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thoughtful laborers than he does among would-be statesmen. ALEXANDER HAMILTON.* The prodigies of wisdom that fill McDonalds' Works are
I. from the lowliest classes, and God is always calling his heroes from them, and using the weak things of this world
LADIES AND GENTLEMEN :- Revolutions, like all other to confound the mighty.
social phenomena, are evolved out of preëxisting conditions. Do we really remember how much any physical accom
They spring from the action of antecedent forces. When plishment signifies; to shoot well with a rifle, handle a pen
these forces are present the revolution follows as naturally cil or needle, blow a flute or touch thirty notes a second, and inevitably as a conflagration bursts forth from the impact perfectly observant of time, chord and spiritual expression?
of heat with combustibles. In the seemingly irregular Many seem to think it a mistake that we were put in bodies
course of human society certain tendencies appear; they at all. But it is the highest wisdom. We were given cer
gather head; they become contluent with other tendencies. tain inalienable tools, eyes, hands, etc., that with them we of a like or contradictory nature; they break the barriers might make more tools, with which to pulverize the granite which are imposed to restrain them, and sweep away the mountains, set the iron flowing in limpid rivers, harden it political outlines of the past. It is thus that the old forms. into steel, trample the rough seas to smooth paths, and use of society are uprooted, that old institutions are prostrated the swift lightning for a post-horse.
in the dust, and that old customs are destroyed. Without The ridiculous schoolmen turned from things to ideas: the antecedent forces, no revolution can exist, any more discussed how many thousand angels could dance on a than an uncaused phenomenon can be found in physical needle point without jostling each other, while all this nature. With the preëxisting conditions, the revolution is. world's forces were lying dormant, and the world's progress as sure to appear as the sun is to rise, or the tides to follow was only backward. It has often been argued whether man
the moon. It must be understood as a primary truth that could think without words; in this world at least he can not the political cataclysms and social disturbances of mankind think much without things. The Psalmist thought it a occur in obedience to a law which prevails alike in the punishment fit to follow treachery to God that his right plant, the animal, and the man--the law of progress by hand should forget its cunning. Many do not know that it evolution, involving the destruction of the old form by the is treachery to God's plans that their right hands never had undergrowth of the new. any cunning. It has been an astonishment to many that
While it is true that revolutions result from antecedent each generation of leaders in the cities comes from the coun conditions; while it is true that the general character of a try. It is largely due to the fact that the education by revolution will be determined by the nature of the forces. things and tools is superior to that by ideas alone.
which produce it, it is also true that the particular aspect The reform methods began in Boston. There are schools of the struggle, the peculiar bias and direction of the event, without text books; educating the power of observation
will be traceable in a large measure to the personal agency or rather with the world for a text book. Then come annexes
of the men by whom the revolution is directed. Leaderfor elementary instruction in the use of the hammer, saw, ship is a necessary part and parcel of every social conflict; square, chisel and plane. One hundred and twenty hours' and the quality of this leadership determines in no small instruction will enable them to produce better results than degree the nature and result of the struggle. This is the the ordinary apprentice after two years' work. It seems a point of view, indeed, from which man as an individual little thing to teach how to strike square blows on a given seems to exercise the largest influence on the destinies of point, to saw 10 a line at various angles, make mortise and
In a revolution man, as man, becomes colossal. tenon fit exactly, drive nails in all positions without hit He seems to others, and perhaps to himself, to be a creator ting your own; but many a man can learn conic sections of the events among which he moves and acts. The poweasier and with much less educational result.
erful impress of his form and fatherhood is stamped upon It is now earnestly recommended by the best educators the features of the age and transmitted to the generations. that such an annex for developing mind by manual educa following. In the stormy period of revolt and dissolution, tion be associated with every school house. It certainly human society receives the impress of the master spirit and should be with every home. What is needed is to associate
bears it forward forever. thought with work and work with thought, and then every Thus it may be seen that general causes, extending back hour of a whole life is a new development. Much has been through the centuries, springing from diverse races in written in favor of the kindergarten for children before they different quarters of the globe, and drifting hitherward from can read. More ought to be written in favor of a mannergar
the ages past join at last with personal agency and coten for them all the rest of their lives.
