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There be Monks in Russia, for penance, that will sit a whole night in a vessel of water till they be ingaged with hard ice.-Bacon. Essays. Of Custome.

IN-GEM, v. To cover or inclose with gems.
Living topaz! that ingemm'st
This precious jewel.-Cary. Dante, Par. xv. 82.
IN-GO, v.
It is ful hard, by myn heed! quod Piers,
For any of 3ow alle

To go into; to enter.

To geten in-going at any gate there.

Piers Plouhman's Vision, v. 3766. And he (Judas) yngoynge to hir, seith (L. V. entride, ingrediens), Lat me that I goo togidre with thee.

Wic. Gen. xxxviii. 16. Thei seten thin ingoingus, God: the ingoing of my God, my king, that is in holy. (L. V. goynge in, ingressus.) Id. Ps. lxvii. 25.

IN-GRAFF, v. So the Lat. inserere is rendered by one of Wiclif's followers, referred to in var. r. on 1 Tim. vi. 10. Both E. V. and L. V. read Bisett. IN-HESION. See INHERE. IN-HILD, v. To pour into. See HID.

Ye, (O blissful light) in my naked hertes-sentiment. Inhild.-Chaucer. Troylus and Cressida, b. iii. v. 44.

IN-JOIN, v. Chaucer writes Joigne, i. e. to warn.
First, I joigne the, here in penaunce,—
That ever without repentaunce

Thou set thy thought in thy loving

To last withouten repenting.

Chaucer. Rom. of the Rose, v. 2355. A new order of vestry was obtained for the ringing of the five o'clock bell; which occasioned the plaintiffs to bring their bill to injoin the ringing of this bill; and on motion Lord Chancellor Macclesfield granted an injunction to stay the ringing until the hearing.

P. Williams. Rep. v. ii. 226. Case 67. IN-IQUITY, s.

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IN-PUT, v.

And Phtolome entride Antioche, and ynputtide (L. V. puttide, imposuit) two dyademes to his hed, of Egipt and Asie.- Wic. 1 Mac. xi. 13.

If any good be in gentilliesse, it is only that it semeth a maner of necessity be input to gentilmen, that they shoulden not varien fro the vertues of their auncestors. Chaucer. Test. of Loue, b. ii. INQUIRE, v. i. e. to call or name. Now Cantium, which Kent we commonly inquyre. Spenser. Faerie Queene, b. ii. c. 10, § 12. IN-RISE, v. IN-RISER, S. In and rise, qv. Ther han in risen aten me wicke witnesses. (L. V. han rise, insurrexerunt.- Wic. Ps. xxvi. 12.

In thee oure enemys we shal winnewe bi the horn, and in thi name we shul dispise inriseris in us. (L. V. hem that risen azen us, insurgentes.)-Id. Ps. xliii. 6.

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And whan the first cumpaignye of Judas appeeride, dreed is ynsmyten (incussus est) to the enmyes of the presence of God, that biholdith all thingis.- Wic. 2 Mac. xii. 22.

IN-SOLENT. Lat. Insolens, was sometimes used as-not accustomed to, inexperienced; and in Chaucer's Court of Love (quoted in the Dictionary), Insolence is Inexperience.


The whiche (priest) is not maad up the lawe of fleischly maundement, but up vertu of lyf insolible (insolubilis), or that may not be undon.- Wic. Heb. vii. 16.

IN-SOUL, v. To have or cause to have a soul; to inspirit.

The soul must be informed, insouled, or animated with the propositions that you put in, or you shall never do any good, or get disciples to Christ.

J. Taylor. Sermon before the University of Dublin. IN-SPECT, s.

Not so the man of philosophic eye,
And inspect sage: the waving brightness he
Curious surveys, inquisitive to know
The causes, and materials, yet unfixed,
Of this appearance beautiful and new.

Thomson. Seasons. Autumn, v. 1132. IN-STANT, IN-STANDING. So Wiclif renders

the Lat. instans, instant.

Forsothe instondyng the bering (L. V. whanne the childberyng neizede, instante partu), gemels apereden in the wombe.- Wic. Gen. xxxviii. 27.

