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50 Nequidquam populo bibulas donaveris aures.
Respue, quod non es: tollat sua munera cerdo;
uncertainty even in Cicero's time; though Fling the rabble back their vile he supposed the famous rasor and whet- applause.” G. Mart. III. xvi. stultus stone of the augur Nævius was deposited honores sæpe dat indignis; Hor. I S. vi. there : Div. i. 17. 32. Liv. i. 36. "There 15 sq. PR. Juv. iv. 153, note. M. was another, called the puteal of Libo, in 52. Cf. i. 7. CAS. si perpendere te the Julian portico near the Fabian Arch: voles, sepone pecuniam, domum, dignitaFest. xvii. p. 487. SA. G. Dionys. iii. fin. tem; intus te ipse consule; Sen. Ep. 80. Cic. for Sext. 18. Hor. I Ep. xix. 8. teipsum concute; Hor. I S. iii. 34 sq. II S. vi. 35. PR.
II S. vii. 112. tuo tibi judicio est utendum: 50. Sed vereor ne cui de te plus quam tibi si recte probanti placebis, tum non modo tibi credus;
Hor. I Ep. xvi. 19. PR. tu te viceris, sed omnes et omnia; Cic. T. Bibulas. cf. Hor. IŤ Od. xii. 32. PR. Q. . 63, PR. Prop. III. iv. 8. (BU.) K.
ARGUMENT. The poetical and philosophical claims of Persius rest, in some measure,
upon this poem ; and it is but justice to say that they are not ill
supported by it. The Satire consists of two parts; the first expressive of the poet's deep
and grateful sense of the kindness of his friend and instructor, Cornutus, 1–29. with a beautiful summary of the blessings derived from his
wisdom and goodness. 30—64. The second part is a laboured and ostentatious display of our poet's pro
ficiency in the esoteric doctrine of the Stoic School ; something must here be forgiven to the ardour of youth, and the vehemence of inexperienced virtue. This division of the Satire is principally occupied with that celebrated paradox of the sect, that the wise man alone is essentially free; 65 sqq. and that the passions of avarice, 109 899. luxury, 142 sqq. love, 161–175. ambition, 176 sqq. superstition, 179 sqq. and other passions exercise as despotic a control over their victims as the severest taskmaster over his slaves. It cannot be supposed that much new matter should be produced upon such a topic. Both Persius and his preceptor came too late for this; and could only repeat, in other forms, what had been said a thousand times before. But there
may be ingenuity, where there is no novelty; and this is not wanting. Some amusement may be found in contrasting the sober earnestness of
Persius, with the solemn irony of Horace. The language of both is much the same, and the conclusions do not greatly differ; but the Stertinius of the latter, in spite of his inflexible gravity, must have provoked resistless laughter; while the youthful poet commands respect, and though he may fail to convince, always secures attention. G.
Vatibus hic mos est, centum sibi poscere voces,
Vulnera seu Parthi ducentis ab inguine ferrum. 5 “ Quorsum hæc? aut quantas robusti carminis offas
Ingeris, ut par sit centeno gutture niti?
Fervebit, sæpe insulso cænanda Glyconi.
1. Homer was content with ten; ou8' equo describere vulnera Parthi ; Hor. II
Mor δέκα μεν γλώσσαι, δέκα δε στόματ’ S. 1. 15. Μ. cf. Ον. F. ν. 581 sqq. Prop. sisv• Il. B 484. Hostius squared the num- III. vii. 53. (BU.) K. ber at once; non si mihi linguæ centum Ab inguine denotes the position of the utque ora sient totidem vocesque liquatæ; quiver, K. near the groin, WB. or side. B. Ist. ii. Macr. S. vi. 3. With this cf. Virg. Æ. x. 589. and SV, on Æ. ix. hyperbole succeeding poets appear to 417. PM. • The Parthian wounded by have rested content: Virg. G. ii. 43. Æ. the lance of the pursuing Roman, G. vi. 625. vii. 37 sqq. Sil. iv. 527. Claud. when in the act of drawing his arrow Prob. 55 sq. not so the orators: omnia from the saddle-bow :' where holsters are licet huc revocemus præterita, et ad now slung. canendas unius laudes, universorum vatum 5. “Those huge gobbets of robustious scriptorumque ora consentiant : vincet ta- song." G. men res ista mille linguas, &c. Quint. 6. “That you require the support.' Decl. vi. fin. S. Hier. Epit. Paul. init. CAS. Cassiod. Ep. xi. 1. PR. cf. Virg. Æ. vi. 7. Ne, dum vitat humum, nubes et 43 M. Öv. M. viii. 532 sqq. Tr. i. 453 inania captet; Hor. A. P. 230. versus
F. ii. 119 sqq. K. “ Non io se cento inopes rerum, nugæque canoræ ; ib. 322. bocche e lingue cento Avessi e ferrea lena PR. e ferrea voce, &c.” Tasso. G.
