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As one, descrying in the woodland heights

A dreadful serpent, at the sight recoils,
His limbs quake under him, his ruddy cheeks
Turn deadly pale, he flies, he disappears.

DE SECRATE, v. Į DESECRATION. unhallowed, profaned.

Cowper. Homer. Iliad, b. iii.

Fr. Désacrer, to unhallow. Lat. Desecratus, See CONSECRATE.

For it cannot with decency be imagined, that the most holy vessel, which was once consecrated to be a receptacle of the Deity, should afterwards be desecrated and prophaned by human use.-Bp. Bull, vol. i. Ser. 4.

When animosities break forth, and contentions are raised in the church, "fire is cast into the sanctuary;" when the soul sinks under a temptation, the dwelling-place of God's name is desecrated to the ground. Horne. On the Psalms, Ps. 74.

Having with great concern, observed that various profanations of the sabbath have of late years been evidently gaining ground among us, so as to threaten a gradual deseeration of that holy day, I must very earnestly request you to exert your utmost efforts within the precincts of your parishes that are committed to your care, to counteract, as much as possible, the progress of this alarming evil.

Porteus. On the Profanation of the Lord's Day.





Fr. Déserter; Sp. Desertar; It. Disertare; Lat. Deserere, desertum, (de, and serere; Gr. Ep-ew, to knit, to join.) And deserere properly denotes-id quod prius connexum pro derelicto habere. To disjoin what was before connected,

To disjoin, to dissever, to sunder or separate from; to depart from, forsake, quit, leave or abandon.

A desert,-(frequently, though improperly, written desart,) any place deserted, forsaken, quitted, left or abandoned, (sc.) by all inhabitants, settlers, &c. And, therefore

A wilderness, a wild, waste, untilled, uncultivated or uninhabited place.

The decyples, that he hyder sonde, Cristendom to brynge, Byleuede in a wyldernesse, after prechynge, That me cleputh now Glastynbury, that desert was tho. R. Gloucester, p. 232. As it is wrytun in the book of the wordis of Isaye the profete, the voys of a crier in desert, make ye redy the waye of the Lord, make ye his pathis right.-Wiclif. Luk, c. 3.

And whanne Jhesus had herde this thing, he wente out fro thennis in a boot into disert place bisidis. Id. Matthew, c. 14. Thou were that one shepe emongs the hundred, [which] were lost in desart, and out of the waye had erred, and now to the flocke art restored.

Chaucer. The Testament of Loue, b. i.

This knight the two pilers of brass,
The whiche yet a man maye fynde,

Set vp in the deserte of Inde.-Gower. Con. A. b. iv.

And when the daye was now farre spent, his disciples came vnto him, saying: this is a deserte place, and now the day is farre passed, let them depart.

Bible, 1551. Mark, c. 7. What flying of her company and desertnes, when euery mother will keepe not only their daughters, but also their sonnes from the inspection of such an vnthrifty maid.

Vives. The Instruction of a Christian Woman, b. i. c. 7. The desertnesse of the countrey lying waste & saluage, did nothing feare them from coming to him.-Udal. Luke, c. 5.

Hadst thou before thy flight but left with me
A young Æneas, who, resembling thee,
Might in my sight have sported, I had then
Not wholly lost, nor quite deserted been.

Denham. The Passion of Dido for Æneas.

The seuen holie ilands are desert and breed nothing but a kind of wild sheepe which are often hunted, but seldom or neuer eaten.-Holinshed. Description of Britaine, c. 10. Neither could Moses forget the length of the way through those discomfortable desarts wherein himself and Israel had wandered 40 years.

Ralegh. History of the World, b. ii. c. 4. s. 2. Meanwhile this youth like a poor shepherd clad, (Of whom such care the God of Israel had) His father's flock was following day by day Upon a desert near at hand that lay.

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Sleep hath forsook and giv'n me o'er

To death's benumbing opium as my only cure:
Thence faintings, swoonings of dispair,

And sense of heaven's desertion.-Millon. Samson Agon. "Twere easie and prone (and not at all improbable) for us to glide insensibly into all rebellions and impieties, to swear

fealty to Satan, that hath entertain'd us so hospitably, and suddenly to engage so deep under his colours, that there would be no retiring with honour, no returning to God without being infamous, without undergoing the brand of apostates from Satan, of a kind of fodi-fragi, covenantbreakers, and desertors.-Hammond. Works, vol. iv. p. 534.

Cleave to a wife, but let her be a wife, let her be a meet help, a solace, not a nothing, not an adversary, not a

desertrice.-Milton. Tetrachordon.

When churls rebel against their native prince,
I arm their hands, and furnish the pretence;
And, housing in the lion's hateful sign,
Bought senates and deserting troops are mine.
Dryden. Palamon & Arcile.

Tell her that's young,
And shuns to have her graces spy'd,
That hadst thou sprung

In deserts where no men abide,
Thou must have uncommended dy'd.-Waller. Song.

But rough, in open air he chose to lye;
Earth was his couch, his cov'ring was the sky.
On hills unshorn, or in a desart den,
He shunn'd the dire society of men.

Dryden. Virgil. Eneid, b. xi.

Slaves, who before did cruel masters serve,
May flie to desarts, and in freedom starve.
The noblest part of liberty they loose,
Who can but shun, and want the power to choose.
Id. The Rival Ladies, Act iv. sc. 1.

No more excuses or delays: I stand
In arms prepar'd to combat, hand to hand,
The base deserter of his native land.

Id. Virgil. Eneid, b. xii. Neither surely was it any other cause than excess of love,

which made that temporary desertion [by God] so grievous and bitter to him, extorting from his most meek and patient heart that wooful complaint, My God, My God, why hast thou forsaken me.-Barrow, vol. i. Ser. 23.

Moses fasted in the desert forty days and nights before he gave the law: so did Elias, the restorer of the law; and so did Christ before he entered into his ministry.

Jortin. Remarks on Ecclesiastical History. When I questioned the petty officer concerning what had happened on shore, he told me, that neither the natives who went with him, nor those whom they met on their way, would give them any intelligence of the deserters. Cook. Voyages, vol. i. b. i. c. 16.

It being no uncommon thing to see malefactors die stupid and senseless, and go out of the world as wickedly as they have lived in it; and what can this be attributed to, but to the desertion of God's Holy Spirit, which will not always strive with sinners, but sometimes leaves them to perish in the hardness of their hearts.-Sherlock. On Death, Dis. 24.




or ill.

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Desert,-formed from the past part. deserved, deserv'd, desert.

He, that mygtuol ys Dethe [doth] after oure deserte.-R. Gloucester, p. 253. I herd neuer telle, for what maner discert.

R. Brunne, p. 316. Thei asken hure huyre. [their hire] er thei hit have deservede.-Piers Plouhman, p. 53.

The best and greatest of valour
Didden Richesse full great honour,
And busie weren her to serue,
For that they would her loue deserue.

Chaucer. The Rom. of the Rose.
Thus wicked tong, God yeve him shame,
Can put hem euerichone in blame

Without desert and causelesse.-Id. Ib.

For they haue pryuily layed theyr net to destroye me without a cause, yea and made a pytte for my soule, whiche I neuer deserued.—Bible, 1551. Psalm 35.

For more is to be done for ye deseruour than for the exactour, more for the louyng maister than imperious comaundyng maister.-Udal. 1 Timothye, e 6.


