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A HERO FROM THE RANKS to help her, as lie sat propped up in his chair. Some time ago The Outlook reviewed Mr.

Now, however, the physician has forbidden H. A. Kelly's “Life of Walter Reed,” and

him to do so any longer, and he says that told of Dr. Reed's remarkable and valuable

he feels the burden on her shoulders more service in establishing the now universally

than any other part of his difficulties. He accepted theory of the transmission of the applied some little time ago for a pension, germs of yellow fever by the mosquito.

but the sum applied for was cut down from Below is told the story of a private soldier fifty to twelve dollars a month, and even yet who risked his life to help in establishing hangs fire, because it cannot be shown that this theory.

his present complaint arose from the yellow In the autumn of 1900 Dr. Walter Reed, fever. It is not likely that he will recover. Chairman of the United States Army Yellow

The nexi session of Congress ought to Fever Commission, built an experimental pass a special bill to provide for this man's station, called Camp Lazear, near Quemados,

needs and comfort. Meanwhile, any private Cuba, for the purpose of carrying on experi- contributions to his support might be forments which should prove or disprove the

warded through Mr. Howard A. Kelly, 1418 theory that yellow fever is transmitted by the

Eutaw Place, Baltimore, Maryland. bite of a certain species of mosquito. He was about to issue a call for volunteers for

PLEASE LEND A HAND the purpose, when he was called on by two My dear Outlook : young privates, John R. Kissinger and John One of the good things which The Outlook J. Moran, both from Ohio, who told him that does, and forgets, is to print every June they had heard of his wish, and came to our Lend a Hand letter in behalf of old offer themselves as subjects for experiment. men, blind girls, and lame boys. At the Dr. Reed explained to them fully the risks office of Lend a Hand we know all about involved, and then, finding them determined, the fundamental principles of social philanhe said that a definite money compensation thropy. And if it were necessary we could would be made to them. Both young men reel off yards or even fathoms of the same. refused, saying that they volunteered in the But we never find this necessary. Certainly service of humanity, and made it their sole it is not on this occasion. stipulation that they should receive

But at the office of Lend a Hand it is our . reward. Kissinger was the first subject of business to take care of the exceptions. experiment in Camp Lazear. On December And every summer we find fifty, more or 5, 1900, five infected mosquitoes—that is to less, of the classes, to be scientific, thus say, mosquitoes which had recently (within described : two weeks) fed upon yellow fever patients, One.—The class of self-respecting old men. were allowed to bite him, and a little over Two.—The class of lame boys and girls. three days later he was taken ill with the Three.—The class of blind girls and boys. disease. In speaking of the incident aster- Unfortunately, scientific philanthropy and wards, Dr. Reed said: “In my opinion, there the statute of Elizabeth have not provided has been no higher exhibition of moral cour- any organized methods for giving these

peoage in the annals of the army of the United ple an open-air holiday in summer. This is States."

left to the Free Lancers. Kissinger had a severe attack, and his What is interesting is that the summer life was for some time in danger. He re- readers of The Outlook like to provide for covered, however, as it was supposed at the these people, who would not be otherwise time, perfectly, and not long afterwards he provided for. And this is a circular-letter left the army, married, and settled down in to the nice people who will read their private life. Within the last year he has Outlook at Bar Harbor, at North East Harbeen seized with a spinal complaint which bor, in Casco Bay, at Kennebunk Port, and has destroyed the use of his lower limbs, at seventy-four other places of summer resort. and keeps him confined to a wheeled chair. and at eighty-five shacks, bungalows, and He is now unable to do anything for his own other cottages in New England and the support or that of his wife, and his wife can adjacent regions. All of those people who do nothing which takes her away from home, are glad to enjoy the sun and stars and wood

account of his necessities. She has, and water will be glad of the opportunity to therefore, been supporting them both by send us five cents or one hundred dollars washing, in which he was able, until recently, which we will use before November for our





summer outing fund. You may address Mrs. eggs, and her lord was busy as could be M. C. Whitman, the Treasurer, at 1 Beacon feeding her grubs, much too busy to sing. Street, Boston, office of Lend a Hand. He had learned the immigrant's lesson that