The whiche sharpli instoondyng. (L. V. whan they continueden scharpli, quibus acriter instantibus.)

Id. Judges xi. 5. And al the puple criede to the Lord with gret instaunce (instantia), and mekeden ther soulis in fastingus, thei and ther wymmen.-Id. Judith iv. 8.

INSTAURATION. Lat. Instauratio.

A re

newal. See RESTORE.

Both in the intellectual and corporeal world, there are certain periods, fulness of time, and fixt seasons, either for some great catastrophe, or some great instauration. Burnett. Theory of the Earth, b. ii. e. 11.

INSTITUTIONAL. Several of his arguments handed down to us prove that our institutional writers were equally familiar to him. Campbell's Chancellors, iii. 395. IN-TACT, adj. Untouched. Now not uncommon in speech.


(The spirit of wisdom is) manli (humanus), benigne, alle hauende vertue, alle thingus beholdende, and that taketh alle intelligible spirits (spirits able to understonde, intelligibiles).-Wic. Wisd. vii. 23.

The heuen intellectuell be thaugellis, and thaugellis bē called heue by ye reasō of dignity, and of their understanding.-The Golden Legend, fo. 25, c. 1.

In head, in voice,
In body, and in bristles, they became
As swine, yet intellected as before.

Cowper. Odyssey, b. x. v. 297. IN-TEND. In Gordon's Tacitus Ann. b. i. ch. 62," Intendency of religious rites," is super-intendency (præditus auguratu).

And because some men's pens of late have ranged into a denyal of the Commons' ancient right in the legislative power, and others, even to admit the right, both of Lords and Commons, therein, resolving all such power into that one principle of a King, quicquid libet, licet: so making the breach much wider than at the beginning, I shall intend my course against both.

N. Bacon. Hist. Disc. pt. ii. Preface. Go therefore, mighty powers, Terror of heav'n, though fall'n; intend at home, While here shall be our home, what best may ease The present misery, and render hell More tolerable.-Milton. Pur. L. b. ii. v. 457.


IN-TENSE. IN-TENT. INTER-AGENT, s. One who acts between. INTER-AGENCY. Domitian is believed to have tried by secret inter-agents to corrupt the fidelity of Cerialis.

Gordon. Tac. Hist. b. iv. ch. 86. By the inter-agency of Rubrius Gallus the mind of Cacina came to be shaken.-Id. Ib. b. ii. ch. 99.

INTERAIL, or INTERALL, i. e. Entrail, or inside.
The naked boys unto the waters' fall,
Their stony nightingales had taught to call,
When zephyr breathed into their wat'ry interall.

G. Fletcher. Christ's Triumph on Earth.



It is of custome after the lawe of Rome for to interdire and take away the administration of good from them that do not approue it profitably.

The Boke of Tulle of Old Age, c. 5.

The last daie is the ende of myne entresse.

Chaucer. The Balade of the Village. The axe the emblem of having been beheaded, which is engraved under those (heads) of the Sir Thomas Mores, of the Rhaleighs, the Russells, the Sydneys, &c. sheds a real dignity and interestingness over their characters. Smith. Moral Sent. pt. vi. § 3. INTER-KNITTE. To knit; to connect toge


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That this eclyps was causid al to sone
By her sodeyne introprocessyone.


within the limits of the property, which exposes this strong natural affection to an annoyance that is felt to be intolerable.-Chalmers. On the Constitution of Man, pt. i. ch. 7.

IN-TURN, v. To turn in.

And thei berynge the whete in her assis zeden forth, and the sak of oon openyd, that he myst gyue to his beest in an inturnyng place to rest (L. V. in the yn, in diversorio); biholdun the money in the mouth of the sak. Wic. Gen. xlii. 27.


Because a great part of our food is dry; therefore nature hath provided several glandules to separate this juice (the spittle) from the blood, and no less than four pair of channels to convey it into the mouth, which are of late invention, and called by anatomists, Ductus Salivales. Ray. Wisdom of God, pt. ii. p. 311, 4th Ed. INVERT, v.