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But this we must desire of his highness, and of your goodness, that you would not require more from us, by reason of his majesty's great deservings of us, than we can without offending God perform; and then you may assure yourselves of all the good offices which can be expected from us.-Slate Trials. Divorce of Catharine of Arragon, an. 1528. It cannot be, but this so great desart

In basest breast doth breede thus due regarde, With worlde of thankes, to praise this friendly part And wish that woorth mought pay a iust rewarde. E. C. in Prayse of Gascoigne's Posies. For-thy great wonder were it, if such shame Should ever enter in his bountious thought, Or euer doe that mote deseruen blame: The noble courage neuer weeneth ought, That may vnworthy of itselfe be thought.

Spenser. Faerie Queene, b. iii. c. 2. The valiant Cecil last, for great employment fit, Deservedly in war the lat'st of ours that rose; Whose honour euery hour, and fame still greater grows. Drayton. Poly-Olbion, s. 18.

And this disposition ariseth out of two things: first, a thorough conviction of a man's sins, and the offence to God in them, and obnoxiousness and deservedness to be destroyed for them.-Goodwin. Works, vol. i. pt. iii. p. 170.

Besides this, to Elwes your majesty has given an estate, (which is a greater gift than life, because it extends to posterity,) who was the worst deserver in this business.

State Trials. Murderers of Sir T. Overbury, an. 1616. Then Sir John Bushie stept foorth, and made request on the behalfe of the communaltie, that it might please the king's highnesse for their heinous acts attempted against his lawes and roiall maiestie, to appoint them punishment according to their deseruings.-Holinshed. Rich. II. an. 1397.

Is this the joy of armes? be these the parts Of glorious knighthood, after bloud to thirst And not regard due rights and iust desarts?

Spenser. Faerie Queene, b. ii. c. 2

Till I be more desertful in your eye;
And till my duty shall make known, I honour ye,
Noblest of women, do me but this favour,
To accept this back again, as a poor testimony.
Beaum. & Fletch. Wild Goose Chase, Act iv. sc. 6
He shew'd his generous spirit; all the town
Speak nobly of him, pity him and pray for him;
And, were he not desertful, by this time
The general vote had hang'd him.

Anonymous. The Gamester, Act ii.
If mine [friend] be but so wise, and apprehensive,
As my opinion gives him to my heart,

It stayes not long on thy desertless arme. Beaum. & Fletch. Wit at several Weapons, Act iii. sc. 1. Bac. But now people will call you valiant, desertlessly I think, yet for their satisfaction I will have you fight with me.-Id. Ib. A King and no King, Act iii.

If these words seem not decent enough, I will make no other apology, but that I use them because I cannot find worse for as they are the worst of men, so they deserve the worst of language.-Burnet. Own Time, vol. iv. Conclusion. If we speak of our desert, that is death, death is the only wages we have all deserved.—Bp. Beveridge, vol. ii. Ser. 90.

And in all his illness, which lasted some yeers, she [the queen] would never leave his bed; but sat up, sometimes half the night, in the bed by him, with such care and concern, that she was looked on, very deservedly, as a pattern in

this respect.-Burnet. Own Time, an. 1708.

But after-days, my friend, must do thee right,
And set thy virtues in unenvy'd light,
Fame due to vast desert is kept in store,
Unpaid, till the deserver is no more.

Congreve. To Sir Godfrey Kneller. Among all the ancient records in the Exchequer. Doomesday book is deservedly of the greatest reputation and value. Priestley. On History, Lect. 31.

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But where there is moisture enough, or superfluous, there wine helpeth to disgest, and desiccate the moisture. Bacon. Nat. Hist. § 727. They speak much of the elementary quality of siccity, or drienesse: and of things dessicating. Id. Ib. The History of Life and Death And it is well to be noted, that the pneumatical substance is in some bodies, the native spirit of the body; and in some other, plain air that is gotten in, as in bodies desiccate, by heat or age.-Id. Ib. § 842. 3 X

Desiccation or consumption, in the process thereof, is finished by three actions; and all these (as was said before) have their original from the native spirit of bodies. Bacon. The History of Life and Death.

All those authors that have written of mineral waters, do generally agree, that they are of a desiccative or drying nature. Ferrand. Love of Melancholy (1640.) p. 358.

We endeavour by moderate detergents & desiccants, to cleanse and dry the diseased parts.




Wiseman. Surgery, b. viii. c. 5.

Pra-siderare cum maturiùs hiberna tempestas movetur, quasi ante sideris tempus. Gr. Προ-χειμαζειν ; sic desiderare, sit ano-xeluage, cum sideris tempus desit; unde desiderari dicuntur quæ desunt:whence those things are said to be desiderated or desired, which are wanting, (Festus.) See Vossius, in v. Sidus. Pliny speaks at large, (lib. xviii. c. 26,) of the different stars, which mark or announce to the husbandman the approach and progress of the different seasons.

To look anxiously for, to wish, seek for or covet, (sc.) any thing deficient or wanting; any thing whose coming promises good, (sc.) as certain stars or constellations to the husbandmen.

Desideratum is in common use.

My name is True loue-of cardinal desidcry.

the very exemplary. Chaucer. Ballade. Craft of Louers.

So these are the parts which in the knowledge of medicine, touching the cure of diseases, are desiderate.

Bacon. On Learning, by G. Wats, b. iv. c. 2.

Having acquired our end, if any way, or under any name, we may obtain a work so much desired, and yet desiderated of truth.-Brown. Vulgar Errours. To the Reader.

And most men verily are of the same nature, passing good and desiderable things.-Holland. Plutarch, p. 124.

You may readily understand what I mean, when you meet with any particulars delivered as thoughts, or desiderata, or wishes tending to, or aiming at the improvement of medicine. Boyle. Works, vol. v. p. 584.

The verbs, called deponent, desiderative, frequentative, inceptive, &c. need not be considered here, being found in some languages only, and therefore not essential to speech.

Beattie. Elements of Moral Science, pt. i. c. 1. s. 3 Pencils of light, passing through glass lenses, are separated into different colours, thereby tinging the object, especially the edges of it, as if it were viewed through a prism. To correct this inconvenience had been long a desideratum in that art.-Paley. Natural Theology, c. 3.

DESIDIOUSNESS. Lat. Desidia, desidiosus, a desidendo, id est, valde sedendo; sitting too much. Slothfulness, idleness, carelessness.

Now the Germans perceiving our desidiousness and negligence, do send daily young scholars hither, that spoileth them [ancient authors] and cutteth them out of libraries, returning home and putting them abroad as monuments of their own country, &c.

Leland, to Secretary Cromwell, in Wood's Athena.







A very small portion of any ingenious art will stop up all those gaps of our time: either music, or painting, or designing, or chemistry, or history, or gardening, or twenty other things, will do it usefully and pleasantly. Cowley. Ess. Of Solitude.

"Twere more to his purpose to demand, what advantageth it him to gain not one atome, or most diminutive part of the world, not the least acquisition of any thing desirable even to the carnal man, satisfactory to any part of his appetite, save that in a manner Platonick, designless of love of sinning, and ruining his own soul, and yet to do that as sure, as if he had Satan's totum hoc, his whole exchequer of wealth and honour in exchange for it ?-Hammond. Works, vol. ii. The second bulwark was the heating sense,

Gainst which the second troupe designment makes. Spenser. Faerie Queene, b. ii. c. 11. After this hee presented himselfe againe at sundry times and that to this purpose (as may probably be coniectured) to hold her still in his possession, who was not able, eyther to look further into these subtilties, then the superficiall barke

thereof, or not discover the depth of his designements.

