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collected by the United States. Mr. of their international rights and responOlney declared that that Doctrine cannot sibilities. To illustrate this kind of be invoked in supportof such pretensions; service, Mr. Root then attempted to the United States must not make itself clear away a popular misapprehension

an international American boss.” He concerning a particular problem—the did not add, however, that when he was Japanese school dispute. The treaty of Secretary of State under the Cleveland 1894 between the United States and administration precisely this charge was Japan provides for equality of treatment brought against his commitment of the "in whatever relates to rights of resiGovernment to what seemed even to dence and travel.” Under the Califormany Americans a startlingly high- nia laws, however, the San Francisco handed policy regarding Venezuela. Mr. School Board excluded Japanese children Olney might have followed his destructive from the primary public schools. The criticisms by detailed suggestion as to Japanese Government“ made represenwhat should have been done with regard tations ”—that is, protested—but, fortu

— to Panama and Santo Domingo to pro- nately, never for a moment was there duce the same result by methods in his the slightest departure from perfect good estimation less objectionable than those temper, mutual confidence, and kindly pursued. In discussing the Drago Doc- consideration between the two Governtrine regarding the forcible collection of ments.” Three questions were raised : debt, ex-Secretary of State Foster properly (1) Is the right to attend the primary declared the doctrine to have been orig- schools a right of residence? (2) If so, inated by Alexander Hamilton more than is the exclusion of Japanese children a a century ago. Mr. Straus, Secretary of deprivation of that right? (3) Has the Commerce, declared, as did Mr. Bryan at American Government the Constitutionthe Peace Congress, that any neutral al power to make a treaty agreement nation supplying a warring nation with with a foreign nation which should be money should be adjudged guilty of a superior to a State law? Popular mishostile act. Another of Mr. Bryan's pro- apprehension arose from the supposition posals at the Congress was echoed by that in its assertion of the validity of the Professor Woolsey, that a “cooling” time treaty the American Government was of thirty or sixty days should intervene asserting its right to compel California between the proclamation of war and the to admit Japanese children to its schools. actual hostilities. Such an arrangement. The treatý did not assert the American as many think, might have obviated both Government's authority to compel any the South African and Russo-Japanese State to maintain public schools, or to wars. Admiral Stockton, Professor Hyde, extend the privileges of its public schools Mr. Everett P. Wheeler, and Dr. Samuel to children of any alien residents. But J. Barrows discussed the subject of pro- the treaty did assert, declared Mr. Root, tecting private property at sea, an issue the right of the United States, by treaty, perhaps more realizable in favorable to assure to the citizens of a foreign action at The Hague than any other. nation residing in American territory

equality of treatment with the citizens

of other foreign nations. Hence, as But, as at the Peace Congress, regards education, the effect of such a Mr. Root

so at the International Law treaty is not positive and compulsory, on Japan

meeting, the most noteworthy but negative and prohibitory. There address was that of the President of the was and is no question of States' rights Society, the Hon. Elihu Root, Secretary involved, says Mr. Root. The Constiof State. The determination of ques- tution vests the treaty-making power tions of National policy, he justly de- exclusively in the National Government. clared, has now shifted from a few rulers While there are certain implied limitain each country to the people, yet the edu- tions arising from other provisions of cation of public opinion has really only the Constitution, those limitations do not just begun. The Society, he felt, should touch the making of treaty provisions give to our countrymen a clearer view relating to the treatment of aliens within





our territory. Mr. Root quotes decisions men are employed to ignite and extinof the United States courts confirmatory guish these lights, each man being reof this power of treaty-making. “It has sponsible for from one hundred to one been settled for more than a century that hundred and fifty lamps. They have the fact that a treaty provision would inter- recently been organized into a labor fere with or annul the laws of a State as union. On behalf of the union, it is said to the aliens concerning whom the treaty the men are paid only about a dollar a is made is no impeachment of the treaty's day for their work, which consists, not authority.” Moreover,

only in lighting at night and putting out Since the rights ... to be accorded to for- in the morning, but in keeping each lamp eigners in our country are a proper sub- in good condition. The lamplighter has ject for treaty provision . and since such

to provide the oil for his torch, to buy rights ... may be given by treaty in contravention of the laws of any State, it follows

his own matches, to supply his rags for of necessity that the treaty-making power cleaning globes, to put new chimneys in alone has authority to determine what those when there are breaks, and to keep the rights . . . shall be.

