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It indeed appeared a little odd to me, to see so many pertons of quality of both sexes. assembled together at a kind

of catter-warling, for I cannot look upon the performance

to have been any thing better, whatever the musicians themselves might think of it.-Spectator, No. 361.

Your petitioner, [Job Chanticleer,] most earnestly implores your immediate protection from the insolence of the rabble, the batteries of catsticks and a painful lingering death. Tatler, No. 134.

The hapless nymph with wonder saw:
A whisker first and then a claw,
With many an ardent wish,

She stretch'd in vain to reach the prize;
What female heart can gold despise?
What cat's averse to fish?

Gray. On the Death of a favourite Cat.

Here and there, and ever and anon hitting upon islands, and stirred as it were with so many provocations; and at last inclosed and shut within mountaines, and in no place carrieth he [the Nile] a rougher and swifter streame, whiles the water that he beareth, hasteneth to a place of the Æthyopians, called Catadupi, where in the last fall amongst the rockes that stand in his way, he is supposed not to runne, but to rush downe with a mightie noise. Holland. Plinie, b. v. c. 9.

Mem. Our ears are so well acquainted with the sound, that we never mark it. As I remember, the Egyptian Catadupes never heard the fall of Nilus, because the noise was so familiar to them.-Brewer. Lingua, Act iii. sc. 7. Gr. Karaλoyos; Lat. Catalogus; Fr. Cata


CATABAPTIST. The quotation explains the logue; It. and Sp. Catalogo, from Kara, and λeyew,


The name Anabaptist is derived from the preposition ava, and Bu¬¬iče, and signifieth a re-baptizer; or at least such an one who alloweth of, and maintaineth re-baptizing; they are called also Calabaptists, from the preposition Kara, and Barič, signifying an abuser or prophaner of baptism. For Indeed every Anabaptist is also a Catabaptist; the reiteration of that sacrament of our entrance into the church, and seal of our new birth in Christ, is a violation and depravation of that holy ordinance.-Fealty. Dippers Dipt, p. 23. CATACHRE'STICAL, adj. Fr. Catachrese, CATACHRE'STICALLY. catachrestique;

Gr. Καταχρασθαι, (from κατα and χρασθαι,) to use against or contrary, (sc.) to its purpose; to abuse. Fr. Catachrese, the abuse or necessary use of one word for lack of another more proper," (Cotgrave.)

The first a catachresticall and far derived similitude, it [the mandrake] holds with man, that is, in a bifurcation or division of the root into two parts, which some are content to call thighs.-Brown. Vulgar Errours, p. 105.

I ask you if one of them does not perpetually pay us with clenches upon words and a certain clownish kind of raillery? If now and then he does not offer at a catecresis or Cleve- ! landism, wresting and torturing a word into another meaning. Dryden. An Essay of Dramatick Poesie.

Sin never thrives, unless it be in the most catachrestical and improper way of speaking in the world. Bp. Taylor. Rule of Conscience, b. ii. c. 2. Where, in divers places of holy writ, the denunciation against groves is so express, it is frequently to be taken but catachrestically.-Evelyn, b. iv. s. 4.

CATACLYSM. Gr. Kaтakλvoμos, diluvium, from kaтα, and kλvša̸, abluere, diluere, to wash away. A deluge.

The opinion that held these cataclysms and empyroses universal was such, as either held, that it put a total consummation unto things in this lower world, or, &c. Hale. Origin. of Mankind, p. 217. CATACOMBS, n. Fr. Catacombes; It. Catacomba; from катα and кvμẞos, a hollow See the quotation from Eustace.

On the other side of Naples are the catacombs. These must have been full of stench and loathsomeness, if the dead bodies that lay in them were left to rot in open niches, as an eminent author of our own country imagines. But upon examining ther I find they were each of them stopp'd up. without doubt as soon as the corps was laid in it.

Addison. On Italy. Naples.

There has lately been found a human tooth in a catacomb, which has engaged a couple of convents in a law suit, each of them pretending that it belonged to the jaw bone of a saint, who was of their order.-Tatler, No. 129.

The catacombs are subterranean streets or galleries from four to eight feet in height, from two to five in breadth, extending to an immense and almost unknown length, and branching out into various walks. The catacombs were originally excavated in order to find that earth or sand called at present puzzolana, and supposed to form the best and most lasting cement. Such lone, unfrequented caverns, afforded a most commodious retreat to the Christians, during the persecutions of the three first centuries. In them therefore they held their assemblies, celebrated their holy mysteries, and deposited the remains of their martyred brethren. For the latter purpose they employed niches in the sides of the wall, placed there the body with a vial filled with the blood of the martyr, or perhaps with some of the instruments of his execution, and closed up the mouth of the niche with thin bricks or tiles.-Eustace. Tour through Italy, vol. ii. c. 3.

CATADUPE, n. Fr. Catadupe; from Kata, and bouros, sonitus rei allisæ, the sound of any thing dashed, (Lennep.) Used by Homer to express the crash of falling trees. Applied to certain Falls of the Nile; and also to those who live near them,

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to gather, to collect.

To collect, (sc.) the names or descriptions, or both; to enumerate, to record them.

And because the name, office and dignitle of the masters general, or great masters of Prussia could otherwise have been vtterly darke and vnknown to the greater part of readers, I haue set downe immediately before the first Prussian ambassage, pagina 44, a brief and orderly catalogue of them all.-Hackluyt. Voyages, vol. i. To the Reader.

Beta the dream and Synod cites,
And catalogues the naval knights.

Chapman. Homer. Iliad. Argument to b. ii.

Saint Maud here not the least, though she be set the last,
And scarcely over-match'd by any that is past,
Whom likewise for a saint those reverend ages chose
With whom we at this time our catalogue will close.
Drayton. Poly-Olbion, s. 24.

Every man is ready to give in a long catalogue of those virtues and good qualities he expects to find in the person of a friend, but very few of us are careful to cultivate them in ourselves. Spectator, No. 385.

If religion is thrown into the quarrel, the most innocent acts are catalogued with sins.-Walpole. Anecd. vol iii. c. 1.

CATAPHRACT. It. Catapatta; Sp. Catapates; Gr. Κατάφρακτος, καταφράσσειν, from κατά, and paure, to block up, to protect, to fortify. Undique armis munitus. Horsemen, cataphract, are well described in the quotation from Am


And the men of armes [cataphracti equites] here and there entermingled on bard horses, whom the Persians use to call Calibinarit, harnessed all over with good corselets, and bard about with guards of steele; so as one would have taken them for images finely polished by the hand-worke of Praxiteles, and not for men indeed: about whom also there went thin plated hoopes, made fit and handsome for the bending of their bodies, and running all over their limmes; so that which way soever they had need to stirre and moove their joynts, the apparrell or habiliment would agree thereto, the joyning thereof was so meet, and served so well every way.-Holland. Ammianus, p. 63.


Was Samson as a public servant brought,
In their state livery clad; before him pipes
And timbrels, on each side armed guards,
Both horse and foot, before him and behind
Archers and slingers, cataphracts and speares.
Milton. Samson Agonistes.

CATAPLASM, n. Fr. Cataplasme; It. Cataplasma; Sp. Cataplasma; Gr. Karanλαoux, from Kaтa, and λаore, to form or mould. Applied (medically)—

To substances formed or moulded into one mass; a poultice or plaster.

Hee writeth moreover that if they [turnips] be roasted or baked under the ashes and so incorporat with grease, they will make a notable good cataplasm for the gout and joynteach.-Holland. Plinie, b. xx. c. 3.