An indurate and invertible conscience:-qy. that cannot be turned.

Cranmer. See Southey, Book of the Church, ch. xii. INVICT. See IN-VINCIBLE.

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IN-WET, v. In and wet, qv. That inwet (L. V. deppide, intingatur) be thi foot in blood; the tunge of thin hoondis fro hym of the enemyes. (L. V. be dipped in blood of the enemyes of hym.) Wic. Ps. lxvii. 24. IN-WIT, s. Common in Wiclif. And see OUTWIT, Piers Plouhman.

Esau forsothe fourti wynter olde took two wyues; the whiche bothe hadden offended the inwitt of Ysaac and Rebecca. (L. V. soul, animum.)- Wic. Gen. xxvi. 35. For which thing, 3e men, be of good inuitt, or herte (L. V. coumfort, bono animo); forsothe I bileue to my God, for so it schal be as it is seide to me. ld. Deeds xxvii. 25; also 22.

IN-WLAP, v. In and lap, qv. No man holdinge knizthod to God, inwlappith (L. V. wlappith, implicat) him silf with worldli nedis, that he plese to him, to whom he hath proued him silf. Wic. 2 Tim. ii. 4.

And I seet; and loo! a wynde of tempest, or whirlwynde, cam fro the north, and a grete cloude, and fyre invlapLyfe of our Ladye, e. 2, c. 2. | pynge (L. V. wlappynge in, involvens), and a schynyng in the cumpas of it.-Id. Ez. i. 4. INTER-SPERSE, v.

As is likewise (to be admired) that particular art, which he (Milton) has made use of in the interspersing of all those graces of poetry, which the subject was capable of receiving.-Spectator, No. 315.

INTER-TRAFFIC. Traffic of one with another. Tongues might be enricht and perfected by mutuall intertrafique one with another.-Wats. Bacon, Advancement of Learning, b. vi. ch. 1.

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And lo! a feeste was to him (Nabal) in his hows, as the feeste of a kyng; and the herte of Nabal was iocounde, (jucundus,) for he was drunken greetli.-Wic. 1 Kings xxv.


Thorow lyght of vertu invardely joconde,
Only thorowe grace that in her habounde.
Lyfe of our Ladye, a. 6, c. 2.

JOIN, v. Is used by Chaucer as injoin, qv. supra. And whanne thei had takun up the ancris, thei bitoken hem to the see, to gidere slakinge the ioyntours of gouernalis (juncturas gubernaculorum).- Wic. Deeds xxvii. 40.

JOURNEY. The work, the travel, the battle of the day.

If he may be taken by this means, the jorney shall be ours.-Berners' Froissart, v. i. p. 286

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The sentence irrevocable. This sentence shal neuer be repelled, ne it may be appeled. The Golden Legend, fo. 4, c. 2.



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Lat. Irritare (of the lower ages), from Ir-ritus, i. e. inratus; in, neg., and ratus, not ratified, invalid; and hence, null, void. Irritation is somewhere used by Bp. J. Taylor. See IRRITANT, in Jamieson. To be or cause to be; to render null, void, of no effect.

If any thing should come to pass otherwise than it doth, yet God's foreknowledge could not be irritated by it, for then he did not know that it should come to pass as it doth.-Bp. Bramhall's Works, p. 72 (in Todd).

The states elected Harry, Duke of Anjou, for their King, with this clause irritant; that if he did violate any part of his oath, the people should owe him no allegiance.

Hayward. Answer to Doleman (1608), ch. v. (in Todd). ISINGLASS. Ger. Haus-blase; Sw. Hus-blaes, Icthyophylla;-Composed of haus, the name of a large fish (the sturgeon) found in the Danube; and blase, a bladder; the glutinous matter, called housblase or isinglass, being extracted from the bladder of this fish. Pliny says,-" A fish there is, named Icthyocolla, which hath a glewish skin, and the very glue that is made thereof, is likewise called icthyocolla. Some affirme, the said glue is made of the belly and not of the skin of the said fish." (B. xxxii. ch. 7.)