operate with the individual wills of men in producing the Experience in the Clark University, in Atlanta, Georgia, critical epochs in human history. has proved that tools are essential for the best quickening of In the Sepoy Rebellion of 1857, the hereditary impulses mind, and that a boy who sleeps over the multiplication table of Brahminism, transmitted for thousands of years; the as an abstraction, is vitally alert in calculating the amount of influence of the Hindoo astrologers in predicting that the square feet in the floor or the price of weatherboarding on return of the Sunbut, 1914, which was completed in the the shop where he works; that a boy who barely knows one year of the outbreak, would end the domination of Great end of a hoe from another becomes an acute observer of Britain in India; and the peculiar character of Indian forms after practicing drafting for even a few lessons.
society, fixed by the traditions of centuries-all fretting
against the regularity of British discipline and the stubborn It is generally believed that the three "estates of the precision of the provincial government, were the general realm” are Queen, Lords, and Commons. Whatever causes which produced the outbreak and converted rebelmay be meant by the phrase now, it was clear that this was lion into revolution. But the personal character of the not the original meaning. The Collect for the fifth of No- audacious private, Mungul Pandy; of Nana Sabib, Rajah of vember in the old prayer books speaks of “the King; and Bithoor; of the King of Delhi, and of the ferocious princess the three estates of the realm of England assembled in Par of Jhansi, were the personal forces which gave to the reliament.” The meaning evidently was: 1. The Lords Spirit bellion its peculiar character, converting revolt into ruin, ual; 2. The Lorils Temporal; 3. The Commons. As the and local mutiny into universal massacre. word “realm” means a “a kingdom, a state, a region," it
A lecture delivered in the Amphitheater at Chautauqua, August, is clear that the king or queen can not be a part of it.
1881, hy James (larke Ridpath, LL. D.
It would be easy to show that the preëminence of Spain their rights by reason; the readiness with which they in the fifteenth century was traceable to the superiority of opened their bearts to entertain the new angels of liberty; the Visigothic constitution and laws adopted eight hundred | the ba':kward look which they cast through sighs and tears years before, at the great councils of Toledo. It would also at their abandoned loyalty to England; the fiery zeal and be easy to show that the prevalence of the spirit of political brave resolve with which at last they drew their swords, freedom of the Low Countries was traceable to the predomi- | trampled in mire and blood the hated banner of St. George, nance of free institutions planted there by the Teutonic tribes, and raised a new flag in the sight of the nations; the perand to the great number of walled towns and chartered cities sonal character and genius of the men who did it-their which, dotting the face of the country, became the nuclei of loyal devotion to principle, their fidelity, their courage, their political agitation; and it would be easy to show that it was lofty purpose and unsullied patriotism--all conspire to the confluence of these two adverse currents in the tides of stamp the struggle with the impress of immortal grandeur. civilization which caused the revolt of the Netherlands and
In their ragged regimentals gave to history one of its most heroic episodes. But it was
Stood the old continentals, the personal character and will of the silent Prince of Or
Yielding noi, ange, of Olden Barneveldt, of Count Egmont and Count
When the grenadiers went lungeing, Horn, and of Maurice of Nassau, that impressed upon the
And like hail fell the plunging
Cannon shot; .contest its peculiar features of grandeur, turned revolt into
When the files reform, and contributed to the annals of mankind the story
Of the Isles, of the Dutch Republic.
From the smoky night encampment, bore the banner In that great struggle of the seventeenth century, which
of the rampant temporarily overthrew the institutions of England, de
Unicorn, throned and beheaded the king, upheaved the foundations
And grummer, grummer, grummer rolled the roll of of the monarchy, and revolutionized the social order, we
the drummer, see the action of antecedents older than the Stuart kings,
Through the morn! older than the house of Tudor, older than Runnymede, Let us for u brief space consider what the American Rev. older than England itself. But the immediate character of olution really was. Let us determine, if we may, somethe conflict, its grandeur and its folly, were determined by thing of the nature and causes of the great event, and learn the personal prowess, the will, the persistence, and the in- thereby its trae place in history. Thus shall we be able domitable heroism of Cromwell and Pym, of Milton and more fully to appreciate the personal part which the men of Hampden, of Hugh Peters and Sir Henry Vane.