I bought an vnction of a mountebanke

So mortall, I but dipt a knife in it,

Where it drawes blood, no cataplasm so rare,
Collected from all simples that haue vertue
Vnder the moone, can saue the thing from death,
That is but scratcht withall.

Shakespeare. Hamlet, Act iv. sc. 7.

For (where he was the god of eloquence,
And subtiltie of metalls) they dispence
His spirits, now in pills, and ecke in potions,
Suppositories, cataplasms and lotions.

B. Jonson. The Voyage Itself.

CATAPULT. Fr. Catapulte; It. Catapulta;


An engine from which, originally, darts (tela), subsequently stones and other hard and heavy missiles, were thrown.

The Syrians invented the catapult.

Holland. Plinie, b. vii. c. 56. In the rifling of the campe, the Apollonians met with catapults and balists, and other engines provided for the assault of the cittie.-Id. Livivs, p. 537.

CATARACT, n. Fr. Cataracte; Sp. Cataratas; Gr. Kaτаρаkтη, præruptus, ac præceps in flumine locus, (Vossius.) Karapaσσely, from KaTⱭ, and paooew, tundere, collidere, to beat or dash. Applied to

The dash of a waterfall; to the waterfall itself. Also applied to a disease of the eye, (quasi κaтApаTTV, confounding the sight.)

Nor so much hereafter shall be spoke Of that (but lately found) Guianian Oronoque, Whose cataract a noise so horrible doth keep, That it even Neptune frights.-Drayton. Poly-Olbion, s. 29. They say also that this ceremonie would be precisely observed, that in the very place where this plant [the polium] is found, so soon as it is gathered it should be hanged presently about the neck of the partie, with a special care that it touch not the ground first, and then it is an excellant remedie for the cataract in the eye. Holland. Plinie, b. xxi. c. 20.

Now this river Nilus running along by the parts of Ethiopia, having also gone through divers names, which many nations have given him, as he passeth along the earth, with a most rich exundation, commeth at length to the cataracts, that is to say certain steep and broken rocks, downe which as hee falleth, he seemeth to rush rather than to run. Id. Ammianus, p. 211.

It is an old tradition, that those that dwell near the cataracts of Nilus, are strucken deaf: but we find no such effect, in canoniers nor millers, nor those that dwell upon bridges.-Bacon. Naturall History, s. 276.

A maid of about eighteen years of age, having by a couple of cataracts, that she brought with her into the world, lived absolutely blind from the moment of her birth; being brought to the free use of her eyes, was so ravished at the surprising spectacle of so many various objects, as presented themselves to her unacquainted sight, that almost every thing she saw transported her with such admiration

and delight, that she was in danger to loose the eyes of her mind by those of her body, and expound that mystical Arabian proverb, which advises, to shut the window, that the house may be light.-Boyle. Works, vol. ii. p. 6.

But when o'er rugged cliffs and ways unev'n
In steepy cataracts thou 'rt headlong driv'n,
Thy rushing waves, resisted, fiercer fly,
And batter'd froth rebounding fills the sky;
The hills remurmur with the dashing sound,
Thy billows ride triumphant far around,
And rear their conquering heads with hoary honours
crown'd. Hughes. Lucan. Pharsalia, b. x.


A defluxion.


Fr. Catarrhe; It. Catarro; Sp. Catarro; Gr. Karappei, from Kara, and peew, to flow.

The adj. are used by medical writers.

The spirite of gluttony, tryumphynge amonge vs in his glorious chariotte, callyd welfare, dryuynge vs afore hym, as his prisoners, into his dungeon of surfet, where we are tourmented with catarrhs, feuers, &c.

Sir T. Elyot. Castle of Helth, b. ii. c. 28.

A lazar-house it seem'd, within were laid
Numbers of all diseas'd, all maladies,
Convulsions, epilepsies, fierce catarrhs.

Milton. Paradise Lost, b. xi. CATASTROPHE, n. Fr. Catastrophe; It. Catastrofe ; Sp. Catastrophe; Gr. KaraorpoON, from Kaта, and σrpepew, to turn.

A turning about; a revolution; generally applied to the final turn or change of events, the change which produces the final event.

For all mans life me seemes a tragedie,
Full of sad sights and sore catastrophees;
First comming to the world with weeping eye,
Where all his dayes, like dolorous trophees,
Are heap'd with spoyles of fortune and of feare,
And he at last laid forth on balefull beare.

Spenser. The Teares of the Muses. Melpomene.
Dear friend, be silent and with patience see
What this mad times' catastrophe will be.

Drayton. To Mr. W. Browne. At the Earl's end I was abroad, but when I came home,

Sp. Catapulta; Lat. Catapulta; Gr. KuraTeXTns, (though little was left for writers to glean after Judges,)
from Kara, and waλλew, to shake, to brandish, to

yet I spent some curiosity to search what it might be that could precipitate him [the Earl of Essex] into such a prodigious catastrophe.-Reliquiæ Wottonianæ, p. 180.

A Abingdon he [the Prince of Orange] was surprised with the news of the strange catastrophe of affairs now at London, the King's desertion, and the disorders which the city and neighbourhood of London were fallen into. Burnet. Own Time, an. 1688.

When a man with a steady faith looks back on the great catastrophe of this day, with what bleeding emotions of heart must he contemplate the life and sufferings of his deliverer!-Spectator, No. 356.


Down fell both spear and shield, down they as fast,

And the dire hiss renew'd and the dire form
Catcht by contagion, like in punishment,
As in thir crime.
Milton. Paradise Lost, b. x.
While we perhaps
Designing or exhorting glorious warr,
Caught in a fierie tempest shall be hurl'd
Each on his rock transfix'd, the sport and prey
Of racking whirlwinds.
Id. Ib. b. ii.
So saying he caught him up, and without wing
Of Hippogrif bore through the air sublime
Over the wilderness and o'er the plain.

Id. Paradise Regained, b. iv.

In Sw. Katsa is instrumentum Junius piscatorium, (Ihre.) says, akin to Dut. Ketsen, (to chase.) And he adds, KaTeXELV, (to detain, to obtain, to occupy,) borrows its tenses from the unused theme path I was in, for if I staid there any longer, I was in danger


KaTuσxe, whence every body sees (nemo non videt) the English Catch has been contracted.

To catch seems to comprise the force of-to stop and to hold; it implies that the thing caught is in motion, and is not merely stopt but held. To stop a ball is not to catch it; though stopped it may not be held. To hold a ball is not to catch it; the motion of it is neither expressed nor implied. To catch, (sub. in a trap or snare,) is to entrap, to ensnare.

To catch hold is a familiar expression, and implies that the thing caught is to be held from moving.

To catch may sometimes be supplied by-to seize, to grasp; and is sometimes used as equivalent to-merely, to overtake. Also to have or use the sudden motion of one, who catches, or tries to catch any thing; to snatch, to jerk.

So muche vyss [fish] hii ssolde hym brynge That ech man wondry ssal of so gret caccheyng.

R. Gloucester, p. 265.

And clannesse shal cacchen hit. and clerkes shullen hit
Piers Plouhman, p. 234.

Retcheth thei nevere
Of the cours of the case. so they catche siluer.

Id. Ib. p. 75. Quikliche cam a catchepol. and craked a two here legges, And here armes after. of everiche of tho theoves.