State Trials. Mary Smith, an. 1616.

Since then, the power of all natural agents is limited, the mover (be it never so powerful) must be confined to observe these proportions, and cannot pass over all these infinite designable degrees in an instant.-Digby. Of Bodies, c. 9.

He is an High Priest and a Saviour all-sufficient. First, by his Father's eternal designation, Psalm lxxxix. 90. İ have laid help upon one that is mighty, &c. Hopkins, Ser. 25. Again the atomick atheists further alledge, that though there be many things in the world, which serve well for vses, yet it does not at all follow that therefore they were made intentionally and designedly for those vses. Cudworth. Intellectual System, p. 670.

It being the usual method in which divine providence delighteth it self, to use and sanctify those very means, which ill men design for the satisfaction of private and particular ends and ambition, and other wicked purposes, to wholesome and publick ends, and to establish that good which is most contrary to the designers.

Clarendon. Civil War, vol. iii. p. 743.

Now what has Ajax done, or what design'd?
A noisy nothing, and an empty wind.

Dryden. Ovid. Metam. b. xiii.

To whom the Thunderer made this stern reply;
My household curse, my lawful plague, the spy
Of Jove's designs, his other squinting eye!
Why this vain prying, and for what avail?

Id. Homer. Iliad, b. xiii.

The designable parts of these corpuscles are therefore unseparable, because there is no vacuity at all intercepted between them.-Boyle. Works, vol. i. p. 413.

And a wise designation of time this is, well becoming the divine care and precaution; serving for the recruiting our bodies, and dispatching our affairs, and at the same time to keep up a spiritual temper of mind.

Derham. Physico-Theology, b. ii. c. 6.

As for the reason hereof, I shall refer to the opticians, particularly the famous Kepler, who in his Opticis Astronom. hath designedly handled this point.

Id. Astro-Theology, Ded.

Both these, Sir William D'Avenant had began to shadow; but it was so, as first discoverers drew their maps, with headlands, and promontories, and some few outlines of somewhat taken at a distance, and which the designer saw not clearly.-Dryden. Of Heroick Plays. An Essay.

Fr. Désigner; It. DiAll is drawn over with dusky shades, and irregular fea segnare; Sp. Designar; tures of base designfulness, and malitious cunning. Lat. Designare, to mark Barrow, vol. ii. Ser. 7. out, (de, and signum, a Ignorantly thankful creature, thou beggest in such a way, mark or sign, qv.) that by what would appear an antedated gratitude, if it were not a designless action, the manner of thy petitioning beforehand, rewards the grant of thy request. Boyle. Works, vol. ii. p. 359.

To mark out, to frame or form; and thus, (met.) to form in the mind, to scheme or plan, to intend, to purpose, to project.

And therefore, whatsoeuer wicked designement shal be conspired and plotted against her majesty hereafter, shall be thought to be conspired, plotted, and intended against the Almighty himselfe.-Hackluyt. Voyages, vol. i. p. 619.

For as the soul's essential pow'rs are three;
The quick'ning pow'r, the pow'r of sense and reason;
Three kinds of life to her designed be,
Which perfect these three powr's in their due season.
Davies. Immortality of the Soul, s. 33.

Why do ye seek for feigned Palladines,
(Out of the smoke of idle vanity,)
Who may give glory to the true designs
Of Bouchier, Talbot, Nevile, Willoughby?

and happy lucks at play are not rashly or designlessly shuf

Since Solomon does discreetly affirm, that all the cross fled by a blind hazard, but are dispensed by an all-ruling Providence.-Id. Ib. vol. vi. p. 80.

And the rather, because whilst men, by the coldness of the season, are more than ordinarily careful, to stop up the passages, at which the external air may get in, they do, though designlessly, stop up the vents, at which the subterraneous exhalations might go out.-Id. Ib. vol. ii. p. 675.

We sufficiently understand that the scenes which represent cities and countries to us, are not really such, but only painted on boards and canvass: but shall that excuse the ill painture or designment of them?

Dryden. Essay. Of Dramatick Poesie.

Ask of politicians the end for which laws were originally designed; and they will answer, that the laws were designed as a protection for the poor and weak. against the oppression Daniel. Civil Wars, b. v. of the rich and powerful.-Burke. Vindic, of Nat. Society.

Is their original mode of instruction and discipline altered. By no means. Are the instructors of a different description from those designated by the founders? By no means. Knox. On Grammar Schools

The only difference between God's appointment, of the Judges and of Saul being this, that they were chosen by internal impulse. He, by lots, or external designation. Warburton. Divine Legation, b. v. s. 3.

The machine, which we are inspecting, demonstrates, by its construction, contrivance and design. Contrivance must have had a contriver, design, a designer; whether the machine immediately proceeded from another machine or not. Paley. Natural Theology, c. 2,

This designment appears both iniquitous and absurd. Warburton. The Divine Legation, b. ii. s. 4.

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In front of this sea were placed six Tritons, in moving and sprightly actions, their upper parts humane, save that their haires were blue, as partaking to the sea-colour; their desinent parts fish, mounted above their heads, and all varied in disposition.-B. Jonson. Masque of Blacknesse.

In their poesies, the fettering together the series of the verses, with the bonds of like cadence or desinence of rhyme, which, if it be unusually abrupt, and not dependent in sense upon so near affinity of words, I know not what a loathsome kind of harshness and discordance it breedeth to any judicial ear.-Bp. Hall. Postscript to Satires.

4. Inceptives and desitives, which relate to the beginning or ending of any thing; as, the Latin tongue is not yet forgotten. No man before Orpheus wrote Greek verse. Peter, Czar of Muscovy, began to civilize his nation.


Watts. Logic, pt. ii. c. 2. s. 6.

Fr. Désirer; Sp. Desear; It. Disiare or Desiderare. See DESIDERATE.

To wish for, covet, long for, to be eager to obtain; to have a love or passion for; to ask for, intreat, require or demand.

See the quotations from Locke and Cogan.

War vore ych desyry mest thyn grace & thyn loue.

R. Gloucester, p. 309.

Of the north Suane had a partie, the south he desired.
R. Brunne, p. 42.

Ye ben of the fadir the Deuil, and ye wolen do the desires of youre fadir.-Wiclif. Jon, c. 8.

My liege lady, generally, quad he,
Women desiren to han soverainetee,
As well over hir hosbond as hir love,
And for to ben in maistrie him aboue.
This is your most desire, though ye me kille
Doth as you list, I am here at your wille.

Chaucer. The Wif of Bathes Tale, v. 6623.
For my desiring

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Was him to seen ouer all thing
His countenaunce and his manere.-Id. Rom. of the Rose.
Yong, fresh, and strong, in armes desirous,
As any bacheler of all his hous.

Id. The Squieres Tale, v. 10,337. Affeccion of this instrument is a thinge, by whiche ye beo ̧ drawe desirously any thinge to wilne in coueitcus maner, all be it for the tyme out of your mind. Id. The Testament of Loue, b. iii.