our heroic age contributed to the glory of their own and the Likewise in the terrible regeneration of France we behold welfare of after times. on the one side the action of forces whose roots, piercing When, in the fifth century, the barbarians burst in upon the lethargy of preceding centuries, struck down intu the the Roman Empire of the West and destroyed it, they were soil of feudalisni, taking hold of the house of Capet, twin under the leadership of military chieftains. These savage ing about all the traditions of legitimacy, and fastening at leaders believed themselves, and were believed to be, the last on the pretensions of inediæval Rome; while on the offspring of the gods of the North-descendants of Woden other side we see the impulses of democratic opinion, born and Thor. The half Latinized Keltic populations of the perhaps in the free cities of the twelfth century, spreading Provinces were quickly reduced to serfdom. They were no gradually among the people, incorporated by the Encyclo. match for the Teutonic warriors. These chiefs and their pedists in the new French philosophy, springing in little followers, coming out of the cheerless woods of the North, jets of flame through the pages of Rousseau and Voltaire, found little to admire in the city life of the Romans. They and finally bursting forth in a tempest of purifying fire. preferred rather to seek for their new abodes the fastnesses But the peculiar character of the conflict-its violence, its of the rocks and the solitudes of the forest. It thus came ruinous excesses, its madness, its frenzy, bravado and de to pass that in all the country districts of Europe the instifiance of heaven and earth, its glory and grandeur and tutions of feudalism sprang naturally out of the conditions blood, were traceable to the will and purpose and power of consequent upon the barbarian invasion. In the cities and Condorcet and Roland, of Mirabeau and Danton, of Robes towns were the remains of old urban activities. Here the pierre and Marat, of Demouriez and Bonaparte.
municipal system of the Romans was not extinguished. It is thus that the local and limited influence of man, Here was perpetuated the tradition of the glory and the combining with the general tides of causation which pul- grandeur of the empire. Here the bishops and priests of sate through all times and conditions, becomes a factor in the papal see labored assiduously to keep alive the rememthe history of his own and succeeding ages. He is a special brance of that great power under whose shadow they had cause attached to the side of a larger cause and coöperating | found refuge and strength. And so with perpetual iterawith it in directing and controlling the events of his epoch. tion they poured into the ears of the magistrates and barons He is the individual atom in the tides of fate-the personal the story of the grandeur and renown of that mighty doimpulse in the general destinies of the world.
minion which, under the sanction of heaven, had combined The American Revolution was one of the most heroic in itself all the elements of legitimate authority. events in the history of mankind. It was not lacking in Here, ladies and gentlemen, are the materials out of any element of glory. Whether considered with reference which has been builded the vast structure called European to the general causes which produced it, or viewed with re Monarchy. I can not elaborate. I can only call your atspect to the personal agency by which it was accomplished, tention to the fact that these elements of monarchy were the struggle of our fathers for liberty suffers not by compar fused in the fiery heats of the Crusades, when all Europe, ison with the grandest conflicts of ancient or modern times. peasant and loril, serf and nobleman, priest and king, flung The motives which those great men might justly plead themselves with blin, fanaticism against the defilers of the for breaking their allegiance to the British crown and holy places of the East. Since that event monarchy has organizing & rebellion; the patient self-restraint with been the central feature in the physiognomiy of the West. which they bore for fifteen years a series of aggressions and From the twelfth to the eighteenth century monarchical outrages which they knew to be utterly subversive of the institutions became the be-all and the end-all of Europe. liberties of Englishmen; the calmness with which they pro The annals of the European states became the annals of ceeded frum step to step in the attempted maintenance of their kings. In Germany, under Sigismund and Maximilian
1; in Spain, under Ferdinand and Isabella; in France, un thing they hurled down and destroyed. Grand insurrecder Louis XI; and in England, under the Plantagenets and tion! Glorious sight to see those scattered American colTudors-everywhere the institution of monarchy grew onists, few, penniless, unequipped, smite the brass gods of into a power and grandeur unknown since the decadence the Middle Ages, tear away the trappings of tradition and of the Roman empire. Let us then inquire what this thing challenge the Past to mortal combat! Our fathers were called monarchy really was.