Id. Ib. p. 343. Stryue thou a good stryf of feith, cacche euerlastinge lyf anto whiche thou art clepid.-Wiclif. Tymo, c. 6.

For the wisdom of this world is foli anentis God; for it is writun I schal catche wise men in her fel wisdom. Id. 1 Corynth. c. 3. And whanne dai was come the magestratis senten cacchepollis and seiden, delyuere thou the men. Id. Dedis, c. 16. Salomon saith, that the wordes of a flaterer is a snare to zaechen innocentes. He sayth also, he that speketh to his frend wordes of sweteness and of plesaunce, he setteth a net beforne his feet to cacchen him.

Chaucer. The Tale of Melibcus.

But other while whan so is,
That I maie catche slepe on honde
Lyggend alone, than I fonde

To dreme a mery sweuen er daie.-Gower. Con. A. b. iv.

With that he sterte vp fro the mete,

And shoue the borde into the flore,

And caught a sworde anone and swore

That thei shulde of his hondes die.-Id. Ib. b. v.

When the boy saw that hys father was dead, and that the catchpoles began to snatch at him, he was sore dismayed, and thought that he should dye to. And when one of them apposed him, asking him how he beleeued, he answered, master I beleue euen as it pleaseth you.

Frith. Workes, p. 57.

Cal. Thou mak'st me merry; I am full of pleasure; Let vs be iocond. Will you troule the catch."

Shakespeare. Tempest, Act iii. sc. 2.

For like as dropsie patients drink and still be drie,
Whose vnstanch'st greedie thirst no liquor can allay;
And drinke they nere so much, yet thurst they by and by;
So catchers and snatchers do toile both night and day,
Not needie, but greedie, still prolling for their prey.
Murour for Magistrates, p. 278.

Could never man work thee a worser shame,
Then once to minge thy father's odious name?
Whose mention were alike to thee as lieve
As a catch-poll's fist into a bankrupt's sleeve.

Bp. Hall. Satires, b. iv. Sat. 2. —And as fields that have been long time cloide With catching weather, when their corne lies on the gavill heape,

Are with a constant north wind dried, with which for comfort leape

Their hearts that sow'd them.

Chapman mer. Iliad, b. xxi.

He then called to me audibly, to step at least out of the to be catched in a great net that was just hanging over me, and ready to catch me up.-Spectator, No. 524.

A butterfly in one of its states is called an aurelia, which name for its sound, was chosen to distinguish the society of butterfly-catchers at Munster. Cambridge. The Scribleriad, b. vi. Note 2.

It [profusion] is a hungry vice: it eats up all,
That gives society its beauty, strength,
Convenience, and security, and use:
Makes men mere vermin worthy to be trapp'd
And gibbeted, as fast as catchpole claws
Can seize the slipp'ry prey.

Cowper. Task, b. ii.

Yet more demands the critic ear
Than the two catch-words in the rear
Which stand like watchmen in the close
To keep the verse from being prose.-Lloyd. On Rhyme.


Fr. Catechiser; It. Catechizzare; Sp. Catechizar; Gr Kurnxeш, sonare, insonare, from Kara, and Hxw, Echo, sonus repercussus, from Ayew, frangere, (Lennep.)


Catechumen, part. pass. Κατηχούμενος : one ceiving oral instruction: instruction in the rudiments (of religion.)

To catechise, primarily, is to sound; (sc. against the ears of those whom we wish to teach; i. e. to teach or instruct orally, to give oral instruction.) It is then applied thus

1. To teach that, which requires to be repeated again and again, to those who require to be taught again and again, to the very echo; to have their instruction sounded and resounded into their ears.

2. To teach the first elements or rudiments of any art or science, and particularly of the Christian religion.

such a temper only (whether by nature or education, 's all one,) as to deem some things fit and right to be done, and others unfit and unjust. H. More. App. to Antidote against Atheism, c. 9.

The question is, what is the signatum, the invisible and celestiall thing, which answers thereunto. In our catecheticall explications of this mystery, it is wont to be affirmed to be the bloud of Christ; namely, that as water washeth away the filth from the body, so the bloud of Christ cleanseth us from the guilt and polution of sin. Mede. Works, b. i. Disc. 17.

To whom [Dr. Potter] among other fruits of his studies he communicated his practical catechism, which for his private use he had drawn up out of those materials which he had made use of in the catechetick institution of the youth of his parish.-Fell. Life of Hammond.

It was decreed that in every parish there should be two sermons every Sunday, of which that in the afternoon was to be catecheticall.-Hale. Let. from Dort.

He does the same thing in sacraments as he does in preaching: in both he declares the guilty person to be out of the way to heaven, to be obnoxious to the Divine anger, to be a debtor of repentance; and refusing to baptise an evil catechumen or to communicate an ill-living Christian does but say the same Bp. Taylor. Rule of Conscience, b. iii. c. 4. Hence their forenamed authors assume, that the children of the faithfull dying without baptisme, may be thought to receive the baptisme of the Spirit, as well as those catechu menists spoken of.-Bp. Morton. Cath. Appeale, p. 248.

It is true, that the word warnxev from whence our word catechism doth come, is used in Scripture to signifie teaching in general: but it hath since by ecclesiastical writers been appropriated to that particular way of instruction, which hath been long in use in the Christian church, and is commonly called catechising.—Tillotson, vol. i. Ser. 52.

In 1550 he [Jewell] was admitted to the reading of the sentences, and during the reign of King Edward 6. became a zealous promoter of reformation and a preacher and cate chiser at Sunningwell near to Arlington in Berks. Wood. Athena Oxon. vol. i. p. 169 The principles of Christianity, briefly and catechistically taught them, is enough to save their souls.

South, vol. vii. Ser. 5. Those of riper years he encouraged and exhorted to be present at his catechetical performances, and who were too much ashamed of their ignorance to overcome it by any other methods.-Nelson. Life of Bp. Bull.

Pierce my vein,

Take of the crimson stream mean'dring there
And catechise it well; apply thy glass,
Search it, and prove now if it be not blood
Congenial with thine own.


Cowper. Task, b. iii. Gr. Karnyopia, from Κατα, and αγειρειν, (from αγειν, ducere;) αγείρειν properly signifies -to 3. To catechise, is, consequentially, to question, bring together; to collect into one. For the ap(as children usually are, when taught the Cate-plication of the word see the example from Watts. chism of their religion,) to examine.

That children should be carefully catechised, and confirmed by the bishops, or in their absence by such as were employed in the visitation of churches.

Spotswood. History of the Church of Scotland, an. 1616.

In prohibiting that none should commune alone, in making the people whole communers, or in suffering them to commune under both kinds in the catechization of young chaplains in the rudiments of our faith, &c.

Burnet. Records, pt. ii. b. i. No. 53. Oglethorp's Submission.

Festus Hommius, amongst other things complain'd that through the negligence of the remonstrants, it came that catechising was so much decay'd; which words of his, it is thought. will be an occasion of some choler, though for the present they pass'd uncontroll'd.-Hale. Let. from Dort. Catechisings are our best preachings, and by them we shall give the best account of our charges. Bp. Taylor. On Confirmation.

This book is a catechism to fight,
And will be bought of every lord and knight,
That can but read.-B. Jonson. Verses on Drayton's Muse.

To which [profession of faith] none (of years and knowledge) was ever admitted, who had not been sufficiently instructed by the catechist in every part of this foundation, (which to that end the catechist received from the Bishop with his short exposition of it.) and being so instructed made open confession of it, and moreover, by vow obliged himself there, to superstruct all Christian practice upon it. Hammond. Of Fundamentals, c. 2.