mechanical apparatus of the lamp in Hence, concludes Mr. Root, there was good condition. He has to be up very no real question of power and no ques- early in the morning, and make his tion of State rights arising under the rounds in all weathers; and it is quite Japanese treaty. But there was apparent to the writer of this paragraphserious question underlying the whole who, during the strike, with the aid of a subject : What was to be the effect upon kitchen chair from his own house, a wax a proud, sensitive, highly civilized peo- taper, and a private night watchman, ple of the imputations of inferiority and laboriously lighted seven Jamps on his abuse received here?

own city block, in order to make it safe People now, not governments, make friend- and passable for his family and his ship or dislike, sympathy or discord, peace neighbors—that the job is not an easy or war . . . and. people who permit Whatever the rights may be in the themselves to treat the people of other countries with discourtesy and insult are surely controversy between the lamplighters sowing the wind to reap the whirlwind.

and the Gas Company, the company cannot evade the fact that it is responsi

ble, by its contract with the city and its A strike of street lamplight- duty to the citizens, for keeping the A Curious

ers, amusing in some of its streets lighted. Efficient management Strike

aspects but really serious and would have foreseen the strike and would significant when properly considered, have provided men to light the lamps. was declared in New York City last The company has made no public stateweek, and is still in progress at this ment of any kind, so far as we know, in writing. The Consolidated Gas Com- its own defense or in excuse of its derepany has à monopoly in lighting both liction of duty. Thousands of citizens the streets and the buildings of the city, found themselves suddenly suffering as it controls all the gas plants and all from the danger and inconvenience of the public electric light service. The unlighted streets. Police Commissioner citizens therefore depend on this cor- Bingham telephoned instructions to every. poration to make the city streets safe to precinct police captain to exercise spethe passer-by in the darkness of the night. cial vigilance in patrolling and protecting The main avenues and public squares the darkened streets, and to have the are lighted by electric lamps, which, of police officers light as many of the lamps course, are illuminated at nightfall and as possible. But in numerous instances extinguished at daybreak from central the officers did not understand and could stations. But whole districts and many not manipulate the mechanism of the miles of streets are lighted solely by gas lamps. Hundreds of lamps were, as in lamps. Many of these lamps have spe- the instance above referred to, lighted cial incandescent burners, to light which by private citizens, and in many cases requires a certain amount of technical lamps thus lighted burned continuously knowledge and skill. Several hundred day and night, because the Gas Company either could not or would not pro- criticism that Christianity was a failure vide men to attend to them. The strike is applicable—it has never been tried. has been regarded with some amuse- The burden which the Southern white ment by the daily newspapers. It has people have laid upon themselves to even been suggested that a police officer educate black children as well as white should be detailed to compel each di- children they have bravely borne; but rector of the Gas Company to take one it is not one which they ought to bear of his kitchen chairs and one of his wax alone. The causes which have at the tapers and light each lamp within a cer- same time brought to them a dependent tain radius of his own house. It is very race and visited them with poverty were likely that the Lamplighters' Union is National. Such a gift as the Jeanes arrogant and irritating in demanding bequest is therefore altogether approwhat it believes to be its just rights, but priate. Of the trustees this bequest will it is equally apparent that the Gas Com- require the utmost tact and delicacy. pany has proved inefficient in dealing Happily, the two men selected are exactly with a crisis, throwing the burden on the fitted for this benevolent work. Dr. police department—that is to say, upon Frissell is not only the foremost leader the city government. The episode indi in the newest development of education

. cates very clearly the need of some in- in this country, but is that rare kind of timate and authoritative relation between man—a practical idealist. Although a the municipality and those corporations Northerner in origin, he has the conwhich have so important a monopoly as fidence of the best Virginians, and his that of lighting city streets.

influence is extended far beyond the limits of the State and of Hampton's

constituency. Dr. Washington every one Miss Anna T. Jeanes, of knows as the leader of his race, not only Nourishment at