heroes. 1. European monarchy was a colossal edition of feudal The other day I saw in the top chamber of Bunker Hill chieftainship. The king was simply a suzerain on a gigan- monument two of the four old six-pounders belonging to tic scale. Whatever of arrogance and pride and self-will Massachusetts at the outbreak of the struggle. They are the baronial warrior of the eleventh century felt in his even as battered pop-guns, but, oh! there were men behind castle halls, that, the typical European king of the seven them in the days of '76! It was a brave battle, and that is teenth and eighteenth centuries assumed in grander style a true thing which Bancroft says when he declares that the in his palace and court. It implied a prince lifted immeas- | report of the rifle of the youthful Washington, as it rang urably above his subjects. It implied a people without po out among the bushes of Great Meadows, on that May litical rights, dependent for life and liberty upon the pleas- morning in 1754 has awakened an echo which shall never ure of the king-peasants and serfs whose property might cease to reverberate until the ancient bulwarks of Catholic be taken at will, whose lives might be exposed in lawless legitimacy shall be thrown down in all the earth. wars, whose bodies might be used or abused, whose minds The American Revolution, like all other political crises might be rightfully kept in the clouds of perpetual night. of the sort, had two aspects or phases. The first was the
2. Monarchy was the embodiment of ecclesiastical dom- phase of destruction, in which the governmental theories of ination over secular society. The king was either the head the Middle Ages were attacked and destroyed. The second of the church or its obedient servant. The bishops, for was the phase of construction, in which a new type of govtheir own good, told the monarch that his right to be king ernment was erected on the site of the abolished edifice. As came down out of the skies; that he was by the will of a destroying force the revolution swept into oblivion the heaven born a prince; that his authority was by the grace political traditions of several centuries. As a constructive of God, and that his person was sacred both by the fact of energy it brought in a vast and promising experiment of his royal birth and by the manipulation of the priest on political reform. As a destructive agent it seized the old the day of coronation. Thus was the arrogance of the theory of politics by the throat and crushed it to the earth. feudal baron bound up with the presumption of the eccles As a constructive force it reared the American Constituiastical bigot in the person of the king.
tion, established the indissoluble Union of the States, and 3. As a necessary prop and stay of the system stood a absolutely reversed the old theory of human government graduated order of nobility: dukes who could touch the by making the people the rightful source of power, and rehem of the royal garment; marquises who could touch the ducing the political rulers of mankind to the place of public hem of the duke; knights who could touch the hem of the servants. I repeat it, that, taken all in all, it was the most marquis; Jords who could touch the hem of the knight: momentous struggle ever recorded in the annals of the world. esquires who could touch the hem of his lordship.
I desire, then, to review the personal agencies which in4. As a necessary prop and stay of the graduated nobility fluenced the Revolution and gave to it its grandeur. stood the principle of primogeniture. For it was manifest First of all there was Washington. He was the balancethat the splendors and virtues of royalty and its dependent wheel of the conflict. He was neither a destroyer nor a orders could never be maintained if the blood in which its builder. He was more of a builder than he was a destroyer. glory dwelt was allowed, according to nature's plan, to dif His was the consciousness in which the destructive and confuse and spread into a multitude of vulgar kinsmen.
structive forces of the Revolution joined their issues. He 5. As a necessary prop and stay of the law of primogeni was a conservator of force. By the destroyers he was made ture was the doctrine of entails, by which landed estates general-in-chief; by the builders he was made President. If And all similar properties should tend to concentrate in cer I must tell you the truth, I must say that the destroyers did tain lines of descent, and thereby be maintained in perpet. not like him-distrusted him. If I must speak plainly, I ual solidarity. Not only should the first-born receive the must say that the builders regarded him as their agent and titles and nobility of the father, but he should in like man organ rather than as their leader. It was in his broad and ner inherit the estates to the exclusion of collateral heirs. conservative nature that the conflicting tides settled to a
6. As to the methods of government, the king should not calm after the battle had been fought and won. be hampered by constitutional limitations. Ministers and within the circle of his influence that that strange comproparliaments were not needed except to carry out the sover mise called the Constitution of the United States became a eign's mandates; and popular assemblies, in addition to be possibility. It was by the preponderance of his influence ing the hot-beds of sedition, were an impediment to govern.
that the builders carried their compromise to the people ment and a menace to civil authority.
and secured its adoption as the fundamental law of the 7. The people existed for the king's pleasure; the world land. Across his cabinet table the angry surf of the conwas made for the king to act in; and heaven was originally structive and destructive forces of the Revolution broke in designed for the king's abode.