We will therefore suppose a man of an ordinary stamp, not to have inculcated into him any principles of religion, or explicite or catechistical doctrine of a God, but to be of

So again, the distribution of things unto certain tribes, which we call categories or predicaments, are but cautions against the confusion of definitions and divisions. Bacon. Advancement of Learning, b. ii.

They appointed that of the Synod two should be chosen delegates, who should immediately go to them, in the name of the Synod warn them to lay by all other answers, and at the next sessions categorically answer, whether they would exhibit their minds concerning the points in controversy, or no.-Hale. Let. from Dort.

The word of Mr. Bayes's that he has made notorious is categoricalness; and I observe that wheresoever there comes a word of that termination he shows it the same honour, as if he had a mind to make Bayes a collar of nesses.

Marvell. Works, vol. ii. p. 136.

In these last sections we have briefly comprised the greatest part of what is necessary in the famous ten ranks of being, called the ten predicaments, or categories of Aristotle, on which there are endless volumes of discourses formed by several of his followers. But that the reader may not utterly be ignorant of them, let him know the names are these: substance, quantity, quality, relation, action, passion, where, when, situation, and cloathing. Watts. Logic, pt. i. c. 2. s. 5. A single proposition (which is also called categorical) may be divided again into simple and complex. Id. Ib. pt. ii. c. 2. a. 5. CATENATION. Lat. Catena; Gr. Ka@nua, monile descendens, Kabinu, (kaтa and in,) demitto descendo. See CHAIN and CONCATENATION. A conjunction or connexion; like that of the links of a chain.

There is one link and common connection, one general Hgament, and necessary obligation of all whatever unto God. Which catenation or conserving union, whenever his pleasure shall divide, let go, or separate; they shall fall from their existence, essence, and operations: in brief, they must retire into their primitive nothing, and shrink into their chaos again.-Brown. Vulgar Errours, b. v. c. 5.


CATER, v. Dut. Kater. Skinner CATER, N. marks that there are some who CATE, n. write Acates, (see ACHATES,) CATERER, n. and if this, he adds, can be CA'TERESS. right, I should deduce the word from the Fr. Achept, achet, or achapt, emtio, from the verb achapter, acheter, emere. Achepter, however, he derives from the Mid. Lat. Adcapture. But in A. S. Ceapian, aceapian, is, emere vendere, mercaturam facere, to buy and sell, to traffick, whence our cheapen," (Somner.) cater, generally—



To buy or sell, to purchase or provide; to furnish or supply, food, entertainment, &c.

Richely she feeds, and at the rich man's cost,
And for her meate she needes not craue or cry;
By sea, by land, of delicates the most
Her cater sekes, and spareth for no perell.

Wyatt. Of the meane and sure Estate.

Take that, and he that doth the rauens feede,
Yea providentially caters for the sparrow,
Be comfort to my age: here is the gold.

Shakespeare. As You Like It, Act il. sc. 3. When the toil'd cater home them to the kitchen brings, The cook doth cast them out as most unsavory things. Drayton. Polly-Olbion, s. 25.

The fruits were faire, the whiche did grow
Within thy garden planted,

The leaues were grene of euery bough,

And moysture nothing wanted; Yet or the blossoms gan to fall, The caterpillar wasted all.

Vncertaine Auctors. A Louer accusing his Loue, &c. Those vast exotick animals, which the multitude flocks to see, and which men give money to be allowed to gaze on, have had many of them less of my admiration than the little caterpillar (as learned naturalists esteem it) to which we are beholden for silk.-Boyle. Works, vol. ii. p. 22.

CATHARTICAL. Kabaiрew, from κатa and CATHARTICS. Saipei, tollere. Whence Kafaipei denotes planè tollere, nempe sordes, and thus to purge, to cleanse.

Purifying or purging, cleansing.

Scarce any elementary salt is in a small quantity cathartical.-Boyle. Works, vol. i. p. 557.

Thus Plato has called mathematical demonstrations the catharticks or purgatives of the soul, as being the most proper means to cleanse it from error, and to give it a relish of truth, which is the natural food and nourishment of the understanding, as virtue is the perfection and happiness of the will-Spectator, No. 517.

Some men employ their health, an ugly trick,
In making known how oft they have been sick.
And give us in recitals of disease

A doctor's trouble, but without the fees:
Relate how many weeks they kept their bed,
How an emetic or cathartic sped.-Cowper. Conversation.
CATHEDRAL, n. Cathedral church, Fr.
CATHEDRAL, adj. Église cathédrale; It. Chi-
CATHEDRATED. esa catedrale; Sp. Yglesia
catedral; Dut. Kathedrael kercke, from the Gr.
Katehpa, from kaтa and edрa, a seat, from efew,
to sit. So called, says Junius, ab Episcopali cathe-
Chapman. Homer. Odyssey, b. x. drâ; in the same sense in which the Saviour of

Circe (obseruing, that I put no hand
To any banquet; hauing countermand
From weightier cares; the light cates could excuse,)
Bowing her neare me these wing'd words did vse.

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The little fowls in the air have God for their provider and caterer. Shelton. Don Quixote, vol. iii. b. ii. c. 33.

Impostor do not charge most innocent nature,
As if she would her children should be riotous
With her abundance; she good cateress,
Means her provision only to the good,
That live according to her sober laws,

And holy dictate of spare temperance.-Milton. Comus. Yet to so ridiculous a height is this foolish custom grown, that even the Christmas pye, which in its very nature is a kind of consecrated cafe, and a badge of distinction, is often forbidden to the Druid of the family.-Tatler, No. 255.

It is true, that some of these rules may seem more principally to respect the steward, clerk of the kitchen, caterer, or perhaps the butler.-King. Art of Cookery.

Androcles, after having sodden the flesh of it by the sun, subsisted upon it till the lion had supplied him with another. He lived many days in this frightful solitude, the hion catering for him with great assiduity. Guardian, No. 139.

Hath any rival glutton got the start,
And beat him in his own luxurious art;
Bought cafes, for which Apicius could not pay,
Or drest old dainties in a newer way.

Churchill. The Times. CATER-COUSIN. Quatre cousin.

Gob. His maister and he (sauing your worship's reuerence) are scarce catercosins.—Shakes. Mer. of Venice, Act ii. sc. 2.

His mother was as honest a woman as ever broke bread; she and I have been cater-cousins in our youth.

Dryden. Limberham, Act iii. sc. 1.

CATERPILLAR. Junius writes Cartepillar, or Cartlepillar, perhaps from the Dut. Kerten, kartelen, circumtondere, quod herbas, et fruges, arrodendo circumtondeat, because they shear herbs and fruits, by eating or devouring. Dr. T. Hickes thinks it is chair peleuse, i. e. caro pilosa. Minshew and Skinner, chatte-peleuse, so called ab hirsutie istius animalis, felis simili. Under the word Cater, cates; Junius says, hence it is manifest why volvox vel convolvulus, is in English called caterpiller, because it destroys the food of man and beast, as it springs from the earth.

Caterpillers destroy the fruite, an hurtefull thing and well shyfted for, by a diligent ouerseer.

Sir John Cheeke. The Hurt of Sedition.

the world employs it, (Matt. xxiii. 2,)" The Scribes and the Pharisees sit in Moses' seat," ET TηS Μωσέως καθέδρας.

The seat; the seat of episcopal authority.

