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EXAMPLES 1. Must we, in

your person, crown' the author of the public calamities, or must we destroy him?

2. A good man will love himself too well to lose an estate by gaming, and his neighbour too well to win' one.

In the above examples, the elliptical members, “ the author of the public calamities" and "an estate by gaming,”-are pronounced with the rising inflection, but with a higher and feebler tone of voice than the antithetic words crown and lose. *

In the two following examples, the elliptical members, which are im. mediately after the last two antithetic words win and brain, are pronounced with the falling inflection, but in a lower torie of voice than these words.


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3. A good man will love himself too well to lose', and his neighbour too well to win', an estate by gaming.

4. It would be in vain to inquire, whether the power of imagining things strongly proceeds from any greater perfection in the soul, or from any nicer texture in the brain' of one man than of another.

When the intermediate member contains an emphatical word, or extends to any length, it will be necessary to consider it as an essential member of the sentence, and to pronounce with emphasis and variety.



5. A man would not only be an unhappy', but a rude unfinished' creature, were he conversant with none but those of his own make.


1. In their prosperity, my friends shall never hear of me; in their adversity, always.

2. There is no possibility of speaking properly the larguage of any pas. sion, without feeling it.

3. A book that is to be read, requires one sort of style; a man that is to speak, must use another.

4. A sentiment, which, expressed diffusely, will barely be admitted to be just ; expressed concisely, will be admired as spirited.

5. Whatever may have been the origin of pasto poetry, it is undoubt. edly a natural, and very agreeable form of poetical composition.

6. A stream that runs within its banks is a beautiful object ; but when

• When the elliptical member contains no emphatical word it must be pronounced in a monotone.

it rushes down with the impetuosity and noise of a torrent, it presently be. comes a sublime one.

7. Though rules and instructions cannot do all that is requisite, they may, however, do much that is of real use. They cannot, it is true, ina spire genius ; but they can direct and assist it. They cannot remedy barrenness ; but they can correct redundancy.

8. A French sermon is, for the most part, a warm animated exhortation ; an English one, is a piece of cool instructive reasoning. The French preachers address themselves chiefly to the imagination and the passions ; the English, almost solely to the understanding.

9. No person can imagine that to be a frivolous and contemptible art, which has been employed by writers under divine inspiration, and has been chosen as a proper channel for conveying to the world the knowledge of divine truth.

10. The tastes of men may differ very considerably as to their object, and yet none of them be wrong. One man relishes poetry most ; another takes pleasure in nothing but history. One prefers comedy; another, tragedy. One admires the siinple ; another, the ornamented style. The young are amused with gay and sprightly compositions ; the elderly are more entertained with those of a graver cast. Some nations delight in bold pictures of manners, and strong representations of passions ; Others incline to more correct and regular elegance both in description and sentiment. Though all differ, yet all pitch upon some one beauty which pe. culiarly suits their turn of mind ; and, therefore, no one has a title to condemn the rest.

11. Pleads he in earnest ? Look upon his face :

His eyes do drop no tears ; his prayers are jest ;
His words come from his mouth ; ours, from our breast;
He prays but faintly, and would be denied ;
We pray with heart and soul.

12. Two principles in human nature reign ;

Self-love to urge, and reason to restrain ;
Nor this a good, nor that a bad we call ;
Each works its end, to move or govern all.

13. See the sole bliss Heaven could on all bestow !

Which who but feels can taste, but thinks can know :
Yet poor with fortune, and with learning blind,
The bad must miss ; the good untaught will find.

14. In this our day of proof, our land of hope,

The good man has his clouds that intervene ;
Clouds that may dim his sublunary day,
But cannot darken : even the best must own,
Patience and resignation are the pillars
Of buman peace on earth.

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15. Some dream that they can silence when they will

The storm of passion, and say, Peace, be still ;
But · Thus far, and no farther,' when addressed
To the wild wave, or wilder human breast,
Implies authority, that never can,
And never ought to be the lot of man.

16. While hence they walk, the pilgrim's bosom wrought

With all the travail of uncertain thought.
His partner's acts, without their cause appear :
'Twas there a vice, and seem'd a madness here.
Detesting that, and pitying this, he goes,
Lost and confounded with the various shows.

RHETORICAL PAUSES. Rule I.-Pause after the nominative when it consists of

more than one word.*


1. The fashion of this world passeth away.
2. To practise virtue is the sure way to love it.

3. The pleasures and honours of the world to come are, in the strictest sense of the word, everlasting.

Note 1.-A pause may be made after a nominative, even when it con. sists of only one word, if it be a word of importance, or if we wish it to be particularly observed.

EXAMPLES. 1. Adversity is the school of piety. 2. The fool hath said in his heart there is no God.

Note 2.-When a sentence consists of a nominative and a verb, each expressed in a single word, no pause is necessary.


1. George learns.-2. The boys read.-3. The tree grows.-4. He comes.

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Rula II.-When any member comes between the nominative

case and the verb, it must be separated from both of them by a short



1. Trials in this state of being are the lot of man.

2. Such is the constitution of men, that virtue however it inay be neglected for a time will ultimately be acknowledged and respected.

• The place of the pause is immediately before each of the words printed In italics.

RULE III.-When any member comes between the verb and

the objective or accusative case, it must be separated from both of them by a short pause.


I knew a person who possessed the faculty of distinguishing flavours in so great a perfection, that, after having tasted ten different kinds of tea, he would distinguish without seeing the colour of it the particular sort which was offered him.

Rule IV.-When two rerbs come together, and the latter is

in the infinitive mood, if any words come between, they must be separated from the latter verb by a pause.


Whether 'tis nobler in the mind to suffer
The stings and arrows of outrageous fortune ;
Or to take arms against a sea of troubles,
And by opposing end them?

Note.- When the verb to be is followed by a verb in the infinitive mood, which may serve as a nominative case to it, and the phrases before and after the verb may be transposed, then the pause falls between the verbs.


The greatest misery is to be condemned by our own hearts.

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Rule V.-When several substantives become the nominative

to the same verb, a pause must be made between the last substantive and the verb, as well as after each of the other substantives.

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Riches, pleasure, and health become evils to those who do not know how to use them.

RULE VI.-If there are several adjectives belonging to one

substantive, or several substantives belonging to one adjective, every adjective coming after its substantive, and every adjective coming before the substantive except the last, must be separated by a short pause.*


1. It was a calculation accurate to the last degree.

2. A behaviour active supple and polite, is necessary to succeed in life.

3. The idea of an eternal uncaused Being, forces itself upon the reflecting mind.

4. Let but one brave great active disinterested man arise, and he will be received, followed, and venerated.

Note. This rule applies also to sentences in which several adverbs belong to one verb, or several verbs to one adverb.


1. To love wisely rationally and prudently, is, in the opinion of lovers, not to love at all.

2. Wisely rationally and prudently to love, is, in the opinion of lovers, not to love at all.

Rule VII.-Whatever words are in the ablative absolute,

must be separated from the rest by a short pause both before and after them.


l. If a man borrow aught of his neighbour, and it be hurt or die the owner thereof not being with it he shall surely make it good.

2. God, from the mount of Sinai, whose grey top
Shall tremble he descending will himself
In thunder, lightnings, and loud tempests' sound
Ordain them laws.

• No pause is admitted between the substantive and the adjective in the inverted order, when the adjective is single, or unaccompanied by adjuncts. -Thus, in this line,

They guard with arms divine the British throne The adjective divine cannot be separated by a pause from the substantive


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