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Now hear of dishes furnished from no shambles : There shall come, from my Tiburtine farm, the fattest 65 Young kid, and more tender than all the flock, ignorant of grass, Nor yet daring to bite the twig of the low willow : Which has more of milk than blood. And mountain Asparaguses, which my bailiff's wife gather’d, laying her spin

dle aside. Great eggs besides, warm in the twisted hay,

70 Are added, with the mothers themselves; and, kept for a Part of the year, grapes, such as they were upon the vines : The Signian and Syrian pear: from the same baskets Apples, rivals to the Picene, and of a recent odour, Nor to be feared by you, after they have laid aside 75 The autumn, dried by cold, and the dangers of a crude juice. This, a long time ago, was the luxurious supper of the Senate: Curius put small herbs, which he had gather'd in his Little garden, over his small fire: which now A dirty digger, in a large fetter, despises,

80 Who remembers how the sow's womb of a cook’s hot shop

can relish.

Therefore it was a high commendation 80. A dirty digger, &c.] Slaves who of his apples, to say they rivalled those had committed certain crimes, were put of Picenum.

irons, and made to dig in mines, or 74. Recent odour.) Smelling as fresh in the fields, or in stone-quarries. See as if just gathered.

sat, viii. 179, 80. 75. To be feared, &c.] You need not 81. Who remembers, &c.] Who still refear to eat them, since the cruder juices tains the remembrance of his going into which they have in autumn are dried a cook's shop, and feasting on a sow's away, and now they are mellowed by womb which was dressed there. the cold of winter, so that you are in The paps of a sow with pig, together no danger from the sour and unripened with a part of the belly, cut off from the juice of them, as you might be if you animal, and dressed with proper seasonate them in autumn, soon after they cre ing, was a favourite dish among the gathered.

Romans. Another favourite dish was By autumnum (succum understood) is the womb of a sow with pig. If this were here meant the autumnal juice of the taken from her while pregnant, it was apple, which is crude, and apt to offend called ejectitia : if after she had farthe stomach. See autumnus-a-um. rowed, porcaria ; the former was reckAINSW.

oned the most delicious. See Hor. lib. 77. A long time ago.] Jam olim-9.d. i. epist. xv. l. 41. PLINY, lib. viii. c. The senators of Rome would, in old 51, says this was forbidden by the centimes, not only have been content with such a supper as the above, but even Such homely and frugal fare, as have thought it luxury.

pleased that great man Curius, is now, 78. Curius.] Dentatus. When the such is the state of luxury among all ambassadors of the Samnites came to ranks of people, contemned even by him, they found him boiling some pot the lowest and most abject slaves, who, berbs over the fire. See sat. ii. 1, 153, in their better days, remember to have note.

tasted fashionable dainties.



Sicci terga suis, rarâ pendentia crate,
Moris erat quondam festis servare diebus,
Et natalitium cognatis ponere lardum,
Accedente nova, si quam dabat hostia, carne.
Cognatorum aliquis titulo ter Consulis, atque
Castorum imperiis, et Dictatoris honore
Functus, ad has epulas solito maturius ibat,
Erectum domito referens a monte ligonem.
Cum tremerent autem Fabios, durumque Catonem,
Et Scauros, et Fabricios, rigidique severos
Censoris mores etiam collega timeret;
Nemo inter curas, et seria duxit habendum,
Qualis in oceani fluctu testudo nataret,
Clarum Trojugenis factura ac nobile fulcrum :
Sed nudo latere, et parvis frons ærea lectis
Vile coronati caput ostendebat aselli,



82. The buck, &c.) What we call a drove him out of Italy; and was remarkflitch of bacon.

able for his courage, honesty, and fru-Wide rack.] Crates siguifies a grate, gality. See Ainsw. whatever it be made of; if of wood, we 87. The honour of dictator.] This was call it a rack, which consists of a frame, achief magistrate, chosen on some urgent in which are inserted bars of wood at occasion, whose power was absolute, distances from each other, and used in from whom lay no appeal : his office keeping bacon. The word rara inti was limited to six months, when there mates, that the bars were few, and at was a new election, either continuing large distances from each other.

the same, or choosing a new one. The 83. For festal days.] Higb days and dictator differed in nothing from a king, holidays, as wc say; as a great treat. but in his name, and in the duration of

84. Bacon.] Lardum (quasi large ari. his power. dum.) Sometimes this signifies bacon, 88. Went to these feasts.] Homely as sometimes the lard or fat of bacon. they were as to a sumptuous treat. Here, perhaps, what we call a rasher, i.e. - Sooner than usual.] Leaving their a slice of fat bacon broiled.

work before the usual hour. -Birth-day feast.] Natalitium signi 89. His erect spade.) Raised high by fies a gift, or present, sent to one on his being carried on his shoulder. birth-day, or an entertainment made -Subdued mountain.) Where he had for one's friends and relations on such been at work, digging the soil, and sub. an occasion.