a line of perpetual foam. Such was the incubus. Sometimes the people struggled At the head of the destroyers stood Jefferson, the two to throw it off. In England they struck down the dragon, Adamses, Paine, Franklin, and Henry. Of these men, but he arose and crushed their bones. Under William III, with a slight exception in the case of John Adams and a there was a brief spasm of Whig virtue, but with the acces larger exception in the case of Franklin, not one had the sion of the Hanoverian blockheads the old methods came slightest particle of constructive talent. They, and those back; the Georges adopted the maxims of the Jacobites, whom they led, were destroyers pure and simple. They and the dog returned to his vomit.
were revolutionists in the first intent. They were levelers Now, it was against this whole monstrous thing, this and democrats in the old Greek sense of the word. On the whole system of despotic rule, against its principles, against pedestal of the statue of Samuel Adams in one of the its spirit, against its pretensions, against its tendencies, squares of Boston, is this legend: "He was the organizer against its sham methods and bad essence- that our fathers of the Revolution.” It is certain he never organized anyof the Revolution raised the arm of rebellion. This was the thing else!
Let me speak plainly of these great and glorious men. had revealed and would have obliterated. When the imTake Jefferson and Paine. In both of them the aggressive mortal Lincoln put out his great hand in the shadows of and radical energies of the democratic instinct ran ram doubt and agony, and groped and groped to touch some pant. They were riotous and uproarious in their democ-pillar of support, it was the hand of the dead Hamilton that racy. They gloried in it. They believed that only one he clasped in the darkness. When, on the afternoon of the thing was good, and that was to destroy. To them the ex third of July, Pickett's Virginians went on their awful isting order was deceitful above all things, and desperately charge up the slopes of Gettysburg, they met on the summit wicked. So they laid the axe at the root of the tree and among the jagged rocks the invincible lines of blue who were said: "Let us cut it up, trunk and branches." Whether there to rise victorious or never to rise at all. But it was not any other tree should ever grow there, they cared not so Meade who commanded them, nor Sickles, nor Hancock, much as a fig. Whether the goodness of fecund nature nor Lincoln. Behind those dauntless and heroic linesshould rear a palm in the waste or send up thickets of rising like a sublime shadow in the curling smoke of battle thorns and cactus to cover the spot desolated by their ener --stood the figure of Alexander Hamilton. The civil war gies, they neither knew nor cared. It was enough that the was his conflict. Chickamauga and Chancellorsville were old tree should be torn out by the roots. Take Patrick his anguish, and Appomattox was his triumph. When the Henry. With all deference to the sturdy old patriot, it is grim-visaged and iron-hearted Lee offered the hilt of his but sober truth to say that he could not have constructed a sword to the Silent Man of Galena it was the spirit of the political chicken.coop. And if his neighbors had shown Disruptive Democracy doing obeisance to Hamilton. skill in that kind of architecture, he would have considered I
purpose now to note in a few brief paragraphs the prinit an insult to his country. Such men were needed in '76, cipal events in Hamilton's life. He was born in the island but they were not needed in '87. Of the immortal fifty-six of Nevis, one of the British West Indies, on the 11th of who signed the Declaration of Independence only eight were January, 1757. His father was a Scotch merchant, and his sent to the Constitutional Convention; and of these only mother a Huguenot lady whose maiden name was Faucette. two-Franklin and Sherman--were men of commanding She had been first married to a physician named Lavine, with influence. Hildreth says, and says truly, that the leveling | whom she lived for a short time at St. Christopher. But democracy of '76 was absolutely unrepresented in the Con- he soon proved to be of no good, and presently procuring a vention. The destroyers were not there. The men who divorce, she returned to Nevis, and was married to the knocked the little brass gods of the Middle Ages on the merchant, James Hamilton. By him she had a numerous head were gone. The revolutionists were at home trim- family of whom only two sons, Thomas and Alexander, ming apple-trees in the Connecticut Valley, or setting reached maturity. The latter was the younger, and bore tobacco plants on the banks of the James. The work of the name of his paternal grandfather, Alexander Hamilton, that destroying democracy which had fired every colony of Ayrshire, Scotland. with patriotic zeal and war-like daring was done. Even From his father Hamilton inherited the resoluteness of Massachusetts passed by her giants and sent to the conven the Scotch character, a certain tendency to methodical tion Gerry, Gorham, and King. The destroyers lay asleep habits, and especially that deductive method of thought for in their tent, and the builders went forth to build.