There be cathedrall churches into whiche the countre cometh wt processió at Whytsontyde, & the women folowing the crosse wyth many an vnwomanly songe. Sir T. More. Workes, p. 198. Wherefore I determined to go vnto Sartach, & to deliuer vnto them ye letters of my lord the king, wherein he admonisheth him concerning the good and commoditie of all Christondome. And they receiued vs with gladnes, and gaue vs entertainement in the cathedrall church.

Hackluyt. Voyages, vol. i. p. 94.

It was decreed, and straitely ordred in a councel holden at Gerunda in Spaine, that al litle churches in the countrie should confourme them selues vnto the greate cathedral churches that were in cities and townes, as well for order of the communion, as also for singinge, and other ministration.-Jewel. A Replie to M. Hardinge, p. 71.

Her body [Mary of Scotland] was embalmed, and ordered with due and usuall rites; and afterwards interred with a royall funerall in the cathedrall-church of Peterborough. Camden. Eliz. an. 1587.

If this reproof be private, or with the cathedrated authority of a prælector or public reader. Whitelock. Manners of the English, p. 385.

I began to consider with myself what innumerable multitudes of people lay confused together under the pavement of that antient cathedral; how men and women, friends and enemies, priests and soldiers, monks and prebendaries, were crumbled amongst one another, and blended together in the same common mass; how beauty, strength, and youth, with old age, weakness and deformity, lay undistinguished in the same promiscuous heap of matter.

Supposing that they might easily winne that riche and flourishing citie, being but meanely fortified and inhabitid with citizens not accustomed to the warres, who durst not withstand their first encounter, hoping moreouer to find many rebels against her maiestie and popish catholiques, or some fauourers of the Scottish queene, (which was not long before most iustly beheaded) who might be instruments of sedition.-Hackluyt. Voyages, vol. i. p. 597.

Also of what prowes he was in armes, and how valiaunt and good a capitayne in battayle, it may sufficiently appeare to them that wyll rede his noble actes and achieuaunces in the bokes before remembred, wherein no good catholyke man wyl any thing doubte, thonghe they be maruaylous.

Sir T. Elyot. The Gouernovr, b. iii. c. 22. The princes of Germanie were of two seuerall opinyons, and of seuerall names, the part that fauoured the pope and all things done by his authority were called catholicall, and the other part, which folowed and preached onely the Gospel of Christ were called euangelicall.

Grafton. Hen. VIII. an. 22.

It might by degrees become universal that was not so at first; and therefore unless the whole present age do agree, that is, unless of all that are deemed orthodox there be a present consent, this broken consent is not an infallible testimony of the catholicism of the Doctrine.

Bp. Taylor. Dissuasive from Popery, pt. ii. Introd His seed in none could fail to grow, Fertile he found them all, or made them so, No druggist of the soul bestow'd on all So catholicly a curing cordial.

Donne. Elegy by Sir L. Carey. Besides, that marriage is indissoluble, is not catholicly true; we know it dissoluble for adultery, and for desertion, by the verdict of all reformed churches. Milton. Tetrachordon. Thus one may judg of the catholikness, which Romanists brag of, and challenge on two accounts.

Brevint. Saul & Samuel at Endor, p. 10 Before I enter upon this task, I shall by way of preface or introduction say something concerning those systems which undertake to give an account of the formation of the universe by mechanical hypothesis of matter, mov'd either uncertainly, or according to some catholick laws, without the intervention and assistance of any superior immaterial agent.-Ray. On the Creation, pt. i.

They teach [the] spirituous parts [of salt petre] to be the grand and catholick efficient of cold.

Boyle. Works, vol. ii. p. 596. The 1st and largest sense of the term Catholick Church, is that which appears to be the most obvious and litera meaning of the words in the text, (Heb. xii. 23.) The general assembly and church of the first-born which are written iz heaven; that is, the whole number of these who shall finally attain unto salvation.-2ndly, The Catholick or Universal Church, signifies in the next place, and indeed more frequently, the Christian Church only: the Christian Church, as distinguished from that of the Jews and patriarchs of old; the Church of Christ spread universally from our Saviour's days over all the world; in contradistinction to the Jewish Church, which was particularly confined to one nation or people.-3dly, The Catholic Church signifies very frequently, in a still more particular and restrained sense, that part of the Universal Church of Christ, which in the present age is now living upon earth; as distinguished from those which have been before, and shall come after.-4thly and lastly, The term Catholick Church signifies in the last place, and most frequently of all, that part of the Universal Church of Christ, which in the present generation is visible upon earth, in an outward profession of the belief of the Gospels, and in a visible external communion of the word and sacraments.-The Church of Rome pretends herself to be-This Whole Catholick Church, exclusive of all other societies of Christians.-Clarke, vol. i. Ser. 62.

I never could meet with any body that pretended to say what their private faith and religion might be; all the gipsies that I have conversed with assured me of their sound catholicism.-Swinburne. Spain, Let. 29.

CATTLE. In Dut. Chattels, bona mobilia, and cattle, pecus, are called by the same name, Kateylen, kateelen. Spelman says, all goods moveSpectator, No. 26. able or immoveable: yet properly that kind of service was performed cathedral-wise, tho' in a manner, to Two of the best voices came in time enough, and the goods which consists in animals, a quorum capitibare walls, with an anthem suitable to the day. bus, res ipsæ, were at some times called capita, at Guardian, No. 80. others, capitalia; by syncope, captalia and catalia, whence our law term catalla, in Eng. Chattels. The early inhabitants of the earth, he adds, estimated their wealth from the number of their animals. Skinner derives from capita, (q.d.) capitalia, because they belong by law ad caput, i. e. personam. Now applied to


Fr. Catholique: It. and Sp. Catolico; Dut. Katholick; Gr. Katoλkios, from Kara and óxos, all, the whole, universal. For the various applications

Kine, horses, and some other animals, appro

of the word in the Christian Church, see the quo-priated to the use of man.
tation from Dr. Clarke.

Catholick, all, the whole, universal; less
strictly, general, common.

Fr. Catholizer, Cotgrave says, is to catholize it, to play the Catholick, to become a Catholick.

thinges to alle men as it was nede to ech.-Wiclif. Dedis.

They seeldin possessiouns and catel and departiden the

His tithes paied he full fayre and wel
Both of his propre swinke, and his catel.
Chaucer. Prologue, v. $16.

Ignoble never liv'd, they were awhile
Like swine, or other catell here on earth!
Their names are not recorded on the file
Of life, that fall so.

B. Jonson. Underwood. Epithalamion. Until the transportation of cattle into England was forbidden by the late act of parliament, the quickest trade for ready money here was driven by the sale of young bullocks, which, for four or five summer-months of the year, were carried over in very great numbers; and this made all the breeders in the kingdom turn their lands and stocks chiefly to that sort of cattle.

Sir W. Temple. Of Advancement of Trade in Ireland. "Imitators are but a servile kind of cattle," says the poet: or at best the keepers of cattle for other men; they have nothing which is properly their own; that is a suflicient mortification for me, while I am translating Virgil.

Dryden. Parallel between Poetry and Painting. CAVALCADE. Fr. Cavalcade; It. Cavalcata, from the Lat. Caballus; Gr. Kaßuλλns, a name applied to the meaner sort of horses, from the Doric, Καββαλλειν, for καταβαλλειν, to throw or cast down, (Vossius.) A cavalcade is

A number of persons proceeding together on horseback.

Many members of the House of Commons, especially those of London, went to Oxford, accompanied or attended with the ceremonious cavalcade of a numerous train of friends. Baker. Charles II. an. 1681.