duing its stubbornness, rendering it fit 85. Fresh mcat acceding.] To this, per. for the purposes of agriculture. haps, some new or fresh killed meal was OVID, Met. xi. 31. uses the word added.

subigere in this sense : -If the sacrifice, &c.) If they offered Boves presso subigebant voincre terram. a sacrifice, and any flesh of the victim Virg. G. ii. 1. 114. uses the word remained to spare, it was reckoned and domitum 1o denote the cultivation of prized as an accidental rarity.

land: 86. Some one of the kindred.] i. e. Of Aspice et exircmis domitum cultoribus the person's kinsmen who made the

orbem. feast. Perhaps he alludes particularly 90. Trembled, &c.] In old time, when here to Curius above mentioned, who the people stood in awe of great and was thrice consul, and a great general: good men. he beat Pyrrhus, king of Bpirus, and -Fabii, &c.] These names stand here

The back of a dry swine, hanging on a wide rack,
It was the custom formerly to keep for festal days,
And to set bacon, a birth-day feast, before relations,
Fresh meat acceding, if the sacrifice afforded any.

Some one of the kindred, with the title of thrice consul, and
Who the commands of camps, and the honour of dictator
Had discharged, went to these feasts sooner than usual,
Bringing back his erect spade from a subdued inountain.
But when they trembled at the Fabii, and severe Cato, 90
And the Scauri, and Fabricii, and the severe manners
Of a rigid censor, even his colleague feared ;
Nobody esteemed it to be reckond among his cares, and se-

rious concerns; What sort of tortoise might swim in the waves of the sea, About to make a famous and noble couch for the Trojugenæ : But with a naked side, and on small beds, a brazen front 96 Shewed the vile head of an ass wearing a garland,

not only as personally referring to the lay upon at their entertainments, with great men mentioned, but referring also the largest and finest pieces of tortoise. to all the grave and virtuous magistrates shell, to get at which, they spared no of old times, who, like them, reproved pains or expence. See sat. vi. I. 380, and censured vice.

and note. Fabius was the name of a noble family 95. Couch, &c.] Fulcrum literally sig. in Rome, many of which had borne great nifies a stay or prop; but, by syncc. is offices with the highest credit. They used for the couch or bed itself, (see are often mentioned by our poet. sat. vi. 1. 22.) which was inlaid and

-Severe Cato.) Cato, called Censorius, adorned in the most expensive and is here meant, who was so called for his splendid manner. gravity and strictness in his censor -The Trojugenæ.] The nobles, whom ship

the poet here, and elsewhere, satirically 91. The Scauri.] See sat. ii. I. 35, calls Trojugenæ, because they boasted note.

their descent from the ancient Trojans, -Fabricii.] The name of a family, the first founders of the Roman empire of which was c. Fabricius Luscinus, a after the siege of Troy. See sat. i. famous consul, who conquered Pyrrhus 1. 100, note. king of Epirus. One of this name was 96. Naked side.] Their couches had also censor. Sec sat, ix. 142.

plain and ordinary sides, or sides which 92. His colleague feared.] Alluding to had no backs rising from them, to lean Fabius Maximus, who found fault with upon for their ease. his colleague P. Decius, for being too -Small beds.) They were frugal even remiss in his office of censor. See sat. in the size of their couches. ji. I. 121, note 2.

- A brazen front, &c.] Having no 93. Nobody, &c.] No one thought it other ornament than a plain piece of worth their care, or a matter of serious brass in front, with an ass's head, crown

ed with a garland, fixed, or, perhaps, 94. What sort of tortoise, &c.] Whe. carved upon it. This, from a superstither small or great. But in the days tion which prevailed in Tuscany, that it of the poet, when luxury was risen to operated as a charm to protect their a great height, people of fashion were lands from damage, and made them very anxious to inlay their furniture, fruitful, used ordinarily to be hung up and particularly the couches which they in their fields and gardens.






Ad quod lascivi ludebant ruris alumni.
Tales ergo cibi, qualis domus atque supellex.
Tunc rudis, et Graias mirari nescius artes,
Urbibus eversis, prædarum in parte repertà,
Magnorum artificum frangebat pocula miles,
Ut phaleris gauderet equus, cælataque cassis
Romuleæ simulacra feræ mansuescere jussæ
Imperii fato, et geminos sub rupe Quirinos,
Ac nudam effigiem clypeo fulgentis et hastâ,
Pendentisque Dei, perituro ostenderet hosti.
Argenti quod erat, solis fulgebat in armis.
Ponebant igitur Thusco farrata catino
Omnia tunc; quibus invideas, si lividulus sis.
Templorum quoque majestas præsentior, et vox
Nocte fere media, mediamque audita per urbem,
Littore ab oceani Gallis venientibus, et Dis