Philadelphia, has estab- by virtue of his insight and his energy, the Root

lished “The Fund for but also by virtue of his unfailing sanity Rudimentary Schools for Southern Ne- and judgment. Under the administration groes,” by a gift of one million dollars. of these two men-one from each raceShe has intrusted the administration of this fund can do much to vitalize the the fund to Dr. Hollis Burke Frissell, little district colored schools. The right Principal of Hampton Institute, and Dr. kind of education for the lowliest negroes Booker T. Washington, Principal of Tus- is essential to the improvement of the kegee Institute. According to the state- relations between the races in this land. ment transferring the sum to the trustees and their successors, Miss Jeanes intends this bequest to benefit rural schools. The

While the New

Shall We Discourage South is essentially a rural section; and

York Legisla

Manliness in the Schools the great majority of Southern negroes

ture has been dwell in rural communities. Moreover, dawdling over measures demanded by of these all but a very small number public opinion throughout the State, it has never have the chance for any but ele- found time to pass a bill demanded only mentary instruction. No one who has by a class—the women teachers in the ever visited a little district school for public schools of New York City. The negroes can fail to understand the need bill orders that the “ schedules of salaries for such a gift as this. It is in small shall provide that, where and school-houses, with their irregular attend- women are both employed under any ance and their ill-paid and often incom- particular schedule, there shall be no petent teachers, that the negro race must discrimination in salary on account of receive its first and most important les- the sex of the incumbent of the posisons, not only in the three R's, but in tion.” This bill is passed, not in the morality, thrift, and good order. To interest of the schools or of the chilthose who complain that the education dren, but in the interest of the women of the negro masses has failed, the same teachers, As The Outlook has pointed answer as that which was given to the out, women cannot, as teachers, perform



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just the same service as

At nary expenses of the Company, and certain ages particularly, boys need the squeezing what little water there was guidance, direction, and example of men. out of the stock.” Already there was It is only from men that they will learn the prospect of a condition under which manliness; and for their exemplars in the Company could reduce the rate to manliness they should not be forced to one-half of what it formerly had been and seek outside their schools.

Even as

yet could pay a ten per cent, dividend. conditions are now, under which men In the meantime, by semi-political moveare paid higher salaries than women, ments, Mr. Anthony N. Brady, with exthe supply of women teachers is much Mayor Grant and a well-known trust. larger than of male teachers. If this company, had organized a company, bill becomes law, it will be more diffi- bought the franchises of a petty lighting cult than ever to avoid the necessity organization, and made a deal“ with the of keeping boys throughout their entire late W. C. Whitney, then in control of school life under the control of women the Metropolitan Street Railway Comexclusively. The Board of Education pany, for the supply of its surplus should be left free to pay such salaries electricity,'” though the Metropolitan as will secure in right proportion the Company had need for all its electricity. masculine element in the teaching force. Thereupon the hint came from a director The Outlook believes and has urged common to both the Metropolitan and that better payment than the teachers Edison Companies that the sale of the receive at present is their right, but it Edison Company would be wise. Deshould not be secured in this way. We terred from opposition by the fear of the hope this bill will receive the veto of the political power of Mr. Whitney and Mayor of New York City, and, if it others, the directors acceded. Mr. Bowcomes to him, of the Governor of the ker had to choose between opposing the State.

deal and getting the best possible price

for the stockholders. He himself sacriHowgreat is the need ficed the opportunity to dispose of his A Tale of Modern

for control, not only own stock at a high price. The ComBuccaneering

of the operation, but pany was greatly overcapitalized by an also of the financial transactions of pub- excessive issue of bonds, which were lic service utilities is somewhat startlingly marketed, if not illegally, at least by a illustrated by a letter, addressed to Gov- palpable evasion of the law. The order ernor Hughes, from Mr. R. R. Bowker, reducing the rates was rescinded. In formerly the responsible executive official the midst of these transactions there was of the Edison Company of New York. “ Wall Street whirl," and a financial He reveals in the frankest fashion the battle between the various interests conmethod by which the Edison Company tending for the lighting monopoly and was captured by another company, its its vast profits. Finally peace capital inflated from fifteen to ninety made by consolidation; the Brady-Whitmillion dollars, and the resultant organi- ney interests were absorbed and were zation brought under the control of the represented on the gas board. The final great gas monopoly known as the Con- result has been that the Consolidated solidated Gas Company. - He tells of Gas Company is now entire master of one or two incidents in which politicians the gas and electric lighting of New of a certain type figured as traders of York City, both public and private. Mr. political influence for money from the Bowker says that since the consolidation Company's treasury. He then gives an

