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patting it in order, and fitting it for being the habitation of man.
The words of Scripture are, “ In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth.” This is a general announcement of what was done in the beginning ; but how long antecedent to the subsequent history that beginning was, we are not informed. The narrative proceeds, “ And the earth was without form and void ; and darkness was upon the face of the deep, and the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters.” This describes the condition in which the earth was, when God commenced his work of six days. How long it had been in that condition is not said. There are indica. tions, however, in the formation of the crust of the earth itself, that it had been for a long period in that condition, and that its then chaotic state was the result of some former revolution or revolutions. Now, in perfect conformity with this history, there are evidences of the present dry land having been immersed in water, for a much longer period than its transient immersion at the deluge. For example, there are immense masses of solid rock, some at great heights in the mountains, some deep in the bowels of the earth, entirely formed of shells and other marine remains cemented together. Many of the most beautiful marbles are thus formed. In digging mines, after piercing through many strata of rocks of various descriptions, and arriving at great depths below the surface of the earth, miners come to remains of plants and of animals, that must have been formed in waters of the sea.
These, and many other phenomena, not only prove, that the globe was immersed in water, but that it must have continued in that condition, for a much longer period than the waters of the deluge remained upon it.
But there are other phenomena, that indicate, that after the 'earth was brought into its present form, its mountains and valleys, and rivers and seas, nearly as we now see them, it was suddenly immersed in water, which also suddenly receded. The phenomena to which I now allude, are such as fossil shells, marine plants, bones, &c. which are found in earth, or gravel, or sand,
and in other situations, which indicate a much more recent deposit, than the shells and other marine substances formed into solid rocks, already alluded to. In every part of the world, there are found indications of a submersion of the dry ground in water, much later than the formation of the mountains and valleys, and affecting the condition of the globe much more superficially. Caves, for example, have been found in countries the most distant from one another, in Europe and in New Holland, containing large quantities of bones of animals, mixed with earth or gravel, and in many cases, covered with a substance called stalagmite. In many cases, the bones belong to species of animals, that no longer exist in the countries in which they are found. Bones of elephants, hyænas, rhinoceroses, &c. have been found in Britain, and in many parts of Europe.
It seeins now to be generally admitted by scientific men, that there are means of ascertaining at what distance of time a deluge covered the earth, and that the calculations founded
upon them point uniformly to the time marked in the Scriptures. The following passage is from Baron Cuvier :
“ Thus, while the traditions of all nations have preserved the remembrance of a great catastrophe, the deluge, which changed the earth's surface, and destroyed nearly the whole of the human species, geology apprizes us, that of the various revolutions, which have agitated our globe, the last evidently corresponds to the period, which is assigned to the deluge.
“ We say that, by means of geological considerations alone, it is possible to determine the date of this great event with some degree of precision.
6. There are certain formations, which must have commenced immediately after the last catastrophe, and which, from that period, have been continued up to the present day with great regularity. Such are the deposits of detritus observed at the mouths of rivers, the masses of rubbish which exist at the foot of mountains, and are formed of the fragments, that fall from their summits and sides. These deposits receive a yearly increase, which it is possible to measure. Nothing, there
fore, is more easy; than to calculate the time, which it has taken them to acquire their present dimensions. This calculation has been made with reference to the debris of mountains; and, in all cases, has indicated a period of about four thousand years. The same result has been obtained from the other alluvial deposits. In short, whatever has been the natural phenomenon, that has been interrogated, it has always been found to give evidence in accordance with that of tradition. The traditions themselves exhibit the most astonishing conformity. The Hebrew text of Genesis places the de. luge in the year 2349 before Christ. The Indians make the fourth age of the world, that in which we now live, to commence in the year 3012. The Chinese place it about the year 2384. Confucius, in fact, represents the first King Yeo as occupied in drawing off the waters of the ocean, which had risen to the tops of the mountains, and in repairing the damage which they had occasioned."-CARLILE on the Divine Origin of the Holy Scriptures.