Next after these, there rode the royal wife,
With Emily, the cause and the reward of strife.
The following cavalcade, by three and three,
Proceed by titles marshal'd in degree,

Thus through the southern gate they take their way,
And at the list arriv'd ere prime of day.

Dryden. Palamon & Arcite, b. iii.

Quick with the word his way the hero made,
Conducted by a glorious cavalcade;
Pert petulance the first attracts his eye,
And drowsy dulness slowly saunters by,
With malice old, and scandal ever new,
And natural nonsense, neither false nor true.


Smart. Hilliad.

Fr. Chevalier, cavalier;
It. Cavaliere; Sp. Caval-
lero; immediately from the
Fr. Cheval; It. and Sp.
Cavalla, from Lat. Ca-
ballus. See CAVALCADE.
A horseman, one who
Then applied, conse-

CAVALLERO. CAVALRY, n. rides or is on horseback. quentially, to

One, who has the gallant spirit, and manners of men-having the rank of horseman. See also the quotation from Clarendon.

Cavalier, adj.-gallant, brave, high-spirited, haughty, disdainful.

Cavalry, n.-Fr. Cavallerie, horsemanship, also horsemen, (Cotgrave.) Applied to-military companies of horsemen.

It may perhaps seeme strange and incredible, that so many cavalleros should all faile in this one attempt, since in many parts of the Indies, far smaller numbers in shorter time haue performed as great matters, and subdued mighty kingdomes.-Hackluyt. Voyages, vol. iii. p. 691.

Welcome, my little tyne theéfe, and welcome indeed too; I'le drinke to M. Bardolfe, and to all the canileroes about London.-Shakespeare. 2 Part Henry IV. Act v. sc. 3.

Neverthelesse, because he would not sit still, nor be dispised for his slouth, he enforced Arberio and Agile with other captaines and officers of the cavallerie, to make haste with puissant regiments under their conduct. Holland. Ammianus, p. 181. Many good welcomes, and much gratis cheere, Keepes he for everie straggling cavaliere.

Bp. Hall, b. iii. Sat. 7. And from those contestations, the two terms of Roundhead and Cavalier grew to be receiv'd in discourse, and were afterwards continued for the most succinct distinction of affections throughout the quarrel: they who were looked upon as servants to the king, being then called Cavaliers; and the other of the rabble contemned and despised, under the name of Round-head.

Clarendon. History of the Rebellion, b. iv.

I know all the sober gentry will close with you, if they may be tenderly and gently used; and I will so use them, as knowing it to be the common concern, to amplifie, and not to lessen our interest, and to be careful that neither the canaliers nor phanatick party have yet a share in your civil or military power.- Baker. Monk. Speech to the House.

Had he [Nedham] been constant to his cavaleering principles, he would haue been beloued by and admired of all. Wood. Athenæ Oxon.

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But notwithstanding all that could be said, the confederacy for them was strong enough to carry all before them; the cavalierish party, who were very numerous, joining with them, in expectation that it might prove a good step towards the return of the former peerage.

Ludlow. Memoirs, vol. ii. p. 168.

They sent away their cavalry with so much haste, and in so continued a march, that they were possessed of the path before the body the king had sent could reach it; whereby they gained their point, though their cavalry suffered much. Burnet. Own Time, an. 1694.

My worthy friend Sir Roger, when we are talking of the
malice of parties, very frequently tells us an accident, that
happened to him when he was a school boy, which was at
the time when the feuds ran high between the Round-heads
and Cavalieres.-Spectator, No. 125.

He [Warburton] very cavalierly tells us, that these notes
were among the amusements of his younger years.
Edwards. Canons of Criticism, Pref.
They could tell,
How their long-matchless cavalry, so oft
O'er hills of slain by ardent Rupert led,
Whose dreaded standard Victory had war'd,
Till then triumphant, there with noblest blood
From their gor'd squadrons dy'd the restive spear
Of London's firm militia, and resign'd
The well-disputed field.-Glover. London.

CAUDAL, adj. Į
Having a tail, or something terminating like, or
otherwise resembling, a tail.

Lat. Cauda, a tail. Of un-
known etymology.

How Jove his thunder makes, and lightning new,
How with the bolt he strikes the earth below,
How comate, crinite, caudate stars are fram'd,
I knew, my skill with pride my heart enflam'd.

Fairefax. Godfrey of Bovlogne, b. xiv. s. 44.
The tail is slender, of the same length as the remainder of
the body to the nose, and terminates in a small caudal fin.
Pennant. Zoology. The Cuvier Ray.
CA'UDLE, v. I Fr. Chadeau, from Chaud;
CA'UDLE, n. Lat. Calidus, warm; (q. d.

A warm drink; of eggs, wine, bread, sugar and

He migte tho at is diner abbe bilened al so wel,
As me sejth "wan ich am ded, make me a caudel."
R. Gloucester, p. 561.

Will the cold brooke
Candied with ice, cawdle thy morning taste
To cure thy o're-nights surfet.

Shakespeare. Timon of Athens, Activ. sc 3.
O tell me, good Dumaine;
And gentle Longauill, where lies thy paine?
And where my liedges? all about the brest:

A caudle hoa! Id. Love's Labour Lost, Act iv. sc. 3.
If a man laments in company, where the rest are in hu-
servant is order'd to present him with a porringer of
mour enough to enjoy themselves, he should not take it ill

cawdle or posset drink, by way of admonition that he go
home to bed.-Spectator, No. 143.

She's gone! but there's another in her stead,
For of a princess Charlotte's brought to bed:-
Oh! could I but have had one single sup,
One single sniff, at Charlotte's caudle cup!

Warton. The Oxford Newsman's Verse for 1767.

CAVE, v.
CAVE, n.

Fr. Cave; It. Cava; Sp. Cueva, cava; Lat. Cavus. Varro and Festus think a chao dictum. Chaos is properly a vast gap or opening, (vastus hiatus) from the ancient Xaew for xaive, to gape, to open, (Vossius.) Any thing hollow; a hollow place, for men, or other animals, to take shelter or refuge.

Thei eriden in wildirnessis in mounteyns and dennys and canys of the erthe.-Wiclif. Ebrewis, c. 11.

They wandered in wilderness, in mountaynes, in dennes
and caues of the earth.-Bible, 1551. Ib.

But or his here was clipped or yshave,
Ther was no bond with which men might him bind,
But now he is in prison in a cave
Wheras they made him at the querne grinde.
Chaucer, The Monkes Tale, v. 14,077.

Under an hille there is a caue,
Whiche of the sonne maie not haue
So that no man maie knowe aright
The poynt betwene the daie and night.

Gower. Con. A. b. iv.

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They spide a little cottage, like some poore man's nest,'
Under a steepe hills side, it placed was,

There where the mouldred earth had car'd the bank.
Spenser. Faerie Queene, b. iv. c. 5,
Although perhaps

It may be heard at court, that such as wee
Caue heere, hunt heere, are out-lawes, and in time
May make some stronger head.

Shakespeare. Cymbeline, Act iv. sc. 2.

In other places there be also caves and holes of a propheticall power: by the exhalation of which, men are intoxicate, and as it were drunken, and so foretell things to come, as at Delphi, the most renowned oracle.-Holland. Plin. b. ii. c.93.

The other errour may be, for that the object of sight doth strike upon the pupill of the eie, directly without any interception; whereas the cave of the eare doth hold off the sound a little from the organ and so nevertheless there is some distance required in both.-Bacon. Nat. Hist. § 272.