he believes that the management has account of the transformation of the dealt fairly with the public. “But the Company, which in brief is as follows: facts remain," he adds, “that it was, and Instead of buying up competing com- is still, possible to juggle with great panies, he succeeded in establishing a properties in the most unscrupulous policy of applying the earnings above a six manner, and that the consumer is reper cent. dividend partly to reducing quired to pay a price that will produce rates and “partly to offsetting prelimi- earnings on three times the capitaliza



tion needed by the industry." Mr.

Mr. place when the Colonial Premiers were Bowker sent this open letter to the Gov- presented with the freedom of the ernor to express his approval of the city and afterwards entertained at a Public Service Commissions Bill now luncheon by the Lord Mayor. The pending before the Legislature. Accord- Premiers drove in procession through ing to this bill, most of our readers will the city, Sir Wilfrid Laurier, representremember, the public utilities of the State ing the Dominion of Canada, riding will be put under the control of two with General Louis Botha, representing administrative commissions, one for the the Transvaal. Dr. Jameson represented city of New York, the other for the rest Cape Colony; Mr. Frederick R. Moor, of the State. Against this measure are Natal ; Sir Robert Bond, Newfoundland; united the hack politicians, the Hearst Mr. Alfred Deakin, Australia ; and Sir radicals, and many so-called conservative Joseph Ward, New Zealand. In 1897 business interests. But the people of Sir Wilfrid Laurier was the central figthe State as a whole, who have no political ure, not only because of his charming axes to grind, no pet doctrines to defend, personality, but because he was the first and no big financial projects to steer, French-Canadian Premier of Canada. are, as Mr. Bowker says, in no mood to In 1902 the central figure was Mr. have patience with those who are at- Richard Seddon, of New Zealand, sometempting to obstruct Governor Hughes's times called the John Burns of New policy or mangle his measures.

Zealand, a leader in the radical legislation of that colony, who had gone,

a poor boy, from a glass factory in While the Peace Con- Lancashire as an emigrant. At this The British Colonial

gress was bringing to- Conference South Africa is at the foreConference

gether representatives front in popular interest, and General

of all the great nations Botha, who made such a stubborn and in New York City two weeks ago, a gallant fight against the British in South Conference of the British Colonial Pre- Africa, is the foremost man in popular miers with a number of the members attention. The sturdy Dutch fighter of their various Cabinets was convened and Lord Roberts, the British Comat Whitehall in London, and the world- mander-in-Chief, whose military skill had wide extent of the British Empire was been taxed to the utmost by General strikingly presented to the eye. This is Botha's commanding abilities as a stratthe fourth of these Conferences, which egist, sat side by side, on the friendliest were inaugurated on the occasion of the possible terms- —a visible sign of the corfirst jubilee of Queen Victoria, repeated dial and equable relations between Great at the Diamond Jubilee in 1897, and Britain and South Africa. Two resoluagain at the coronation of King Edward, tions, presented by Australians, have been five years ago. In his introductory considered at length; the first inviting speech Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman, the Colonial Secretary to form a plan for the English Premier, declared that it acquiring a more intimate knowledge of was not a Conference between Pre- the colonies, and the second urging that miers and the Colonial Secretary, but the colonies be represented on the Impebetween the Premiers and the members rial Council of Defense for advice in reof the Imperial Government. The Con- gard to local questions on which expert ference has no power to make bind- assistance may be desirable. At a great ing, decisions; that lies with the coun- dinner, attended by more than sixteen huntry, as voiced in Parliament; but there dred people, a demonstration was made

matters of great moment which in favor of preferential treatment for the can be arranged, and, above all, there colonies; and Sir Wilfrid Laurier, in the can be free expression of opinion of

of an address, declared that all the interests of the Empire. The Canada was on better terms with the venerable Guildhall has rarely witnessed United States than ever before, but that, a more interesting spectacle or a more in time of distress, she would stand by significant one than that which took the mother country.



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