And so there whyle I me reioie,
Unto my herte a great desyre,
The whiche is hotter than the fire,

All sodenliche upon me renneth.-Gower. Con. 4. b. vi.
Wyfeles he was, Florent he hight,
He was a man, that mochell might:
Of armes he was desyrous.-Id. Ib. b. i.

Whereas God wil haue heuen so sore desyred and sought for, that he wyll haue the desyrers thereof, set by the pleasures of this worlde, not onely nothyng at all, but also seke for the contrary and suffer displeasure and payne.

Sir T. More. Workes, p. 1290. For it [the lawe] knew yt theyr heartes wer desyrful of reuenging.-Udal. Matthew, c. 5.

Ye haue heard it wt your eares, but ye haue need of readie & desirefull heartes, if ye wil be apt to receiue so great a blissefulnes.-Id. Luke, c. 4.

1 A greate benefite is much the sweter that it is not obteined without great and long suit. The pleasure of a goode turne is muche diminished whan it is at first obteyned. The desirefulnesse of our mindes muche augmenteth and encreaseth our pleasure. Udal. Preface unto the Kinges Maiestie. Than Jesus because he would ye more enkiendle desirefulnes, sebled & made countenaunce as though he would not make ani tariaunce at Emaus, but made as though he had yet somewhat ferther wai to goe.-Id. Luke, c. 23.

I reken also, that this booke shall be very profytable for yonge scolers of this realme which are desyrous to learn the Latin tong-J. C. To the Christen Reader, an. 1550.

For the Hebrewes to expresse a thynge vehementlye, vse often tymes as it appeareth in sundrie places of Scripture, o double a word, as our Sauioure dydde here, saying: wyth desyre haue I desyred: that is to witte, very sore haue I desyred, or very desyrouslye haue I longed for to eate this paschal lambe with you.-Sir T, More. Workes, p. 1321.

Whome Ptolemy to cloke his deceit wythall, desirously and beyond all measure of true loue and affection, embrased and kissed a great while together.-Goldinge. Justine, fol.108.

But he was content with the recouery of the cities that he had lost, and so concluding a peace, desirously tooke the occasion of quietness when it was offered him.

Id. Ib. fol. 121.

For to the highest she did still aspire,
Or if ought higher were then that, did it desire.

Spenser. Faerie Queene, b. I. c. 4.

O wherefore did God grant me my request,
And as a blessing with such pomp adorn'd?
Why are his gifts desirable, to tempt

Our earnest prayers, then, giv'n with solemn hand
As graces, draw a scorpion's tail behind.

Milton. Samson Agonistes.

And therefore being all of a sudden bid to hold up my hand at the bar, I cannot chuse but a little demur upon it, and yet with all respect to you, to declare my desireableness to keep within the bounds of reason, moderation, and discretion, and so carry myself as doth become a man, that knows what it is to answer for his life.

State Trials. Lieut.-Col. John Lilburne, an. 1649.

He [Sir James Crofts] was an able man to manage war, and yet an earnest desirer and advancer of peace, being one of the commissioners in 1588 to treat with the Spaniard in Flanders.-Fuller. Worthies. Hertfordshire.

Life is the passing of a shadow, short, troublesome, and dangerous; a place which God hath given us in time for the desiring of eternity.-Bp. Taylor. Cont. b. i. c. 6.

This golden show made him so desirous also of like successe, that he left off his former voyage and returned home to bring news of such things as he had seene.

Holinshed. Desc. of England, c. 11. That desire is a state of vneasiness, every one who reflects on himself will quickly find. Who is there that has not felt in desire what the wise man said of hope, (which is not much different from it) that it being defer'd makes the heart sick; and that still proportionable to the greatness of the desire: which sometimes raises the uneasiness to that pitch, that it makes people cry out, give me children, give me the thing desir'd, or I die.-Locke. Hum. Underst. b. ii. c. 21.

If you demand by what impulsive force
The under Gods begin their circling course;

He says, as things desirable excite

Desire, and objects move the appetite;
So his first God by kindling ardent love,
Does all the Gods in seats inferior move.

Blackmore. Creation, b. v. But of the desirableness of the skill, and willingness to cure the sick, and relieve not only those that languish in hospitals, but those that are rich enough to build them (I have) else where purposely discoursed.

Boyle. Works, vol. ii. p. 201.

If they were indeed desirous to approve themselves to God, they would strive against those sins which hold them in captivity.—Sharp, vol. iii. Ser. 16.

The greatest part of the world keep the crown upon the Devil's head; they are his servants, and yield him the throne of their hearts, and he reigns in them: but those that are the people of God, they do with their hearts acknowledge his right and title to them, and do most desirously close with him.-Bates. The Everlasting Rest of the Saints.

Desire (influential to action) may be defined, that uneasy sensation excited in the mind by the view or by the contemplation of any desirable good, which is not in our possession, which we are solicitous to obtain, and of which the attainment appears at least possible.

Cogan. On the Passions, pt. i. c. 2. s. 3.

He neglects his ease and his honours together, and despises fame as well as pleasure and riches, and all mortal desirables, when they stand in competition with his immortal hopes.-Watts, vol. i. Ser. 2.

As the natural man neglects the two chief spirits he has any concern with, that is God and his own soul; so fleshly objects are his chief desire: but the spiritual man despises them all, in comparison of the unseen desirables of the spiritual world.-Id. Ib. Ser. 4.

It is only the honest, sincere enquirer, who comes to his Bible with a heart desirous to learn his duty in the conscientious discharge of a good life, who can hope to find it in the words of eternal life.-Gilpin, vol. iv. Ser. 25.



Fr. Désister; Sp. Desistir It. and Lat. Desistere, (de, and sistere, to stand.)

To stand off, or away from; to quit, to leave off, to cease, to give over, to stop or to stay, to forbear.

Thus Owen Glendor glorifying hym self in these two victories, laden with praies and bloudy handes returning againe into Wales neuer desistyng to do euill.-Hall. Hen. IV. an.1.

The more thei here suffere for teachinge the trewth the greater ióye abydethe them: let vs not therfor desiste, nor be afraide, but let vs not neglecte our office for Crystes sake, (good Cryste bretheren,) but speke and wryte as long as we may.-Joye. Exposicion of Daniel, c. 12.

And again, the going into the city was a pursuance and carrying on of the enterprize against the court, and not a desisting or departing from it.

State Trials. Sir Christopher Blunt, an. 1600. When no persuasion Could win him to desist from his bad practice, To change the aristocracy of Corinth Into an absolute monarchy, I chose rather To prove a pious and obedient son To my country, my best mother, than to lend Assistance to Timophanes, tho' my brother, That, like a tyrant, strove to set his foot Upon the city's freedom.

Massinger. The Bondman, Act 1. sc. 3. What frenzy, goddesses: what rage can move Celestial minds to tempt the wrath of Jove? Desist, obedient to his high command: This is his word: and know, his word shall stand. Pope. Homer. Iliad, b. viii. Whereas men usually give freeliest where they have not given before, and make it both the motive and excuse of their desistance from giving any more, that they have given already; God's bounty hath a very different method: for he uses to give, because he hath given, and that he may give. Boyle. Works, vol. i. p. 269.

A politician desists from his designs, when he finds they are impracticable; he renounces the court, because he hath been affronted by it, he quits ambition for study or retirement; and leaves off his attendance on the great as he becomes weary of it.-Blair, vol. i. Lect. 10.