8. Procnes ; Juv. vi. 644, note. K. 3. Tristia mæstum vultum verba decent; Thyestæ ; Juv. vii. 73, note, SV, on Hor. A. P. 105 PR.
Æ.i. 572. Claud.i. 171. Hor, A. P. 91. Ponatur ; i. 70, note. Quint. Inst. ï. K. 3. K.
9. The theatrical taste of the Romans Hianda : Juv. vi. 634 sqq. PR. Prop: must have degenerated sadly since the II. xxiii
. 5 sq. Much bad taste prevailed Augustan age; when such disgusting exon the stage in these days. oude ad ixsivas hibitions would have been exploded. Hor. περιθείς τους λόγους, μη και κατ' άλλο το A. P. 182-188. PR. γένωμαι τους υποκριταϊς εκείνους, οι πολλάκις Cænanda is here used for to be acted,' ή Αγαμέμνονος ή Κρέοντος ή και Ηρακλέους as forming one of the principal features αυτού πρόσωπον ανειληφότες, χρυσίδας ήμ- in these tragedies : in like manner saltare φιεσμένοι, και δεινόν βλέποντες, και μέγα fabulam is used : Ον. Τr. ii. 519. Juν. κεχηνότες, μικρόν φθέγγονται και ισχνών και vi. 63. Hor. IS. ν. 63. Κ. γυναικώδες, και της Εκάβης ή Πολυξένης The tolerating such an unnatural toaù ta Teivótspor Luc. Nigr. t. i. p. 50. spectacle, enacted by an insipid' perHor. A. P. 96 sq. K.
former was a reproach to the audience. Tragædus and tragicus differ as comædus G. and comicus: Juv. iii. 94. PR.
10. Juv. vii. 111, note. K. a nostris 4. The Parthian wars were carried on procul est omnis vesica libellis, musa nec under Augustus and Nero. cf. Tac. An. insano syrmate nostra tumet; Mart. IV. xii sq. Suet. Just. Dio. PR. aut labentis xlix. 7 sq. PR.
Folle premis ventos ; nec clauso murmure raucus
Verba togæ sequeris, junctura callidus acri, 15 Ore teres modico, pallentes radere mores
Doctus et ingenuo culpam defigere ludo.
11. Cf. ii. 81, note. M.
as opposed to the stretch-mouthed decla12. Nor do you croak. Priscian viïi. mation of the heroic poets. The frequent 828. alii intra se nescio quid cornicantes recurrence of poetical rehearsals, and tumentia verba trutinuntur, &c. S. Hier. the obligation of attending them, is menEp. iv. PR. rçuls. Arist. Pl. 369, tioned not only in instances in which it Schol. Virg. G. i. 389. (HY.) K. might be considered as a ludicrous exagInepte; Hor. A. P. 457 sq. K. geration, but
riously by Pliny, among 13. Stloppus is the sound made by in- others, as one of the main inconveniences flating the cheeks to their utmost extent, attendant upon a residence in Rome. An and then forcibly expelling the air by occupation which took up so much of the striking them together with the hands. leisure of a refined and fastidious people PR.
must have given rise to a variety of phrases 14. Verba toga.
This phrase must such as that of which Persius here makes have signified the language of good use. FRE. cf. Hor. A. P. 323, CAS. V. society at Rome,' as distinguished from Flac. ii. 242. (BU.) K. plena quædam that of the populace, (tunicatus popellus,) oratio, et tamen teres ac tenuis, at non and from that of the provinces and a great sine nervis ac viribus; Cic. Or. iii. 197. part of Italy, where “none assumed PR. not like the specimen in i. 98—102. the toga but the dead.” The toga had M. fallen into general disuse among the Pallentes may allude to the effects of a lower orders in the days of Augustus, guilty conscience: nil conscire sibi, nulla and from his reign to the age in which pallescere culpa ; Hor. I Ep. i. 61. LU. Persius lived, there was sufficient time for Juv. i. 165 sqq. K. Or the images and exthe invention of a term so obvious. The pression may be taken from the spectacles phrase in question was not coined by Per- of the circus. Radere means to graze sius himself, but owed its origin to some with a dart or other missile
which one of the innumerable dicaces et urbani accounts for pallentes; and as the ludi who had preceded him; heemployed it as a gladiatorii and the venationes of the Cirwell known and familiar expression. FRE. cus were considered as degrading to those
Notum si callida verbum reddiderit who exhibited themselves, the poet, in junctura novum; Hor. A. P. 47 sq. cal- applying the metaphor to himself, takes lidus, ' workmanly,' is there used (as it is care to qualify the word ludus by the by Persius) in strict conformity to the epithet of ingenuus' gentlemanly.' The metaphor ; (cf. i. 64, note.) acris junctura games of the Circus, likewise, must have may be understood to signify what a work- furnished a large supply of phrases to the man might call a sharp joint,' meaning conversational dialect of a people among one that was close and accurate. We may whom they were considered as an object conclude that the expression used by Per- of interest, second only to the immediate sius, like those of Horace, was familiar and necessaries of life, panem et circenses. The usual in his time, that it had its origin association of ideas between a satirist rein the manufactory and the shop, and citing, and an armed man in a mer
menacing was from thence transferred into the attitude, is not peculiar to Persius, it phraseology of the higher orders as indi- occurs in Juvenal, ense velut stricto cative of elaborate accuracy, either in quoties Lucilius ardet; i. 165. The apliterature or upholstery. FRE.