which the Scotch intellect of the eighteenth century was At the head of the builders stood the Man of Destiny- | proverbial. From his mother he drew lis nobility of charone who is said by the New Britannica---voicing the senti-acter, his vivacious and social disposition, his quickness of ment of Europe-to have been the ablest jurist and states- perception, his perpetual activity, his studious habit, his man ever produced in America, and whom the Edinburgh personal magnetism, and his genius. She died while he Review, as long ago as 1808, declared to have possessed an was yet a boy, but her manner and voice and spirit reextent and precision of information, a profundity of re mained forever with him in memory. search, and an acuteness of understanding which would After his mother's death, the lad Hamilton was given to have done honor to the most illustrious statesman of ancient some of her relatives and taken to the neighboring island of or modern times.
Santa Cruz. From the indifferent schools of the sea-port It is now seventy-six years since Alexander Hamilton town of this island, by the close of bis twelfth year, he had yielded up his life. It has remained for our own day to re drawn whatever they had to give. He was then placed in vive his memory, and out of the logic of great events to de the counting-house of Nicholas Cruger, and here he imtermine his true place in history. Men are just beginning mediately began to display those extraordinary activities to understand and appreciate the great part which he which characterized him through life. Such was his profiplayed in the stirring drama of his times. As he recedes ciency that within a year Cruger went abroad and left from us in the distance a clearer parallax is revealing to us young Hamilton, then thirteen years of age, in sole charge the truly colossal grandeur of his character. Even yet we of the mercantile house. He conducted the large business feel that his full proportion is but half seen in the shadow, and extensive correspondence of the establishment with a and that the next generation, rather than this, will behold dignity and precision which were the marvel of the port. him in the magnificent outline of completeness.
Nor could the foreign merchants who traded with the house We now see that the genius of this man has flashed of Cruger know but that the letters which they received through and illumined whatever is great and glorious in from Santa Cruz were written by the most experienced our national history. Just in proportion as the spirit of clerk in the island. Hamilton has dominated our institutions, just in that de During two years Hamilton remained at the desk of the gree bas the ark of American civilization been taken up counting-house, spending his evenings in study. It was and borne forward in triumph. He has touched us in every here that he laid the foundations of his great acquirements crisis. When Daniel Webster poured out the flood of his in after years. Here he learned French, which he spoke tremendous argument for nationality, he was only the liv- through life with the ease and elegance of the best native ing oracle of the dead Hamilton. Every syllogism of that conversers. His principal instructor in this epoch was Dr. immortal plea can be reduced to a Hamiltonian maxim. Hugh Knox, an Irish Presbyterian clergyman, under When the Little Giant of the Northwest blundered across whom he made great headway during his stay in Santa the political stage with his feet entangled in the meshes of Cruz, and by whom he was encouraged in the project of Squatter Sovereignty he stumbled and fell among the very leaving the West Indies for New York. With the increase complications and pitfalls which Hamilton's prescience of knowledge he had grown restless. He pined for a.
broader field in which his faculties might expand and his him to do. The sedate Witherspoon, acting after the manambition be appeased. Even at the age of twelve we catch ner of men, declared the request incompatible with the a glimpse of the spirit and power which were budding rules of the institution, and so young Hamilton was turned within him. In a letter to young Edward Stevens, of New away. He at once returned to King's College in the city of York, the frank boy Hamilton pens these words of aspira- New York, renewed his application to Dr. Cooper, the tion and promise: “Neddy, my ambition is prevalent so president, and was admitted on his own terms. It must be that I contemn the groveling condition of a clerk or the confessed that for a delicate stripling of fifteen years thus like, to which my fortune condemns me, and would willingly to trifle with the almighty powers of learning was a piece of risk my life, though not my character, to exalt my station. great audacity. I am confident, Ned, that my youth excludes me from any For two years Hamilton remained at Columbia, applying hopes of immediate preferment, nor do I desire it; but I himself with a diligence and zeal rarely witnessed. Hismean to prepare the way for futurity. I'm no philoso-tory, metaphysics, languages, politics, poetry, economics, pher, you see, and may be said to build castles in the air; everything was devoured with the hunger of genius. His my folly makes me ashamed, and beg you'll conceal it; yet, memoranda show that “Cudworth's Intellectual System," Neddy, we have seen such schemes successful when the "Hosbes's Dialogues," "Bacon's Essays,” “Montesquieu's projector is constant. I shall conclude by saying, I wish | Spirit of Laws," "Rousseau's Emilius," "Demosthenes' there was a war." Perhaps the vision of Wolfe, falling in Orations," and "Aristotle's Politics,” were now his favorite death, but rising to immortality from the Heights of Abra books. With these he was not only familiar, but in them ham, was before the eyes of the young enthusiast; but how had a mastery not often attained even in veteran scholarship. little did he anticipate the more glorious epoch which was
TO BE C. T. NUED.) so shortly to open for his panting spirit.
