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And thou, treble-dated crow,
That the salle gender mak'st
With the breath thou gir'st and tak'st,
Mongst our mourners shalt thou go.

Here the anthem doth commence
Lore and constancy is dead;
Phænis and the turtle fled
In a mutual flame from hence.

So ther lored, as lore in twain
Had the essence but in one;
Two distincts, division none;
Number there in love was slain.

Hearts remote, yet not asunder;
Distance, and no space was seen
Twist the turtle and his queen,
But in them it were a wonder.

So between them lore did shine,
That the turtle saw his right
Flaming in the phænix' sight:
Either was the other's mine.

i Can, knows.

Property was thus appalled,
That the self was not the same;
Single nature's double name
Neither two nor one was called.

Reason, in itself confounded,
Saw division grow together;
To themselves yet either-neither,
Simple were so well compounded:

That it cried how true a twain
Secmeth this concordant one !
Love hath reason, reason none,
If what parts can so remain.

Whereupon it made this threne?
To the phenix and the dove,
Co-supremes and stars of love;
As chorus to their tragic scene.


Beauty, truth, and rarity,
Grace in all simplicity,
Here enclosed in cinders lie

Death is now the phenix' nest;
And the turtle's loyal breast
To eternity doth rest,

Leaving no posterity:
’T was not their infirmity
It was married chastity.

1 Threne, funereal song.

Truth may seem, but cannot be ;
Beauty brag, but 'tis not she;
Truth and beauty buried be.

To this urn let those repair
That are either true or fair ;
For these dead birds sigh a prayer.





A Lover's COMPLAINT was first printed with the Sonnets in 1609. It was reprinted in 1640, in that collection called Shaks. peare's Poems, in which the original order of the Sonnets was entirely disregarded, some were omitted, and this poem was thrust in amidst translations from Ovid which had been previously claimed by another writer. Of these we shall have presently to speak. There can be no doubt of the genuineness of A Lover's Complaint. It is distinguished by that condensation of thought and outpouring of imagery which are the characteristics of Shakspeare's poems. The effect consequent upon these qualities is, that the language is sometimes obscure, and the metaphors occasionally appear strango and forced. It is very different from any production of Shakspeare's contemporaries. As in the case of the Venus and Adonis, and the Lucrece, we feel that the power of the writer is in perfect subjcction to his art. He is never carried away by the force of his own conceptions. We mention these attributes merely with reference to the undoubted character of the poem as belonging to the Shakspearian system : we shall have occasion to notice it again.

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The PASSIONATE Pilgrim was originally published in 1599, by William Jaggard, with the name of Shakspeare on the title-page. A reprint, with some additions and alterations of arrangement, appeared in 1612, bearing the following title : “ The Passionate Pilgrime, or certaine amorous Sonnets, betweene Venus and Adonis, newly corrected and augmented. By W. Shakspeare. The third Edition. Whereunto is newly added two Love-Epistles, the first from Paris to Hellen, and Hellen's Answere backe again to Paris. Printed by W. Jaggard, 1612.” The second edition was in all probability, a mere reprint of the first edition ; but in the third edition there are, as the title-page implies, important alterations. There is one alteration which is not expressed in the title page. A distinction is established in the character of the poems by classifying six of them under a second title-page, “Sonnets to Sundry Notes of Musick.” This distinction we have preserved. There can be no doubt, we apprehend, that the " newly added two Love-Epistles, the first from Paris to Hellen, and Hellen's Answere backe again to Paris,” were not written by Shakspeare. There is the best evidence that they were written by Thomas Heywood. In 1609 that writer published a folio volume of considerable pretension, entitled " Troia Britanica, or Great Britaine's Troy." In this volume appear the two translations from Ovid which William Jaggard published as Shakspeare's in 1612. Heywood in that year published a treatise entitled “ An Apology for Actors ;” to which is prefixed an epistle to his bookseller, Nicholas Okes. The letter is a curious morsel in literary history : –

“ To my approved good friend, Mr. Nicholas Okes.

“ The infinite faults escaped in my book of Britain's Troy, by the negligence of the printer, as the misquotations, mistaking of syllables, misplacing half-lines, coining of strange and never-heardof words : these being without number, when I would have taken a particular account of the errata, the printer answered me, he would not publish his own disworkmanship, but rather let his own fault lie upon the neck of the author : and being fearful that others of his quality had been of the same nature and condition, and finding you, on the contrary, so careful and industrious, so serious and la. borious, to do the author all the rights of the press, I could not choose but gratulate your honest endeavors with this short remembrance. Here, likewise, I must necessarily insert a manifest injury done me in that work, by taking the two Epistles of Paris to Helen, and Helen to Paris, and printing them in a less volume.

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