Icthyocolla, or ising-glass, is also made of the sound of our fish (the common sturgeon), as well as that of the others, but the beluga affords the best. Pennant. Zoology. Common Sturgeon.

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If the English verse is not isochronous with the Latin, it must be shorter.-Southey. Pref. to Vision of Judgement.

ISOLATED. Mr. Todd produces the authority of Warburton for this word, and says that Lord Chesterfield somewhere uses it; yet the following quotation from Lord Bolingbroke, shows it was not in established currency. "The events we are witnesses of in the course of the longest life, appear to us very often original, unprepared, single, and unrelative, if I may use such a word for want of a better. In French, I would say, Isoles." R. C. Barnard, Notes and Queries, Feb. 25, 1854.

Short, isolated sentences, were the mode in which ancient wisdom delighted to convey its precepts for the regulation of human conduct. Warburton. Doctrine of Grace. Preface.

ISSUE. The Lord kepe thin entre, and thi issu (L. V. goyng out, exitum) fro this now, and unto the world. Wic. Ps. cxx. 8. IT. It's seems of comparatively modern introduction: though in Waller (1653) it is admitted I

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Piers Plouhman's Vision, v. 13167. Joyous and glad that they haue escaped and passed the manyfolde peryllys and doubteous aduentures that ben in juvente and yongthe.

The Boke of Tulle of Old Age. Caxton, z. 1.

Piers Plouhman's Vision, v. 12848.

No man so worthi (to be)
Over Jewes justice (judge)
As Jhesus was.-Id. lb. v. 13230.


In his juventee this Jhesus
At Jewene feeste
Water into wyn turnede.

So that thei shulden forzete the lawe, and shulden chaunge the iustifyingis of God (justificationes).

Wic. 1 Mac. i. 51. It is not possible (quoth he, Chrysippus) to find any other fountain and originall beginning of justice than from Jupiter and common nature.-Holland. Plutarch, p. 867.


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And eke about at the corners,
Men seinen over the wall stonde
Gret engins, which ywere nere honde;
And in the kernels here and there
Of arblasteres grete plentie were.

Chaucer. Rom. of the Rose, v. 4195. KERSE, for Kress. Skinner. See Piers Plouhman in v. Card.

This vailyth nat a karse.

Chaucer. Merchantes Second Tale, v. 239. KETCH, v. i. e. Catch, qv. And see Quotation from Chaucer in v. Mucker.

An express ketch came out from Holland on board their admiral.-Clarendon, iii. 459.

KETCH, i. e. JACK-KETCH. Rd. Jaquette, Lord of the Manor of Tyburn, temp. Edward VI.


What thing of siche thing faln to deeth falle upon it, shal be unclene, other forneyses, or ketels (var. r. chetelis. L. V. vessels of thre feet, chytro-podes).- Wic. Lev. xi. 35.


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KIME, 8. Silly kime, silly fellow, Tyrwhitt, who suggests A. S. Guma. See GROOM. And this etymology Skinner proposes as most probable of all. The Emperour yafe the Pope somtime So highè lordeship him about, That at the last, the sely kime, The proudé Pope put him out.

Chaucer. The Plowman's Tale, v. 2635. KIN, KIND. In our Litany the kindly fruits of the earth are the natural fruits of the earth.

Wiclif renders, ex naturali oleastro, from the kyndeli wielde olyue tree; kindeli braunchis, naturales rami; agens kynde, contra naturam; and kindeli, adv. naturaliter, and kindeles or kyndelyngis (see in Dictionary), genimina.

Forsothe ze ben a kynde chosun (L. V. kyn, gens), a kyngly presthood.- Wic. 1 Pet. ii. 9.

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3 Out. Know then that some of us are gentlemen, Such as the fury of ungovern'd youth Thrust from the company of aufull men. Shakespeare. Two Gent. of Verona, fo. 322, act iv. sc. 1. Rich. We thought oureselfe thy lawfull king; And if we be, how dare thy joynts forget To pay their aufull duty to our presence?