There is perhaps no portion of the earth's surface, of the same extent, which contains so great a variety of those mineral substances which minister to the necessities' and comforts of life, as the island of Great Britain ; and it would almost seem, from its internal structure, as if Providence had pre-ordained that it should be the seat of an opulent and powerful people, and one of his chief instruments for the civilization and advancement of the human race. That this is nó extravagant, overstrained expression of national vanity, may, we think, be very easily made apparent, by a few reflections on the vast advantages, which the British empire itself, and, through it, the civilized world, have derived, from the circumstance of our possessing
abundance of one particular mineral under the surface of our soil. The almost inexhaustible mines of COAL, which are found in so many different parts of our island, have unquestionably been one of the chief sources of our wealth, and of our influence among the other nations of Europe. All our great manufacturing towns, Birmingham, Leeds, Sheffield, Manchester, Glasgow, Paisley, are not only situated in the immediate vicinity of coal, but never would have existed without it. If we had had no coal, we should have lost the greater part of the wealth we derive from our metallic ores; for they could neither have been drawn from the depths, where they lie concealed, nor, if found near the surface, could they have been profitably refined. Without coal, the steam-engine would probably have remained among the apparatus of the natural philosopher. Not only did the fuel supply the means of working the machine, but the demand for artificial power, in order to raise that same fuel from the bowels of the earth, more immediately led to the practical application of the great discovery made by Watt, while repairing the philosophical instrument of Dr. Black. Before the invention of the steam-engine, the power required to move machinery was confined to the impelling force of running water, of wind, of animal and human strength,—all too weak, unsteady, irregular, and costly, to admit of the possibility of their extensive application. But the steam-engine gave a giant power to the human race, capable of being applied to every purpose, and in every situation where fuel can be found. Thus, manufactures arose, and from the cheapness with which labour could be commanded, and the prodigious increase of work done in the same space of time, their produce was so reduced in price, as to bring luxuries and comforts within the reach of thousands, who never tasted them before. New tastes thus excited, and increasing consumption, multiplied manufacturing establishments; and their demands led to great manufactures of machinery; competition led to improvement in the steam-engine itself, and thus, by the reciprocal action of improvement and demand, our machinery and manu
factures gradually acquired that high degree of perfece tion, to which they are now arrived. With the improvement of the steam-engine, came the wonderful application of it to navigation, which has already, in a few years, produced such extraordinary results; and which, when combined with its farther application to wheel carriages, must, at no great distance of time, occasion a revolution in the whole state of society.
Next to coal, our Iron is the most important of our mineral treasures; and it is a remarkable circumstance, that the ore of that metal, which is so essential to the wants of man, that civilization has never been known to exist without it, should in Great Britain be placed in greatest abundance, not only in the vicinity of, but actually associated with, the coal necessary to separate the metal from the impurities of the ore, so as to render it fit for use.
In Sweden, and most other countries, where iron mines exist, the ore is refined by means of wood; but no space on the surface of our island could have been spared to grow timber for such a purpose ; and thus, without coal, in place of being, as we are now, great exporters of wrought and unwrought ivon to distant nations, we must have depended on other countries for this metal; to the vast detriment of many of our manufactures, which mainly owe their improvement and extension to the abundance and consequent cheapness of iron.
There are extensive mines of LEAD in Derbyshire, Yorkshire, Northumberland, Lanarkshire; Dumfriesshire, and several other places in Great Britain, sufficient not only for the internal demand for that metal, but yielding a considerable amount for exportation. Copper is produced in large quantities in Cornwall; and the same county has been celebrated for its TIN mines, for nearly two thousand years. • Coal, iron, lead, copper, and tin, are the principal minerals of our country, which, in common language, are usually associated with the idea of the produce of mines. Silver and Gold we have none; with the exception of a little of the former contained in some of the ores of lead, which is separated by refining, when in