For many a field-bredd herdsman, (vnheard still,)
Hast thou made drowne, the cauernes of the hill
Where his retreates lie, with his helplesse teares.
Chapman. Hymne to Hermes

The sea-nymphs that the watry caverns keep,
Have sent their pearls and rubies from the deep,
To deck thy love; and plac'd by thee they drew
More lustre to them, than where first they grew.
Wilson. Upon Donne and his Poems.

The fire of an oven is a fit similitude of a fire within, as
into which fire is put to heat it, and the heat made more in-
tense by the cavity or hollowness of the place.
Goodwin. Works, vol. iii. p. 565.

Those that descended into the care of Trophonius, were first to be tried by many sacrifices, whether they were fit to enter it or not, and they were to pray before an image of Dædalus's making, which none else were allowed to see, and then after other preparation they were let into that dreadful place, where they saw and heard strange things which they discovered to the priests when they came forth. Stillingfleet, vol. iii. Ser. 12

From out the rock's wide caverns deep below
The rushing ocean rises to its flow;
And, ebbing, here retires; within its sides,
In roomy caves the god of sea resides.

Hughes. The Court of Neptune.

Now pass'd the rugged road, they journey'd down
The cavern'd way descending to the town,
Where, from the rock, with liquid lapse distils
A limpid fount.

Pope. Homer. Odyssey, b. xvii.

But he, [Ulysses] deep musing, o'er the mountains stray'a
Through many thickets of the woodland shade,
And cavern'd ways the shaggy coast along,
With cliffs and nodding forest overhung.-Id. Ib. b. xiv.

Upon weighing the heart in my hand, I found it to be extremely light, and consequently very hollow, which I did not wonder at, when, upon looking inside of it, I saw multitudes of cells and cavities running one within another.

Spectator, No. 281.

The first rude essay of nature had been so much improved by human labour, that the care contained several apartments appropriated to different uses, and often afforded lodging for travellers, whom darkness or tempests happened to overtake.-Johnson. Rasselas, c. 21.

I will teach you to pierce the bowels of the earth, and bring out from the caverns of the mountains metals which shall give strength to your hands, and security to your bodies.-Id. Rambler, No. 33.

Amid the fearful trance, a thund'ring sound
He hears, and thrice the hollow decks rebound;
Upstarting from his couch on deck he sprang,
Thrice with shrill note the boatswain's whistle rang,
All hands unmoor! proclaims the boatswain's cry,
All hands unmoor! the cavern'd rocks reply.
Falconer. Shipwreck, c. 1

The town and temple of Delphi were seated on a bare and cavernous rock; defended, on all sides, with precipices, instead of walls.-Warburton. Julian, b. ii. c. 6.

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And in thin hond thou shalt it have anon,
On this condition, and other non,
That thou depart it so, my dere brother,
That every frere have as moch as other:
This shalt thou swere on thy profession
Withouten fraud or cavilation.

Chaucer. The Sompnoures Tale, v. 7718.
Finally yf you be voyde of belefe in suche thynges as are
spiritual, and pertaine unto the soule, wheras ye can not
thwarte and cauyll in the thinges you see dooen before your
iyes, then do you plainly declare your obstinate malice.
Udal. Mark, c. 2.

Els hys pregnaunt wit could not haue passed it so cleane ouer, but would haue assayled it with some sophisticall cauillation which by hys painted poetrie he might so haue coloured, that at the last he might make ye ignoraunt some appearance of truth.-Frith. Workes, p. 108.

Indeede you almost in no place reason ad idem, which is a manifest argumente, that you are but a shifting cauiller. Whitgift. Defence, p. 429.

Onlie among all, and of all Nero and Domitian being kindled by diuers naughtie and spiteful persons cauillinglie obiected against our doctrine, of whom this sicophantical slandering of us by naughtie custome first came and sprang up.-Fox. Martyrs, p. 46.

But Colotes, like a sychophant, cavilling at him, and catching at his words, without regard of the matter, not arguing against his reasons indeed, but in wordes onely, affirmeth flatly, that Parmenides overthroweth all things in one word, by supposing that all is one.-Holland. Plutarch, p. 913.


Thy Justice seems; yet to say truth, too late,

I thus contest; then should have been refused
These terms whatever, when they were propos'd:
Thou didst accept them; wilt thou enjoy the good,
Then cavil the conditions.-Milton. Paradise Lost, b. x.

To preache by halfes is to be worse
Then those tongue-holly iauells,
That cite good words, but shift off works,
And discipline by cauells.

Warner. Albion's England, c. 39.

I might adde further for more full and complete answer, so much concerning the large oddes betweene the case of the oldest churches in regard of those heathens, and ours in respect of the Church of Rome, that very cauillation itselfe should bee satisfied, and haue no shift to flie vnto.

shut up, to close, to inclose. The Latin Vulgate,
Interiora. Junius says, perhaps the same with
Cowle, (qv.) Skinner, from the A.S. Cylla, uter,
a bag. In Ger. Kel-en is Cavare, to hollow; which,
Wachter thinks, is from the Gr. Koλos, hollow.
Caul is applied as above;-

To that wherein the bowels are wrapped; (see
the quotation from Paley,) and also to a part of
the head-dress or cap, which incloses the head.

I wil mette the, as a beare that is robbed of her whelpes, and I will breake the calfe of their heart, and there wil I deuoure them like a lion.-Geneva Bible, 1561. Hosea, xiii. 8. I will meet them as a bear that is bereaved of her whelps, and I will rent the caul of their heart, and there will I devour them like a lion.-Bible, Modern Version.


A quiuer on her shoulders smale he hanges with crooked
In steade of golden caulle, and mantel braue shulde hange
below.-Phaer. Virgile. Eneidos, b. xi.

For I suppose that some of you have seen towels, napkins,
nets, caules, kerchiefes and coifes woven of such thread,
which would not burn or consume in the fire, but when they
were foul and soiled with occupying, folk flung them into
the fire, and took them forth again clean and fair.
Holland. Plutarch, p. 1094.
After the manner of women he puts a cawle upon his
head.-Prynne. Histriomastrix, pt. i. p. 197.

Some of our ancient ladies of the court exercise their fingers
in the needle, other in caulworke, diuerse in spinning of
silke.-Holinshed. Desc. of England, c. 15.

Her head with ringlets of her hair is crown'd
And in a golden caul the curls are bound.

Dryden. Virgile. Æneis, b. vii.
Why the fat is collected chiefly about some particular
parts and vessels, and not others, as for example, the reins
and the caul. I easily consent with Galen and others, the
reason to be the cherishing and keeping warm of those parts
upon which such vessels are spread; so the caul serves for
the warming of the lower belly, like an apron or piece of
woollen cloth.-Ray. On the Creation, pt. ii.

It is deemed lucky to be born with a caul, or membrane over the face. This caul is esteemed an infallible preservative against drowning. It is related that midwives used to sell this membrane to advocates, as an especial means of making them eloquent. According to Chrysostom, the midwives

Hooker. Eccles. Politie, b iv. § 8. frequently sold it for magic uses.-Grose. Superstitions, p. 45.

That ev'n th' ignorant may understand,
How that deceit is but a caviller,
And true unto itself can never stand,
But still must with her own conclusions war

Daniel. Musophilus. And therefore the Apostle in Rom. i. dealing with the Gentiles, mentions none of their carnal pleas, but when he comes to the Jews in chap. ii. he spends it in taking away their cavillings.-Goodwin. Works, vol. iii. pt. i. p. 399.