Id. King Richard II. fo. 36', act iii. sc. 3. BRIBE, v. i. e. to steal. A bribed buck is a stolen buck. Fal. Diuide me, like a brib'd-bucke, each a haunch. Shakespeare. Merry Wives of Windsor, fo. 59, act v. sc. 5. CHIAUS. See CHOUSE, in Dictionary.

As soon as he (Solyman the Magnificent) joined his army near Aleppo, and had concerted measures with Rustan,

he sent a Chiaus, a messenger of the court, to his son



His cloke of calabre,

With all the knappes of golde.

Piers Plouhman's Vision, v. 4342. With his knoppede shon, Clouted ful thykke.-Id. Crede, v. 843.


To the askere me yueth, and to the knockere me openeth. Wic. Bib. Jerome, Pref. Ep. p. 74. KNOLL. See KNELL.


KNOW, s. See KNEE.


For, lo! my witnesse is in heuene; and the knowere of my conscience is in hize places (conscius meus). Wic. Job xvi. 20. Hou good (it) is to undernymyn (reprove) than to wrathen, and to not forbeden the knowlechere (L. V. a man knoulechyng, confitentem) in orisoun.-ld. Ecclus. xx. 1. We consideren, and knowelechen that we han offended and greved my Lord Melibeus.

Chaucer. The Tale of Melibeus.

Knowledges (the plural) is not uncommon in older writers.

There is a great difference in the delivery of the mathematics, which are the most abstracted of knowledges, and


(Mustapha), requiring him to repair immediately to his court.-Robertson. Charles V. v. iv. b. 11, An. 1553.


Archbishop Sancroft used this word, "By infancy, lunacy, deliracy," in a letter still existing in his handwriting (Macaulay, v. iv. c. 10), but his English is not considered to be remarkable for purity.


All the studious, and particularly the poets, about the end of August, began to set themselves to work; refraining from writing during the heats of the day. They wrote by night, and sat up the greatest part of it; for which reason the product of their studies was called their elucubrations, or nightly studies.-Dryden. Persius. Sat. vi. n. 1.

ENSWATHE, v. See SWATHE. (She) found more letters sadly pen'd in blood, With sleided silk feat, and affectedly Enswath'd, and seal'd to curious secresy. Shakespeare. A Lover's Complaint. EQUIVALENT, s. Is said by Macaulay to have been introduced from France, on the occasion (in the year 1687) referred to in the following quotation from Halifax.

Thus after Whig, Tory, and Trimmer have had their time, now they are dead and forgotten, being supplanted by the word equivalent, which reigneth in their stead. you will take away the oaths and tests, you shall have as good a thing for them. This put into a fashionable word is now called an equivalent.-Halifax (Marquis of). Anatomy of an Equivalent. Miscellanies, pp. 167, 8.



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But right requires if I resign my own,
I should not suffer for your sakes-alone;
The slave without a ransom shall be sent;
It rests for you to give-equivalent.

Dryden. Homer, b. i. FELON. FELO DE SE. A suicide; a selfmurderer. Qui sibi ipsi mortem sponte consciscit. Du Cange.

A felo de se is he that deliberately puts an end to his own existence, or commits any unlawful, malicious act, the consequence of which is his own death; as if attempting to kill another, he runs upon his antagonist's sword: or, shooting at another, the gun bursts and kills himself.

Blackstone. Commentaries, b. iv. p. 189. FINE. FINALITY came into use during the discussions on the Bill for Parliamentary Reform, 1832.

GUT, v. To gut a house; to strip the walls of all within them. Macaulay says this expression first came into use in the year 1688, during the riots in London immediately after the flight of James the Second.

IDIOSYNCRACY. Swift, in his Letter to a Young Clergyman, cautions him against the use in his sermons of such words as idiosyncracy, ubiquity, entity, and of others less abstract, as above the comprehension of his congregation.

KRESS. See KERSE, supra.

So truely their might is not worth a cresse.
Chaucer. Test. of Loue, b. ii. fo. 3012.


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