DESK, v. A table to write upon. Dut. Disch, Ger. Tisch, a table; perDESK, n. haps from the Lat. Discus, because a table resembles a discus in its broad form or shape, (Skinner.) Sometimes written Dess, (qv.) To desk,-to shut up or enclose, as in a desk. The egle sang Venite bodies all

And let vs ioy to loue that is our health, And to the deske anon they gan to fall. Chaucer. The Court of Loue. And whyle he sayd his orysons for that soule and other, he layed his gloues vpon a deske by him.

Fabyan, vol. i. c. 201.

Sir, 'tis a perspicil, the best under heaven, With this I'll read a leaf of that small Iliad, That in a walnut-shell was desked, as plainly Twelve long miles off, as you see Paul's from Highgate. Tomkis. Albumazar, Act i. sc. 3. Where (at the west end of the great hall at Westminster) the lord president, in a crimson velvet chair, fixed in the midst of the court, placed himself, having a desk with a

crimson velvet cushion before him.

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I were right now of tales desolat
N'ere that a marchant, gon in many a yere,
Me taught a tale, which that ye shull here.

Chaucer. The Man of Lawes Tale, v. 4551. Now therfor [our God] heare the supplicacion of thy seruant, hear his prayers beseching thee to showe a merciable countenaunce vpon thy holy temple, thus desolated and destroid.-Joye. Exposicion of Daniel, c. 9.

When she had passed the sea and taken lande, it was to her declared, how that King Edward had gotten again the garland, and that king Henry her husband, was desolately left post alone, and takē prisoner.-Hall. Edw. IV. an. 10.

She [Lady Elizabeth] againe likewise saluting them saide, my lordes, (quoth she) I am glad to see you: for me thinke I haue been kept a great while from you desolately alone. Fox. Martyrs, p. 1900.

They came vnto Man with a mightie army and wasted all the south part of Man, spoiled the churches, and slue all the men, whom they could take, insomuch, the south part of the saide island was brought almost into desolation

Hackluyt. Voyages, vol. i. p. 14.

There, all alone, she spy'd, alas, the while!
In shady darkness, a poor desolate,
That now had measured many a weary mile
Through a waste desert, whither heav'nly fate,
And his own will, him brought.

G. Fletcher. Christ's Triumph on Earth.

Though he was afterwards set at liberty, and had a pension from the king, he was in great want to the very last, living obscurely in his chambers at Gray's Inn, where his lonely and desolate condition so wrought upon his melancholy temper that he pined away.

State Trials, Lord Bacon, an. 16207

Let never spring visit his habitation,
But nettles, kix, and all the weedy nation
With empty elders grow, sad signs of desolation.
G. Fletcher. Christ's Triumph over Death.

Who is this desolater, or maker of desolations?

Mede. On Daniel, p. 44.

Where these two things are taken by these expositors for granted. 1. That the taking away of the dayly sacrifice, and this desolatory abomination, is to be understood of the last destruction of Jerusalem by Titus. Bp. Hall. Revelation Unrevealed.

O righteous Themis! if the pow'rs above
By pray'rs are bent to pity, and to love;
If human miseries can move their mind;
If yet they can forget, and yet be kind;
Tell how we may restore, by second birth,
Mankind, and people desolated earth.

Dryden. Ovid. Metam. b. 1. There is an eminent instance of this in Nehemiah, whom all the pleasures of the Persian court could not satisfy, whilst Jerusalem was desolately miserable.

Bates. Works, vol. iv. Ser. 4.

On the self-same day
When we embark'd from Greece, designing death
And desolation to the race of Troy;
Both by his right hand thunders, and the sign
Of which ye hear, Jove ratified our hopes.




having no regard to

Cowper. Homer. Iliad, b. il. Fr. Désespérer; Sp. Desesperar; It. Disperare; Lat. Desperare, to be without hope, (de, and sperare, to hope.) See the quotations from Locke and Cogan.

To be or cause to be without hope, hopeless. Desperate, without hope, hopeless; and, therefore, careless, reckless, fearless, consequences.

And ich shal sende gow myselve Seynte Michel myn aungel,

That no Devel shal gow dere, ne despeir in goure deyenge.
Piers Plouhman, p. 149
Drede of desperacion thenne dryveth a wey grace.

He was dispeired, nothing dorst he say
Sauf in his songes somwhat wold he wray
His wo, as in a general complaining;
He said, he loved, and was beloved nothing.

Id. p. 336.

Chaucer. The Frankeleines Tale, v. 11,255.
And he that wil not after counsaile do,
His sute he putteth into disperaunce,
And all the good that should fal him to

Is lost and dedde.-Id. La belle Dame sans Mercie.
Whereof my wittes ben empeired,

And I, as who saith, all dispeired.-Gower. Con. A. b. ill.
For in suche drede he shall us brynge,
That if we haden flight of wynge,

The weye one foote in dispaire

We shull leue, and flee in the ayre.-Id. Ib. b. vil,

I am in tristesse all amidde,

And fulfilled of desperance:

And thereof yeue me my penaunce

Myn holy father, as you liketh.-Gower. Con. A. b. v.

He is our God if we despayre in our selues, and trust in him and his is the glory.-Tyndall. Workes, p. 456.

A mã childe was it that she despered of the Lord, and such a one as shuld be the firste fruit of her wobe.

Bale. Apology, fol. 30. Of these thinges springeth eyther cotempt, or else desperance of the kingdō of heauen.-Udal. Mark, c. 13.

But Gynecia laying open in all her gestures the despairful affliction, to which all the might of her reason was converted, with such like words stopped Philanax, as he was entering into his invective oration. Sydney. Arcadia, b. v. And the Deuel is desperate and hath not nor cannot haue faith and trust in God's promises.

Sir T. More. Workes, p. 266. But a child whe he is beaten for his faute, or whe he thinketh his father is angry & loueth him not, is anone desperate and discouraged.-Tyndall. Workes, p. 219.

Whom when I saw assembled in such wise,
So desperately the battail to desire,
Then furthermore thus sayd I vnto them.

Surrey. Virgile. Eneid, b. ii.

And if for desperatenesse ye care not for yourselues, yet remember your wines, your children, your countric, and forsake this rebellion.-Sir J. Cheeke. The Hurt of Sedition.

And yf we loke vnto the lande, beholde, it shall be all
darckenesse and sorowe. If we loke to heauen: beholde, it
shal be darcke with carefull desperacion.
Bible, 1551. Isaye, c. 5.

Come, come away, fraile, silly, fleshly wight,
Ne let vaine words bewitch thy manly hart,
Ne deuelish thoughts dismay thy constant spright.
In heauenly mercies hast thou not a part?
Why should'st thou then despaire, that chosen art.

But though I thought it not amiss to make these animad-
versions upon Mr. Hobbes's ratiocination, yet as to the opi-
nion itself for whose sake he speaks so severely and so
despairingly of our society, if it be considered as I proposed
it, he shews me as yet no cause at all to renounce it.
Boyle. Works, vol. i. p. 237.

For on the rocks it bore where Scylla raves,
And dire Charybdis rolls her thundering waves.
All night I drove; and at the dawn of day,
Fast by the rocks, beheld the desperate way.

Pope. Homer. Odyssey, b. xviii.

