufpicions have been ferent from common air, in as much further confirmed by experiments made as they presently extinguished flame, for that purpose by Dr. PRIESTLEY. and suffocated those animals that at- Until within these few years little tempted to breathe them.

has been known concerning the proBut this discovery, interesting as it perties of this species of air, except must have appeared, seems to have been that a very subtile fluid, very liable little attended to at that time; how- to take fire, and explode like gun




powder, was found in neglected pri- surface of the earth, he failed in that vics, common sewers, and, above all, experiment; but which, according to in coal-pits, where it is known to the the accounts from Paris, has been efminers by the name of the fire-damp, fected in another way by Mass. Montand to whom it is very formidable, as GOLFIERS, of whom, as well as their its explosions are sometimes attended discovery, and the experiments that with most terrible effects.

have been made of it, we shall endeaAbout fifty years ago SIR JAMES vour to give the best account we can LOWTHER, Bart. favoured the Royal collect from the public journals, as Society with an account of the effects well as some private letters which have of this kind of air in his coal-mines, come to our hands. in Cumberland; and at the same time The elder MONTGOLFIER, in his sent them several biadders filled with youth, had given himself up entirely to it, which burnt as readily as it had the study of the mathematics, and the done a month before in the mines it younger to those of natural philosophy was taken from. Yet this extraordina- and cheinistry, and they had no intentions ry fluid was then, and for years after- of applying themselves to business; but, wards, looked on, even by the mem- by the death of a brother, were obliged bers of that society, more as an object to put themselves at the head of a paper of curiosity than of philosophical en- manufactory at Annonay, in the Vi. quiry; and might, perhaps, have re-varais, a province in the south of mained so to this day, if that true and France, which we are told soon arrived indefatigabie philosopher, MR. HENRY at a very superior degree of excellence, CAVENDISH, had not taken up the through the joint application and phi. subject, and made experiments on it; lofophical knowledge of the two broby which, and the consequences which thers. However, in some of those mohe has drawn from them, he has added ments of leisure which philofophic greatly to our former stock of know- minds know so well how to fill with ledge in a-rial fluids.

the study of the sciences, they conIn these experiments MR. CAVEN- ceived the idea of applying the difDISH has nown us how thi kind of ference between the weights of comair may be produced at pleasure, and mon and inflammable air to the same in abundance, by diffolving zinc, iron, purpose which had been attempted by or tin in diluted vitriolic acid, or spi. Dr. Black. Convinced, either from rit of sea-falt. He also made several their own experience, or, perhaps, experiments on the inflammability of from having read an account of Dr. various mixtures of this fluid with Black's attempt, that bladders were common atmospheric air, at once im- formed of too heavy materials, they portant, accurate, and ingenious. But, bethought them of forining the case above all, and which thews the vast of thin gummed taffeta, which one of difference between this species of fac- them had bought for the lining of a titious air and that above mentioned, fuit of clothes; and having sewed it he found that inflammable air was together, they introduced into it about prodigiously lighter, even than com- forty cubic feet of inflammable air, mon atmospheric air, in the proportion when it sprung from their hands and of ten to cne. This fact, ascertained mounted to the ceiling. It is not easy with so much certainty and precision to describe, nor for many to conceive, as it was here done, induced the cele- the joy which animated our two phibrated Dr. Black, of Edinburgh, to lofophers on this first dawning of the attempt to raise the bladders of animals, success of their experiment. They filled with this air, in the atmosphere; immediately removed their machine but not being able to blow the blad- into the garden, where it rose to the ders up to such a fize as rendered the height of about 36 feet; but the incompound body of bladder and air flammable air escaping from it, at one specifically lighter than atmospheric of the seams, it was not more than air, at considerable distances from the two minutes before it fell down again,

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