Those persons are said to be cavillous and unfaithful advocates, by whose fraud and iniquity, justice is destroy'd; and, therefore, they ought to be severely punish'd, as aforesaid.-Ayliffe. Parergon. Jur. Canon. p. 56.

Nay, by the covenant itself, since that so cavillously is urged against us, we are enjoined in the fourth article, with all faithfulness to endeavour the bringing all such to public trial and condign punishment, as shall divide one kingdom from another.-Millon. Articles of Peace with the Irish.

The first of these cavillatory objections against the parliament's proceeding is, that both houses, have without the king's consent. contrary to Magna Charta, the Petition of Right, &c. &c. by their ordinances onely imposed late taxes. Prynne. Soveraigne Power of Parlaments, pt. iv. c. 2. Since it seems they have wit and understanding enough to caril and find fault with these things, and upon that account to deny their obedience to those lawful powers which God hath set over them, one would think, they should, at the same time, have so much honesty, as seriously to endeavour to give themselves satisfaction as to those things they find fault with.-Sharp, vol. ii. A Disc. of Conscience.

In the first place, it should be considered, that those cavillers at the style of the Scripture, that you and I have hitherto met with, do (for want of skill in the original especially in the Hebrew) judge of it by the translations, wherein alone they read it.-Boyle, Works, vol. ii. p. 257.

"Tis I. quoth she, in every vale, First hiss'd the noisy nightingale; And boldly cavill'd at each note,

That twitter'd in the woodlark's throat.-Smart, Fable 14. CAUL. Sherwood writes, Caul or Kell,wherein the bowels are wrapped. Bullokar, Kell; the caule about the paunche of a hart or stagge. The Geneva Bible, Hosea, "I will break the calfe of their heart." Perhaps a misprint, as in ten other instances it is Kall or Kal, and once Calle. The Septuagint, Zvykλeloμos, from σvv, and KλEL-Ew, to

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The omentum, epiploon, or cawl, is an apron, tucked up, or doubling upon itself, at its lower part. The upper edge is tied to the bottom of the stomach, to the spleen, as hath already been observed, and to part of the duodenum. The reflected edge, also, after forming the doubling, comes up behind the front flap, and is tied to the colon and adjoining viscera.-Paley. Natural Theology, c. 11.

CAU'PONIZE. Lat. Caupo, a suttler, & vic


To procure victuals, to provide and supply with articles of food, drink, &c. ;-to act as suttler or victualler.

I call your virtues unaccountable, as I do the wealth of our rich rogues who cauponised to the armies in Germany in this last war; who have raised our admiration, that they were able to plunder and pillage so mightily amidst an universal poverty.-Warburton to Hurd, Let. 171.

CAU'SAL, adj.


Lat. Causa. Perottus, (see Martin, in v. Causa,) enumerates many proposed etymologies. 1. Some think it is so called, a Chao, detracta aspiratione, because Chaos was the first cause of all things. 2. Others from the Gr. Kavos, which signifies heat or burning, because a cause is that which kindles and inflames us, (accendit inflammatque) to action. 3. Some, a cavendo, because it is that, quæ cavet, that any thing should be done or not be done. 4. Some, a casu,--and this Martinius himself prefers as the most simple, ut primo sit (causa, sc.) quod contigit, accidit. Occasio, (of obvious etymology,) he observes is also used pro causa et origine. Isidorus says also, (see Vossius,) caussa sit, quicquid cecidit, id est, accidit. Vossius is in favour of caiso, seu quaiso, as the ancients wrote, for quæso. And aire, he remarks, (whence airia, causa,) is nothing more than quæsere, seu petere. See Martinius and Vossius; and for the various usages of causa, see Gesner.

This word has puzzled the philosophers quite as much as it has the etymologists. See the examples following, particularly those from Locke, Edwards, Hume, and Scott.

To cause, as used by Spenser, is merely to excuse or make excuses. See EXCUSE.

Cause may be described to be-A general term, denoting the case, the state or condition, of circumstances, of things, preceding, prevening, premoving, pre-acting, to or towards, a change of case, state, or condition of circumstances: an acting, moving to, effecting, producing: an agent effecting: the feeling moving the agent: that which the reason, the will, which-moves, induces, prevails, determines: the origin or source. The cause or case in law, the plaintiff's case or of a person or party, is the case, the state or concause, are terms used indiscriminately. The cause dition of things, or circumstances, in which he is,

or endeavours to be.

For it is seyn to me withouten rescun to sende a bounden
man, and not to signyfie the cause of him.
Wiclif. Dedis, c. 25.
For me thincketh it unreasonable for to send a prisoner,
and not to shewe the causes whyche are layde against him.
Bible, an. 1551. Ib.
He knew the cause of every maladie,
Were it of cold, or hote, or moist, or drie.

Chaucer. Prologue, v. 421.
But grete God above,
That knoweth that none act is causeles,
He deme af all, for I wol hold my pees.

Id. The Merchantes Tale, v. 9348.

And nowe (men seyen) is other wise
Simon the cause hath vndertake,
The worldes swerde in hand is take.

Gower. Con. A. Prologue.

And by this skille a man maie knowe,
The more that thei stonden lowe,
The more ben the cercles lasse,
That causeth why that some passe

Her due cours to fore an other.-Id. Con. A. b. vi.

Then would ye sone perceyue the common wealthes hurt, not when other felt it who deserued it not, but when you smarted who caused it, and stoode not and looked upon other men's losses, which ye might pittie, but tormented with your owne, which ye would lament.

Sir J. Cheeke. The Hurt of Sedition.

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Forced she is to teares ay to returne,
With new requestes, to yeld her hart to loue:
And least she should before her causelesse death
Leaue any thing vntried. Surrey. Virgile. Eneis, b. iv
Neyther doth this counsayle bind a man that he shal of
necessitie against the comen nature suffer another manne
causelesse to kyll hym, nor letteth not any manne fro the
defece of another, whom he seeth innocente and inuaded
and oppressed by malice.-Sir T. More. Workes, p. 278.

Daungerous delph, depe dungeon of disdaine,
Sacke of self-will, the chest of craft and change,
What causeth thee thus causelesse for to change?

Vncertaine Auctors. Against a cruel Woman
What word is that, that changeth not,
Though it be turnde and made in twaine ?
It is mine Anna, God it wot,
The only causer of my paine;
My loue that medeth with disdaine.

Wyat. Of his Love called Anna,
My hart doth melt with meere compassion,
To think how causelesse of her own accord
This gentle Damzel, whom I write upon
Should plonged be in such affliction
Without all hope of comfort or reliefe.

Spenser. Faerie Queene, b. iii. c. 3.
But he to shifte their curious request,
Gan causen why she could not come in place;
Her crased helth, her late recourse to rest
And humid evening ill for sicke folkes cace,
But none of those excuses could take place.

Id. Ib. b. iii. c. 9. Which not withstanding I will acknowledge to be iust and reasonable, if he or any other man living shall shew that I vse as much as the bare familiar companie but of one, who by word or deed hath euer giuen me cause to suspect of conjecture him, such as here they are termed, with whom complaint is made that I ioyne myselfe.

Hooker. Answer to Travers
Saile by them therefore; thy companions
Before hand causing to stop euery eare
With sweete soft wax so close; that none may heare
A note of all their charmings.

Chapman. Homer Odyssey, b. xii.

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