After he hath lain some time under these terrors and

affrightments, and even upon the brink of desperation, it
pleaseth God, at length, by his Spirit to break through this
cloud, and to dart some beams of light and comfort into his
conscience. Sharp, vol. iii. Ser. 13.

To whom the sire of Gods and men replied:
Juno, despair to be inform'd of all

My plans and views: Jove's consort as thou art,
Thou could'st not learn them.-Cowper. Homer. Iliad, b. i.

Despair; this is a permanent fear of losing some valuable
good, of suffering some dreadful evil, or remaining in a state
of actual misery, without any mixture of hope.
Cogan. On the Passions, pt. i. c. 2. s. 3.

It is true, indeed, that no man becomes at once desperately
and irretrievably wicked.-Hurd. Works, vol. vi. Ser. 16.

This institution provides a retreat for these wretched outcasts of society,-not for those only who by a single fault, seldom without its extenuations, have forfeited the protection of their nearest friends; but even for these, generally the most unpitied, but not always the most undeserving of pity among the daughters of Eve, whom desperation, the effect of their first false step, hath driven to the lowest walks of vulgar prostitution.-Bp. Horsley, Ser. 43.


DESPEED. To send with speed, haste, or
Spenser. Faerie Queene, b. i. c. 9. despatch. Found only in Speed.

How can I expiate my sin? or hope
Though now I write myself thy slave, the service
Of my whole life can win thee to pronounce
Despair'd of pardon.-Massinger. Guardian, Act ill. sc. 6.
What wight art thou? a foe? or else what fawning frend?
If Death thou art, I pray thee make an end:-
With that she spake: I am (quoth she) thy friend Despaire,
Which in distresse each worldly wight with speede do aide ;
I rid them from their foes, if I to them repaire.

Mirrour for Magistrates, p. 66.

Which still sat waiting on that wastfull clift,
For spoyle of wretches, whose vnhappy case,
After lost credite and consumed thrift,
At last them driuen hath to this despairefull drift.

Spenser. Faerie Queene, b. ii. c. 12.

There be other sorts of cryes also used among the Irish, which favour greatly of the Scythian barbarisme; as their lamentations at their buryals, with dispairfull out-cryes. Id. State of Ireland. Whereas were there any such thing really, tis not likely but that the more cunning and subtle desperados, who might the more succesfully carry on the mischievous designs of the dark kingdom, should be oftener engaged in those black confederacies.-Glanvill. Witchcraft, s. 8. p. 34.

So Satan, whom repulse upon repulse Met ever; and to shamefull silence brought, Yet gives not o'er though desperate of success, And his vain importunity pursues.-Milton. Par. Reg. b.iv. Then with such eager blows each other they pursue, As every offer made should threaten imminent death; Until, through heat and toil both hardly drawing death, They desperately do close.-Drayton. Poly-Olbion, s. 12. Consider, I beseech you, of the desperateness and excessive unavoidable destructiveness of these monstrous ways to the speedy peace and settlement of our church and state, and of the safety and security of the things yourselves have pitched on for peace and settlement, in and by the treaty.

Parliamentary Hist. Charles I. 1648. Prynne. Speech. The Lord Digby, being by himself, quickly considered the desperateness of his condition: That it would not be possible to conceal himself long, being so well known to many who were in the Providence, and the garrison quickly knowing whatsoever was spoken in the country.

Clarendon. Civil War, vol. i. p. 705.

That place for paine so fearfull to the minde,
That dreames of it have desperation wrought,
Hath beene by some (to search such deeps inclin'd)
No locall ground, but a privation thought.

Stirling. Domes-Day. The Eleventh Houre. Despair is the thought of the unattainableness of any good, which works differently in men's minds, sometimes producing uneasiness or pain, sometimes rest and indolency. Locke. Hum. Und. b. ii. c. 20.

Nor with an idle care did he behold:
(Subjects may grieve, but monarchs must redress ;)
He cheers the fearful, and commends the bold,
And makes despairers hope for good success.
Dryden. Annus Mirabilis.

Out of hand they despeeded certaine of their crue, to craue both pardon of their fact, and licence for choyce of some worthier primate.-Speed. King John, b. ix. c. 8. s. 31.

And, as he says rarely well, though some creatures scem to be made of much coarser stuff than others, yet even in the vilest, the maker's art shines through the despicableness of the matter.-Boyle. Works, vol. ii. p. 13.

He that is but moderately skilled in androtomy, (as some of the moderns call the dissection of man's body, to distinguish it from zootomy, as they name the dissections of the bodies of other animals,) may, with due diligence and industry, not despicably improve his anatomical knowledge. Id. Ib. p. 68.

The affections which have their seat in the body can yield us no honour; they are capable of no improvement; the higher they rise, the more despicable we grow.


Sherlock, vol. i. Dis. 23.

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Chaucer renders-Spernendus est, it is to despise; the only mode then adopted for rendering the participles in rus and dus, Despicion is frequent in Sir T. More.

For he seide, "thou ne louest me nogt as thi sostren doth,
Ac despisest me in myn olde liue, thou ne schalt never

Part habbe of my kyndom, ne of lond that myn ys.
R. Gloucester, p. 31.
And Favel hathe wt false speche. fetted hem by this lettere
To be prynces of prude. and poverte to dispice.
Piers Ploukman, p. 28.
Paule primus heremite, put vs hym selue
Awey into wildernesse, the world to despisen.-Id. Crede.

Wher ye han not rad this Scripture the stoon which the bilders han dispisid this is mad into the heed of the corner. Wiclif. Mark, c. 12.

Crist Kyng of Israel com down now fro the cros that we seen and bileeve: and thei that waren crucified with him

But King John, being no lesse earnest to further the pre-dispisiden him.-Id. Ib. c. 15.
sent general cause, then they their particular ends, delayed
not their desires; and despeeding his charters and safe con-
ducts to the Archbishop and his fellow exiles, hee as speedily

arriued.-Id. Ib. b. ix. c. 8. s. 51.




Lat. Despicari, despicabilis, to look down upon, (sc.) as worthless. And thus, consequentially,

contemptible. See DESPISE.

God chees the feble thingis and dispisable thingis of the world to confounde the stronge thingis.-Id. 1 Corynth. c. 1. Therefore se ghe that it come not to ghou that is bifore seid in the prophetis, ghe dispiseris, se ghe and woundre ghe, and be ghe scaterid abrood.-Id. Dedis, c. 13.

For which thing I am plesid in myn ynfyrmytees, in dispisingis, in nedis, in persecutiouns, in angwisschis for Crist. Id. 2 Corynth. c. 12.

Of which shrewes, all be the hoost neuer so great, it is to Worthless, vile, mean, dispise, for it is not gouerned with no leader of reason, but it is rauished onely by fletyng errour, folily, and lightly. Chaucer. Boecius, b. i.

But if our shepherdes had been as well willing to feede as
to shere, we had needed no such dispicience, nor they to
haue burnt so many as they haue.-Tyndall. Workes, p.287.

In other terms, Christian humilitie is a clear inspection
into, and a full despection of ourselves.
Mountague. Deroute Essayes, pt. ii. Treat. 9. s. 1.
They who take then either of these guides, reason or grace,
to carry them up the cliff of meditation, may cast down their
thoughts in a calm despection of all those shining attractions,
which they see to be so transitory.--Id. Ib. pt.i. Treat.19. s.6.