parent confusion of metaphors in this 15. Ore teres modico is descriptive of passage is a strong proof that it consists the natural and easy mode of recitation of terms in familiar use. FRE. suited to compositions in a familiar style, 17. Respicere exemplar vitæ morumque
Cum capite et pedibus, plebeiaque prandia noris.”
Non equidem hoc studeo, bullatis ut mihi nugis 20 Pagina turgescat dare pondus idonea fumo;
Secreti loquimur. Tibi nunc, hortante Camena,
Ostendisse juvat. Pulsa, dignoscere cautus 25 Quid solidum crepet et pictæ tectoria linguæ.
Hic ego centenas ausim deposcere voces,
jubebo doctum imitatorem et veras hinc iv. 69. Stat. S. III. ii. 7 sq. Luc. Tox. ducere voces ; Hor. A. P. 317 sq. K. t. ii. p. 558. K. Ov. Her. x. 58. xviii.
18. « The head and feet' were re- 125 sq. M. vii. 406. Maxim. El. ï. 1 served to show Thyestes, on what he had sq. v. 117 sq. D. Chrys. Or. ii. 56. S. been banqueting. denudat artus dirus Hier. Ep. i. xv. M. Fel. i. p. 20. Lact. atque ossa amputat ; tantum ora servat et de M. Pers. viii. Clem. Rom. Ep. Cor. datas fidei manus ; Sen. Thy. PR. Her. ii. 12. and that beautiful picture of peri. 119, notes.
fect friendship which is described in Acts * Familiarize yourself with every-day iv. 32. dinners.'
Annæus Cornutus was banished by 19. “Inflated frothy nothings.' ampullas Nero, in the fourth year after the death et sesquipedalia verba ; Hor. A. P. 97. of his pupil. LU. PR. “ Air-blown trifles." G.
24. Pulsa : a metaphor from earthen20. The page' is put for its contents.
ware, which will not ring, when struck, Prop. II. xvii. 1. inque libellis crevisset if there is any flaw in it. LU. cf. iii. 21. sine te pagina nulla meis; Ov. Tr. V. ix. M. Auson. Id. xvi. 12
K. 3 sq. Mart. IX. lxxvii. 2. K.
25. •The thin varnish of the painted Nugis addere pondus; Hor. I Ep. xix. tongue.' LU. cf. Juv. vi. 467. 42. M.
Res est (i. e. the Holy Scripture) solida 21. ` You are not to suppose that what et sincera, non fucata eloquia, nec ullo I am about to say is dictated either by lingua. tectorio inane aliquid ac pendulum flattery or a love of display: for we are crepitut; S. Aug. to Volus. PR. Comenjoying a snug tete-a-tete.' LU.
pare St Matthew xxii. 27. M. 22. Explicandus est animus, et qua- 26. Persius intimates, to borrow the cumque apud illum deposita sunt, subinde words of Cicero, omni officio ac potius excuti debent ; Sen. Ep. 72. K. “To be pietate erga Cornutum, etsi aliis satisthoroughly sifted :' but cf. 27 sq, notes. faceret omnibus, at ipsum sibi numquam
Præcordia : xnxà peine tà Ogsvão spéco satisfacere ; Ep. i. 1. to Lentulus. xéar' šv peuxcã. Theoc. xxix. 3. K. PR.
23. This sentiment is borrowed from 27. ‘Full of folds :' a metaphor from Pythagoras, who said a friend was other self.” Horace calls Virgil, anime 28. 'I may draw .forth' from those dimidium meæ ; I Od. iii. 8. VS. Orestes folds. K. and Pylades duo corporibus, mentibus Pura opposed to picta: LU. ‘guileunus erant; Ov. Tr. IV. iv. 72. S. Aug. less.' M. Conf. iv. 6. Hence the expression ‘May unseal,' PR. “and unfold for oupe fuxíce used by Greg. Naz. PR. The your perusal, more than my words can same idea is constantly occurring both express. in heathen and in Christian writers : as 29. Fibra : i. 47. PR. Luc. ii. 285 Hor. II Od. xvii. 5 sqq. Ov. Pont. III. sq. Sil. i. 140. K.
a gown. K.