EDWARD E. HALE. it is “root hog or die ” on a foreign shore Lend a Hand Office, I Beacon Street, Boston. Perhaps, too, the memories of the long win

ter haunted him yet. THE STARLING SETS AN EXAMPLE

But he has not forgot his vespers any It never rains but it pours. My defense more than his family responsibilities. The of the European starling brought a letter last rays of the setting sun find him, as of frou a lover of birds telling where there yore, in the highest tree-tops, or on the peak were several immigrant colonies, and within of the tower, pouring forth his pæan of a week I came upon a pair of them in Cen- praise in his sweet whistling notes. Thu tral Park foraging for grubs with the curious rector likes him. He was his champion military precision that dignifies what in an- when the vestry found fault with the traces other bird would be a raid into a reconnois- he left on the tower. He told them that it sance according to the rules. Nothing es- was not good for a church tower to look too capes. And now, the other day, I made the new, and that the starling, having sought personal acquaintance of a flock residing in sanctuary there, should stay. He is a good the tower of the Episcopal church at Great bird, domestic and of devout habits, and, Neck, Long Island.

besides, he sets a good example. He sticks It seems that they moved in incog. and re- by the church. “I wish,” said the good mained so for a year or more before some rector, thoughtfully, “that the people would one who knew identified them. Where they flock to the church as numerously and stay hailed from is not on the records. A little as steadfastly as the starlings." flock came that way, saw the tower and So now that my friend has been properly thought it good, and there they stayed, mak- received into the church and owned as of ing their nests in a secure but rather exposed the flock, perhaps we shall hear less about place behind some open scroll-work on the his being an undesirable immigrant. He outside of the tower, just above the bells. isn't.

JACOB A. Riis. Some sparrows had made the discovery first, and for a season there was fierce warfare between them ; but in the end they decided

SAVE THE BABIES to live together in peace. The sparrows, as Inspired by its successes, the New York the hardier and incidentally the smaller Association for Improving the Condition of birds, seem to have accepted chiefly the the Poor will press during the coming sum north side of the tower and the shelves

mer, with increasing vigor, the winning battle below the bells—below the salt, as it were. with the dark, crowded tenements which

I looked my old friends over through a pair manufacture crippled children and break of field-glasses. They were starlings, sure down their parents. It calls for twenty-five enough, with all the ear-marks, a little toned trained nurses who will volunteer at a moddown it seemed to me, not quite so gorgeous erate compensation. Some are needed on or shiny of coat as when I knew them as a the staff at Sea Breeze Hospital, some in boy; a little rough, as if they had gone, district work, visiting tenement homes

, and through a hard experience, as in truth they others at Junior Sea Breeze, where, in the had; for they seem to have changed their heart of the city, sick babies' lives are saved habits with their country. Abroad they and their mothers are taught how to care for migrated, lording it in the Riviera in win- them. This opportunity offers rich rewards ter. Here they have been all-year guests in service rendered and in experience gained so far. Perhaps they have lost their bear- under progressive and inspiring leadership. ings and don't know where to go. At any Applications should be made at once, and rate, they stay the winter out. The rector

may be addressed to Mr. William H. Allen, of the church, Dr. Huske, told me that in General Agent, 105 East Twenty-second the coldest weather they forsook the tower Street. Many Outlook readers were among and sought shelter under the bushes and those who made it possible last summer to brambles in the back lot. He was afraid take over twenty-three thousand women and they were going away, and scattered some children from their hot, stifling tenements to oats on the snow. They ate it gratefully, Sea Breeze. They will be glad to know that and helped themselves, too, to the seeds while the Fresh Air work will not be reduced, of the vines that climb the tower. The more than ever will be done to help the sick starling is a bird of resources.

When I

and suffering in their own homes, which are, watched them, Mrs. Starling was sitting on after all, the most strategic point.



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NEW YORK, JULY 6, 1907 Volume 86

Price $3 a year Number 10

10 cents a copy CONTENTS Senator Knox and the The Second Hague Con

as a practical announcement that SenConstitution..


By a Staff ator Knox, if a Presidential candidate, A Governor's Legislature 484 Correspondent ..

499 The Public Utilities Coni- Organizations of Railway

would stand upon a safe and moderate missioners.

485 Employees. By D. L. Constitutional platform. On the other Steel Rails and the Pub


503 lic.

486 Summer VecperSermons: hand, it has been looked upon with Commencement Notes .. 487 The Joy of Self-Sacri

some consternation and considerable The College Boat Races 488 fice. by Lyman Abbott 510 Mark Twain at Oxford.. 489 The Christmas Stamp. antagonism, by those who believe in the The House of Lords .... 489 By Jacob A. Riis..... 511 At The Hague 490 Labor and the Lady : A

extension of the administrative powers Clemenceau Sustained 491 Story. By Frederic of the Federal Government, as a reacA Law to Suppress Ugli- Johnston

514 ness..

492 The Censorship of the tionary attack from a Constitutional lawThe College: Two Points Church of Rome(G.H. yer who had previously shown great abilof View... 493 Putnam)..