98. Which.] The ass's head, when rude and unpolished soldier possessed hung out in the fields, &c.

himself of vessels, curiously embossed or - Boys of the country, &c.] Was laugh- engraved by the hands of some of the ed at by the rustic children, who made chief Grecian artists, so far from prizing sport at his awkward appearance. It them, he brake them to pieces, in order may be doubted, whether the ornament

to adorn his horse, as with pom pous of ihe ass's head crowned with a gar- trappings. land, perhaps of vine leaves, and put, 103. Embossed helmet.] The soldier or carved it may be, on the ancient fes having found some fine large pieces of tal couches, had not some reference to plate, with the designs under mentioned Bacchus and his foster-father Silenus, wrought upon it, brake out the figures, the former of which was the supposed and fastened them to his helmet, that he inventor of wine, and represented with might exhibit them to the eyes of a van. a thyrsus, and garlands of vine leaves; quished enemy, whom he was going to the other, as a drunken old man, riding put to the sword, as ensigns of triumph. upon an ass.

104. Likenesses, &c.] Of the wolf 99. Such was their food, &c.] i. c. They which suckled Romulus and Remus-of were all of a piece, as we say.

Romulus and Remus, and of the god 100. Then rude.] The soldier in those Mars. days was rough and hardy, and unskilled Commanded to grow tame.) So as in the refinements of luxury.

not only not to hurt the two children, -Unknowing, &c.] The Romans co but to nourish them with her milk. pied their luxury from the Greeks, the 105. Fate of the empire.] That destiny, imitation of whom was, among them, as which had appointed Romulus to be the fashionable as of the French among us. founder of the city and commonwealth See sat. iii. 1. 60, 1. where the poet of Rome, ordered also the means of his speaks of this with the highest indigna- preservation when an infant, by ordaintion.

ing that a savage beast should grow 101. Cities being overturned.] When tame. besieged towns were taken, and plun -Under a rock.] The figures of the dered.

two brothers were described as lying -A found part, &c.] i. e. In some under a rock, and sucking the she-wolf. part of a heap of spoils which the sol. -Twin Quirini, &c.] Romulus and dier met with in his plundering the Remus are here understood, though the place.

name of Quirinus was given to Romulus 102. Brake the cups, &c.] When the only, after his consecration, The Ro

At which the wanton boys of the country made a jest. Therefore such was their food, as was their house, and the

furniture; Then rude, and unknowing to admire the Grecian arts, 100 Cities being overturned, in a found part of the spoils, The soldier brake the cups of great artificers, That his horse might rejoice in trappings, and that the em

bossed helmet Likenesses of the Romulean wild-beasts, commanded to grow tame

104 By the fate of the empire, and under a rock the twin Quirini, And a naked image of the god (shining with shield and Spear, and impending) might shew to the foe about to perish. What was of silver, shone in arms alone. Therefore, they then put all their food of corn in a Tuscan Dish ; which you would envy, were you a little envious. 110 The majesty of the temples was also more present, and a voice Almost in the midst of the night, and heard thro’ the midst

of the city, The Gauls coming from the shore of the ocean, and the gods,

man people were also called Quirites. to envy their plain but wholesome fare, Sec sat. iii. I. 60, note.

and the happiness which our ancestors 106. A naked image, &c.] The image derived from their plain, frugal, and of Mars, the father and founder of the homely way of living. Roman name.

-A little envious.] Lividulus. q. d. If 107. Impending.] Pendentias-hang- you had had a spark of envy in your ing or hovering over the children as their disposition, it would have been excited. protector, with his glittering shield and ill. The majesty, &c.] i. e. The ma. sword.

jesty of the gods in the temples. Me--Might shew, &c.] g. d. That the tonym. embossed helmet might exhibit to the -More present.] More propitious, foe about to die, the likenesses, &c. more ready to help.

108. What was of silver, &c.] All the -A voice, &c.] Alluding to the histor silver gotten in war was only made use of M. Cæditius, a plebeian, who acof to adorn their military accoutrements. quainted the tribunes, that, as he was

109. Food of corn.] Farrata signifies going along by the lemple of Vesta, at all sorts of food made of corn, and here midnight, he heard a voice, louder than stands for the coarse and homely food human, say, " the Gauls are coming," of the ancient Romans, before luxury and commanded him to tell the magisgot in ainong them.

trates of this, that they might be warned 109, 10. Tuscan dish.] i, e. Earthen of the danger. ware, which was made at Aretum, a city 113. Shore of the occan.) i. e. From of Tuscany ; vessels made of it were the sea-shore, after having made a decalled, therefore, vasa Aretina.

scent upon Italy, under Brennus, who Aretina nimis ne spernas vasa monemus,

was the commander of the Galli Senones, Lautus erat Tuscis Porscna fictilibus. they routed the Romans at the river Al.

Mart. lib. xiv. ep. 98. lia, marched to Rome, and took it : but 110. Would envy, &c.] Though the they were afterwards defeated, and luxury of our present times has taught us driven out of Italy by Camillus, who was to despise such things, yet if we had called from exile, and made dictator. lived ihen, we should have been ready

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