VOICES OF THE FRAMINGHAM In August of 1772, a terrible storm came in upon the Leeward Islands. A remarkable description of it appeared
BELLS. in one of the local papers. The governor of Santa Cruz
"Eternity--Righteousness---Charity." was astonished at the vivid details of the destruction. He
List afar the mellow chining, sought the author, and found him in the young lad Hamil
Floating o'er the waters blue! ton. Arrangements were immediately made to send the
'Tis the sweet-voiced bells are calling youth abroad, that he might receive such education as his
To the grove of green Lakeview. genius merited; and so in October of that year he left the
Lovely in its summer glory West Indies never to return. He took passage in a vessel
With its shadowy, leafy dome, for Boston, and from that city proceeded at once to New
Is the spacious forest temple York. Here he was cordially received by Dr. Rogers, Dr.
Whither listening thousands come, Mason, and William Livingston. To these distinguished
Where is spread a banquet royal men he brought letters of introduction from his old in
For the eager, waiting throng, structor, Dr. Knox; and by Livingston, who was a retired
Where the soul is thrilled, uplifted, lawyer, he was taken to a country seat near Elizabeth, New
By the power of sacred song. Jersey, and admitted to membership in the family. Here his brilliant faculties and fascinating address made him an
Hallowed days and blessed teachings immediate favorite. For some months he attended the
In this templed grove are given, grammar school at Elizabeth, showing the most intense ap
Seeming with their pure light shining, plication and astonishing progress.
He seized and de
Like an open door of Heaven. voured all kinds of knowledge with an almost feverish
From our daily level lifted, hunger. It was at this period of his life that he formed the
To this sacred Tabor height, habit which he never broke, of talking to himself, saying
behold a glorious future, over and over in a low tone whatever occupied his thought.
Life is robed in purer light. As he walked he talked, and the thing which he thought
Oft as dawns each day in beauty was rehearsed in rapid utterance until it had taken the form
Oft as evening shadows fall, of a logical proposition dever to be shaken from its place.
Sound the bells in silver chorus, At this time Livingston was the editor of the American
With their triune mystic call. Whig, the organ of the popular party in New York. Drs.
Voices full of holy meaningRogers and Mason were contributors to this paper, as was
Echoes from Eternityalso the youthful John Jay, afterwards Livingston's son
Touch the chord of Righteousness, in-law. These writers were in the habit of meeting at Liv
Wake sweet tones of Charity. ingston's house. Debating clubs and political societies
When the golden day is ended, abounded in the neighborhood; and the agitation which
All in full, rich lessons given, was soon to break over the land sent its premonitory thrills
And the tender benediction into every breast. In the midst of these surroundings, still immersed in his studies, Hamilton's political princi
Falls like words of peace from Heaven,
Through this grand cathedral pealing, ples began to be shaped and fashioned.
Wake the three-voiced bells again, But he was not yet ready for battle. His preparation,
Give response to holy teaching indeed, was but begin. By diligent use of his time he was
With a solemn, sweet Amen. now ready for a collegiate training. He chose Princeton; but before starting thither he drew up for himself a plan of
Laden with the grapes of Eschol, study which, though it embraced the college curriculum,
To our varied work we go, was both novel and original. On presenting himself to Dr.
With a loftier, earnest purpose Witherspoon, then president of Princeton, he made a writ
Well to serve, to learn, to do. ten request that he might be allowed to adopt his own
Still my spirit lists the voices, course and be admitted to all classes which his attainments
Chiming ever peacefully, would justify, with permission to advance from class to
Silver bells of “Righteousnessclass with as much rapidity as his exertions would enable