520 Railway Mergers and Comment on Current ity and skill on behalf of the Federal their Benefits.. 495 Books...

522 A Secret of Youth

Government in its contest with powerful 497 Letters to The Outlook. 527

corporations. Both these views entirely Published by the Outlook Company, 287 Fourth Avenue,

New York. Chicago Office, Marquette Building, misinterpret the address, and are unjust
Lawrence F. Abbott, President. William B. Howland,
Treasurer. Karl V. S. Howland, Secretary.

to Senator Knox. Delivered to lawyers, Lyman Abbott, Editor-in-Chief. H. W. Mabie, Associate Editor. R. D. Townsend, Managing Editor.

it is a clear statement of the powers The subscription price of The Outlook is Three Dollars a year, payable in advance. Ten cents a copy,

already possessed under the Constitution, Postage is prepaid by the publishers for all subscriptions in

the United States, Hawaiian Islands, Philippine Islands, with the confirmation of the Supreme Guam, Porto Rico, Tutuila (Samoa), Shanghai, Canal Zone, Cuba, and Mexico. For Canada $1.20 should be

Court, by the Federal Government to added for postage, and for all other countries in the Postal regulate inter-State commerce. The Change of address : When a change of address is ordered, affirmative portion of the address is de

both the new and the old address must be given. The notice should be sent one week before the change is to take effect, cidedly in support of the right and power Orders and instructions for advertising must be received eight days before the Saturday on which it is intended the of the Federal Government, not only advertisement shall appear. Copyright, 1907, by the Outlook Company. Entered as to regulate inter-State railways, but all second-class matter in the New York Post-Office.

corporations engaged in inter-State Some of the influ- commerce, so long and so far as the Senator Knox

ential newspapers object of the regulation is “to secure and the Constitution

of the country, es- equality of commercial right or to prepecially those, like the New York Sun, vent restraint of or interference with which are opposed to increasing the commerce.” The negative part of the power of the Federal Government over address is devoted to denying the right inter-State corporations, have been giv- of the Federal Government to prohibit

ing a large amount of space to the the manufacture of goods innocuous in recent address of Senator Knox, of themselves under conditions which the

Pennsylvania, delivered at the Com- Federal Government believes to be harmmencement exercises of the Law School ful to “ the persons by whom the articles of Yale University. . On the one hand, of commerce are produced.” In other the speech has been pronounced to be words, Senator Knox's long and interan act of courageous conservatism, as a esting address is simply an argument defense of the rights of capital against against National child labor legislation. the irrational attacks of visionary re- We certainly do not think that for taking formers; as a challenge of the social, this position Senator Knox should be political, and industrial policies of the either hailed as a defender of the ConPresident; as a reply to Secretary stitution at a great crisis, or denounced Root's great speech on the relation of as an obstructor of the Administration the Federal power to the political rights in its endeavor properly to regulate interand duties of the States; and, finally, State corporations. If a child labor law



should be placed upon the Federal stat- tions. The fact is that the corrupt or ute-books, the Supreme Court will very selfish and short-sighted members of the soon determine whether it is Constitu- Legislature have united, without regard tional or not. So long as we have the to party, in trying to defeat the GovernSupreme Court, Senator Knox is quite or's programme; but the Legislature as a accurate in asserting that “the Consti- whole has felt the force not only of his pertution is not to perish at the hands of the sonality, but also of his peculiar position impassioned phrase-maker." We may as a representative of public opinion. A add that it does not, at present at least, comparison of his message at the beginneed the aid of the platitudinous phrase- ning of the year with the list of measures maker, although the New York Sun-a passed shows how strongly dominant the terribly eager friend of the Constitution- Governor has been. The recommendasometimes seems to think that it does. tions in that message were grouped at

the time by The Outlook under three

heads-Elections Corporations, and After a wrangle which Social Welfare. Under the first head, A Governor's

marred a good record, Elections, only two recommendations Legislature

the Legislature of New out of six were adopted—the recount of York has adjourned. The controversy the McClellan-Hearst votes and the reguwhich unduly and vainly prolonged the lation of campaign expenses. Of these the session was over the problem of chang- latter was only in part adopted. Mr. ing the political divisions of the State. Hughes's urgent recommendations for In order to guard the political interests permanent provisions to secure the reof former Representative Wadsworth counting of ballots, for a better form of