How have the histories of all ages, and our own experi-
ence, shown us by very frequent examples, men unex-
pectedly, and upon many moments and occurrences,
seemingly most small and inconsiderable, tumbled in a
moment from the most eminent and high degree of power,
into a most despised and despicable condition?

Hale. Cont. vol. i. Of Humility.

We are men, which is a mercy far above any temporal affliction that we can suffer. God might have made us worms instead of men, such despicable creatures as are below common notice.-Bp. Wilkins. Of Nat. Religion, b. i. c. 17.

Consider again, that he who is a servant to men, may be the Lord's free-man; whereas he that is free among men, may be a slave to his lusts, and by them to the Devil: and therefore we ought neither to think despicably of them, nor to use them severely.-Hopkins. Expos. on 5th Commandm.

It is very probable, that to shew their despiciency of the poor Gentiles, and to pride themselves in their prerogative and discretion from them, they [the Jews] affected to have such acts there done.-Mede. Diatr. p. 191.

But when my power is despicable grown,
And rebel appetites usurp the throne,
The soul no longer quiet thoughts enjoys,
But all is tumult and eternal noise.

Pomfret. Love triumphant over Reason.

Of which though there be an huge armie, yet it is to be despised, because it is not gouerned by any captaine, but is carried vp and downe by phantasticall errour without any order at all.-Translation of Boecius, by I. T. 1609.

And so my fadir in this wise
The slepy nightes I despise;
And euer a middes of my tale

I thinke vpon the nightingale.--Gower. Con. A. b. iv.

Behold ye despysers and wonder, and perishe ye: for I do a worke in your dayes, which ye shall not beleue, yf a mã woulde declare it you.-Bible, 1551. Actes, c. 13.

So I say agayne, that we make none necessarye article of the fayth of our parte, but leaue it indifferent for all men to judge therein, as God shall open his hart, and no side to condemne or despise the other but to nourish in all thynges brotherly love, and to beare others infirmities.

Frith. Workes, p. 170.

But it were rather to bee iudged, that I were a tempter of God, & a despiser of his holy ordinaunce, and would not bee content with those remedies, that God hath appointed. Barnes. Workes, p. 337. They shall neither be gathered together nor buryed, but shal lye vpon the earth, to theyr shame and despysynge.

Bible, 1551. Jeremye, c. 8.

The author sheweth manye of Luther's heresies to be so abhominable, & some part also so peuish, that the very bare rehearsall is ynough without any ferther despicion therupō, to cause anye good menne abhorre them, and to be ashamed also to seme so foolyshe as to holde them.

Sir T. More. Workes, p. 248.

Lest we ascribe to the one that which belongeth to the other, and make of Christ, Moses, of the gospell, the law, despise grace and robbe fayth: & fal from meke learnyng into idle despitions, drawling and scoldyng about wordes. Tyndall Workes, p. 377.

For-thy, she would not in discourteous wise
Scorne the faire offer of good will profest;
For great rebuke it is, loue to despise,
Or rudely sdeigne a gentle hart's request.
Spenser. Faerie Queene, b. iii. c. 1.

The interests of religion, in the maintenance of truth, are not so despisable, as that he that hath appeared or embarked in them, can safely neglect the advantages which evil arts may yield, or furnish an adversary against him.

Hammond. Works, vol. ii. pt. ii. p. 415. Therefore he sent foolishness to confute wisdom, weakness to blind strength, despisedness to vanquish pride.

Milton. Reason of Church Government, b. ii. c. 1.

For he [Pyrrhus] was a man that could tell how to humble himself towards the great (by whom he might win benefit) and know also how to creep into their credit; and in like manner was he a great scorner and despiser of such as were his inferiours.-North. Plutarch, p. 331.

And lastly, in regard of his easie passage through Italie without resistance, hee [Charles VIII.] entred into an ouermuch despising of the armies of the Italians. Bacon. Hen. VII. p. 143.

Surely it is the contempt and despisement of worldly wealth, that is a great heip and meanes to learning and philosophy.-Holland. Plutarch, p. 128.

The appearance of the service he did him was such, that the king thought it fit to treat him [Monk] with great distinction, even after he saw into him, and despised him.

Burnet. Own Time, an. 1660.
Policy, the great idol of a carnal reason, is that which in-
Bensibly works the soul to a despisal of religion.
South, vol. viii. Ser. 13.

I suppose it will be easily granted, that he who acts in a continual repugnancy to God's Spirit, by a despisal of all his holy motions and suggestions, sins, and that at a very high strain.-Id. vol. xi. Ser. 11. 12.

The waters of Jordan had no natural efficacy to cleanse a leper; in the rod of Moses there was no power to divide the sea, but, when ordained by God to these purposes, the sea fled back at the touch of Moses's rod, and the leprosy of Naaman was purged by the so much despised waters of Israel.-Sherlock, vol. i. Dis. 3.

To such a being as I have just mentioned the difference may be as considerable and imperceptible between the despiser and the despised, as the difference between two of the meanest insects may seem to us.

Fielding. The Covent Garden Journal, No. 61.






And whan she herde him werne her so,
She had in hert so great woo

And toke it in so great despite
That she without more respite

Was deed anon.-Chaucer. Rom. of the Rose.
On which he said how that his wives three
Honged hemself for hertes despitous.

Id. The Wif of Bathes Prologue v. 6343.
Sone after cometh this constable home again,
And eke Alla, that king was of that lond,
And saw his wife despitously yslein,
For which ful oft he wept and wrong his hond.
Id. The Man of Lawes Tale, v. 5025.
Where their sect hath already fordone the faith, pulled
down the churches, polluted the temples, put out and spoyled
al good religious folke, ioyned frers and nunes together in
lechery, despited al sayntes, &c.
Sir T. More. Workes p. 284.
The gouernour allowed vs horses and a guide vnto another
towne, wherein wee found one Michaas to be gouernour, a
man full of malice and despight.

Hackluyt. Voyages, vol. i. p. 64.

First we trust that among the clergy ther be many men
of that goodnes & vertue, yt scante a deuyll could finde in
his harte to handle them in such dispitious and dispightfull
manner.-Sir T. More. Workes, p. 308.

The shall they be in carefulnesse, whyche nowe haue
abused my wayes: and they that haue cast them oute de-
spightfullye, shal dwell in paynes.
Bible, 1551. Esdras, b. iii. c. 9.

And so shal the princesses in Persia, and Media saye
lykewise vnto all the kinges prices whe they heare of this
dede of the quene; thus shall there aryse despytefulnes and
wrathe ynoughe.-Id. Esther, c. 1.

Both I and hee that siely beast sustaine
For louing well and bearing faithfull harts,
Despitous checks, and rigorous disdaine,
Where both hath well deserued for our parts,
For friendship I, for offred seruice hee,
And yet thou neyther loouste the dog nor me.

Turberville. To his Loue.

While diuerse partes of Christendome, some by the cruell
Turkes are assaulted, and some by sundry sectes of here-
tikes through inward deuisio dispiteously mangled and torne.
Sir T. More. Workes, p. 1379.

Then having taken certain players and minstrels that
came from Massina, he [Cleomenes] set up a stage within
the enemies countrey, made a game of forty minas for the
victor, and sate a whole day to look upon them, for no
pleasure he took in the sight of it, but more to despight the
enemies withall, in making them see how much he was
stronger than they to make such a maygame in their own
country, in despight of them.-North. Plutarch, p. 672.
Which when shee heard, as in despightfull wise,
She wilfully her sorrow did augment
And offred hope of comfort did despise.