, a and his son, the Speaker of the Assem- ballot, for judicial control of party conbly, certain Republican party leaders ventions, and for optional direct primary permitted a deadlock between the two nominations were disregarded ordefeated. houses. Thus, though the highest court Under the third head, Social Welfare, of the State has decided that the present the proposals of the Governor were more reapportionment is unconstitutional, the successful. As a consequence, the Legis . Legislature has adjourned without pro- lature more strictly limited the hours of viding a new one. This petty quarrel is labor for children and women, furthered particularly unfortunate because it has the movement for good roads, made obscured the praiseworthy achievements more secure the public control of public which preceded it. Not in many years

lands and water sources, gave relief to has a Legislature of the State been so the municipal courts—the “poor man's free from suspicion of corrupt influences ; courts”-and the like. It was, however, not in years has a Legislature of the State in the drastic legislation under the secpassed such an array of good measures, ond head-Corporations—and in the or killed so many that were palpably response to special messages that the vicious. After all, however, its chief Legislature most emphatically followed title to distinction it has won by putting the lead of the Governor. The wellinto law the recommendations of Gov- known Public Utilities Law, and the ernor Hughes. It has been fiercely legislation giving the Governor power to criticised on two opposite grounds, and, investigate the militia and the executive strangely, some of the critics have not departments, are extraordinary signs of seemed to see the contradiction involved public confidence. . in their criticisms. On the one hand, it —or rather the upper house--has been castigated for withstanding the will of

What explains this the Governor by refusing to dismiss, in

The Source of the

extraordinary ascend

Governor's Power accordance with his recommendation, the

ency of the Governor Superintendent of Insurance; on the over the Legislature ? Certainly no fear other hand, it has been lampooned as a of the Democratic party has driven “rubber-stamp Legislature" because it the Republicans into cohesiveness and adopted so many of his recommenda- united support of the executive. The


Democratic members of the Legislature Legislature remained at the beginning have done nothing to win respect for of the year an exponent of party governtheir party, though individual Democrats ment, the executive in the State became have won respect for themselves. The for the time being an exponent of nonGovernor's success cannot be attributed partisan government. For this reason either to personal magnetism or to skill the course of Governor Hughes cannot ful political management. Although be regarded as a precedent for other Governor Hughes's personality inspires executives under normal party condiadmiration and confidence, it has won tions; and for the same reason it has for him from among men in the several been highly effectual under the special branches of the State Government few, conditions that now exist in New York. if any, warm friends. No Governor ever held himself more aloof from his associates. Whether because of his tempera

Although the Pub

The Public Utility ment or because of his theories as to the

lic Service Com

Commissioners separateness of the three branches of

missions, the

apthe government, he has made confidants pointments to which Governor Hughes of few, and, though he has listened to announced after the adjournment of the much advice, has not allowed his execu- Legislature last week, are State boards, tive acts to become matters of consulta- their personnel is a matter of National tion and prearrangement. When, for importance. They are the first boards instance, he made his most important of the kind which have been created in appointment, he not only did not confer this country; and the problems with in advance with any member of the body which they will have to deal are to be from which he had to ask confirmation found in all the States. The Governor of his choice; he did not even confide in selecting these men had a difficult his intentions to his closest friends. task. The duties of administering the Likewise, within a week of the day when Public Utilities Law, to which he sumthe members of the new Public Service moned them, will be arduous and exCommissions are to take office, the Sen- hausting. The choice of a number of ate, which will have to pass upon their distinguished men would probably have appointment, appeared to have not the met with immediate popular approval. slightest foundation on which to rest a It must be remembered, however, that surmise as to what men the Governor had men who have gained great distinction in mind for the positions. It is safe to are already busy, and not always able to say that the president of any private abandon their occupations; and that, business corporation who should attempt moreover, mere renown is not equivalent to follow these methods would be re- to fitness for a position calling for a garded by the directors as self-willed and special kind of knowledge and ability. autocratic. And yet these methods have It is understood that before he had comso far succeeded extraordinarily in a pleted his list the Governor received public business where they seem 'still several declinations from men he had more out of place. Why? It must be asked to serve. As it is, none of the remembered that the situation in which men chosen could have accepted except Governor Hughes found himself was under the compulsion of a sense of extraordinary and called for extraordi- public duty; for the salary is not such nary action. The only candidate on his as would tempt men of their attainments party's State ticket to be elected, the to similarly responsible positions in any recipient of a vote of confidence which private undertaking. The Chairman of was unmistakably meant for him and the Commission for Greater New York not for his party, Mr. Hughes had laid is Mr. William R. Willcox, former Park upon him a peculiar burden.

Commissioner, and for over two years fashion almost unexampled, he was made Postmaster of New York, the most rethe representative of the public opinion - sponsible position in the service outside or, perhaps more accurately, the public of the Postmaster-General's staff. His feeling—of the State. Whereas the associates are: William McCarroll, suc

In a

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