Spenser. Faerie Queene, b. ii. c. 1.

But chiefely Paridell his hart did grate,
To heare him threaten so despightfully,
As if he did a dogge to kennell rate
That durst not bark.

Id. Ib. b. iii. c. 9.

Fr. Despiter, despit; It. Dispetto. This word is usually referred to the same origin as despise. But the existence of the uncompounded spite in EnDESPITEOUSLY. glish, and spit, spiiten in Dutch, causes Junius to hesitate. If these words be of northern origin, he fixes upon the Ger. Spitten, spuere, despuere,-to spit, to spit down, as the root. In Goth. Spey-an; A. S. Spæt-an. Spite being-dedignatio et contemptus rei, ad cujus mentionem fastidiosè despuimus,-disdain or contempt of any thing, at the mention of which we spit contumeliously. A forcible illustration occurs, Mar. viii. 65, "Sume agunnum him on spatan" which Wiclif renders, Summe bigunnen to bi-spete him;" manifesting their spite or despite strongly enough. And to this day, "To spit his spite" is a common expression. And G. Douglas, (in the Preface, 1. 44.) I spitte for dispitte." The dragged at horse-heeles, for the terrour of others. applications of despite are more various and extensive than those of despise.

They are not pleased again, till they have gotten him into their inquisition, to examine him with despightfulness and torture.-Hammond. Works, vol. iv. p.

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To act with spite, with contempt, with malignity, with malicious anger, mischievous resentment, resistance or opposition; to harass, to vex, to cross, to thwart, to defy.

And hadden despit, that wommon kyng schulde be.
R. Gloucester, p. 37.
Tille Emme, Hardknoute's moder, he did a grete outrage
His brother a foule despite, him self vileyn skandre, [i. e.
R. Brunne, p. 53.
For he litheth and loveth that Godes lawe despiteth.
Piers Plouhman, p. 116.
An hep of eremites. henten hem spades
Spitten & spradde donge. in despit of honger.-Id. p. 137.

Wher a pottere of cley hath no power to make of the same gobet oo vessel into onour, a nothir into dispyte. Wiclif. Romaynes, c. 9.


Nath'lesse it fell with so despitious dreare
And heauy sway, that hard vnto his crowne
The shield it droue, and did the couering reare.
Spenser. Faerie Queene, b. iv. c. 8.
Despiteous reproaches are never seemely and decent in the
mouth of a magistrate and man of honour.
Holland. Plutarch, p. 299.
Some of whom formerly hee had caused to bee despiteously
Speed. King John, b. ix. c. 8. s. 23.

She look'd to sea-ward, but the sea was void,
And scarce in ken the sailing ships descry'd:
Stung with despight, and furious with despair,
She struck her trembling breast, and tore her hair.

"Fr. Despouiller,-to strip, uncloath, dis-array; despoyl; take away, unfurnish, deprive or bare of; to rob," (Cotgrave.)

Tho the Romeyns were wythout chef, dyscomfortd hii were
And to spradde hem her & ther & the othere after vaste,
And slowe & despoylede, and to grounde hem caste.
R. Gloucester, p. 212.
And he in derke mete
With robbours and with revers. that riche men despoilen.
Piers Plouhman, p. 218.

And I that am put away from good men, and dispoiled of
dignities, and defouled of my name by gessyng, haue suffred
turmentes for my good deeds.--Chaucer. Boecius, b. i.
And for that nothing of hire olde gere
She shoulde bring into his hous, he bad
That women shuld despoilen hir right there,
Of which thise ladies weren nothing glad
To handle hire clothes wherin she was clad.
Id. The Clerkes Tale, v. 8250.

The clothed erth is than bare,
Dispoiled is the summer fare.-Gower. Con. A. b. viii.
Then the kynge rose and wente downe the scaffolde to the
hygh auter to be sacred, at whiche consecracyon there were
two archbysshoppes, and ten bysshoppes, and before the
aulter ther he was dispoyled out of all his vestures of estate.
Berners. Froissart. Cronicle, vol. ii. c. 245.

Luc. What's that?

Lam. My poor life,

Which do not leave me as a farther torment,
Having dispoil'd me of my sword, mine honor,
Hope of my ladies grace, fame and all else
That made it worth the keeping.

Beaum. & Fletch. Love's Cure, Act v. sc. 1.
But that which gladded all the warrior-train,
Though most were sorely wounded, none were slain,
The surgeons soon despoil'd them of their arms,
And some with salves they cure, and some with charms.
Dryden Palamon & Arcite.

What money was obtained is unknown, or what terms were stipulated for the maintenance of these despoiled and forlorne creatures; for by some particulars it appears as if an engagement of the kind was made.


Burke. On Mr. Fox's East India Bill.

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DESPONDINGLY. Despondere is, also, to despair of. renders Livy (3. 38) desponderant animos; they let fall their hearts and were discouraged. And Varro says, "Qui desponderat filiam, despondisse dicebatur, quod de sponte ejus, id est, ex voluntate exierat." And, "Sic despondisse animum quoque dicitur, ut despondisse filiam, quod suæ spontis statuerat finem;" because he had put an end to his own free will; his own freedom or liberty of

action. And thus

To yield, resign or abandon; (sc.) from hopelessness or despair; to give up or relinquish hope; to despair.

To morrow is in God's hand, and the care of it is his, and not ours, and therefore he bids us take no thought of tomorrow; that is, with no tormenting, carking, and desponding, thoughts.-Hopkins. Pract. Expos. on the Lord's Prayer

Tho' it becomes the best of men to have a yielding and a soft spirit under the afflicting hand of God, yet be careful to bear up thyself under the power and goodness of God from fainting and despondence.--Hale. Cont. vol. i. Of Afflictions.

To insist upon every particular circumstance, whereby men may aggravate their afflictions, is the ready means to add fuel to their impatience, and to drive them to Dryden. Virgil. Eneid, b. iv. despondency.-Bp Wilkins. Natural Religion, b. i. c. 17.

This with the hazard of the squire,
Inflam'd him with despiteful ire;
Courageously he fac'd about

And drew his other pistol out.-Hudibras, pt. i. c. 3.
Let the lying lips be put to silence: which cruelly, dis-
dainfully, and despitefully speak against the righteous.
Bible. Psalm xxxi. 18.
Let us examine him with despitefulness and torture that
we may know his meekness and prove his patience.
Id. Wisdom, ii. 19.
DESPOIL, v. Fr. Despouiller; It. Dispo-
gliare; Lat. Despoliare. The Lat. Spolium, Tooke
derives from the A. S. Spill-an, privare. Vossius
merely conjectures.

Thus mercy stretches out her hand, and saves
Desponding Peter sinking in the waves.

Dryden. Britannia Rediviva.

This [sincerity and integrity of the heart] enables a man to look back without horror, to look about him without shame, to look within without confusion, and to look forward without despondency.-Stillingfleet, vol. ii. Ser. 5.

For a despondent sinner to think thus of himself, that God will expect perfection from a man answerable to the measure of an angel, or that God will triumph in the mere torments of his creatures, or that he delights in their ruin; it is a sin equal to atheism; yea it is in some respects worse than atheism.-Bates. On the Fear of God, c. 15.

I am no desponder in my nature.-Swift.

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