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ceeded in enrolling and drilling 5,000 men. But before he few and to the purpose; whose voice rang clarion-like over could lead them against the foe the fatal armistice was the vastest battle field. From the moment when General signed, and Garibaldi, hearing that his newly formed legion Oudinot, violating the amnesty, fraudulently occupied was to be disarmed, marched off to Bergamo, sending mes Mount Mario and took possession of Villa Pamfili, to the sengers to other revolutionary leaders to join him, to con hour when the French entered the gate of San Pancrazio, sider the armistice null and void, and to make war on their day and night Garibaldi lived in the camp. At Villa Pamown account.
fili three hundred and thirty-six wounded, one hundred Mazzini joined the legion at Bergamo and was acclaimed and ten dead, fell around him. On the 14th and 15th of standard bearer of the flag on which was inscribed the June the battle field was a vast cemetery, but the spirit of motto of Young Italy, “God and the People.” But the le- the dead had passed into the living. When all hope was gionaries, discouraged or not caring to share the hardships at an end Garibaldi himself was not able to recall his offiof a partisan war, deserted in numbers. Only seven hun cers from their posts of useless slaughter. One has but to dred remained; yet still Garibaldi determined to lead them visit the ruins of the Vascello which Medici defended until against the Austrians. On the 12th of August, in a fiery not one stone was left upon another, to understand the desproclamation, he denounced Charles Albert as a traitor and perate country passion that inspired him. When ordered called on all Italians to make common cause against native to reënter Rome each company demanded "to fire one more and foreign foes. Capturing two steamers on Lake Como shot," and on June 30 fell Emilio Morosini, Signorini, Bindi, he embarked his troops, and, arriving at Luino, being at- Verzelli, even as the poet soldier Mameli, Daverio, Dandolo, tacked by the Austrians he led out four hundred of his best Scarani, Scarcele, names beloved in Italy, had fallen on the volunteers against fifteen hundred of the enemy. Then, former days. bringing up the remainder and ordering a bayonet attack, But this useless slaughter could not be permitted longer. he defeated and pursued the Austrians to Arona. With The Assembly summoned Garibaldi, haggard, dripping this skirmish began and ended Garibaldi's Lombard cam with blood-the blood of his faithful negro Aguilan, killed paign in 1848. Finding it impossible to resist longer, with five an hour before-and asked his advice. “Abandon the hundred men he fought his way through five thousand Aus- Trastevere; burn the houses that hinder our aim; open trians to Switzerland, disbanded his troops and went to Pied-loop-holes along the walls and houses on the left of the mont, and after various adventures arrived at Ravenna, there Tiber; fortify Castle St. Angelo; arm the people and await organized a column of volunteers, and finally arrived at the assault. Thus, amid her smoking ruins, we shall save Rome, and on the 9th of February, 1849, was the first to the honor of Rome." His advice rejected, he refused even proclaim the Roman Republic, which at two o'clock in the to listen to the terms of capitulation, and observing that morning was solemnly promulgated from the capitol by there was “Venice yet left to die in," quitted Rome with Mazzini, who, with Saffi and Armellini, was named trium four thousand infantry, three hundred horsemen, his faithvirate.
ful wife—just on the eve of her confinement--Ugo Bassi and FIERCENESS OF THE STRUGGLE.
Angelo Brunette, surnamed Ciceruacchio, with his two Another red letter day in Garibaldi's memory was the
young sons. After a month of marching, counter-march30th of April, when the French, who had vaunted that "lesing, hunger, danger and fatigue, with but two hundred of Italiens ne se battent pas," were repulsed with heavy loss his followers and Anita, during the nights of July 31 and so heavy that it was no longer a question whether General August 1 Garibaldi succeeded in embarking his force in Oudinot should enter Rome, but whether he or any of his thirteen fishing-boats at Cesenatico. He hoped thus to soldiers would be able to regain Civita Vecchia. Had Gar reach Venice. Three Austrians steamers discovered them. ibaldi been allowed to follow his own devices very few as Garibaldi dispersed his little fleet, bidding the captain of suredly would have succeeded in reaching their vessel, but each boat save his crew. He, with Anita, Captain Leggero, the triumvirate, hoping in the democratic party of France, Ugo Bassi and Ciceruacchio gained the pine forests of Radecided merely to defend their capitol, not to exasp ate venna, wandered there throughout three days and nights, French pride by an ignominious defeat. Garibaldi was re hidden by peasants, even by the coast-guards and police, called, and from that hour dated the breach between the till they reached the cottage of one of the peasants of Mar. two great patriots, which later differences and the "whis- quis Guiccioli. Here Anita fainted-she who had never pering tongues that poison truth,” but widened and deep- uttered a lament. Garibaldi carried her in his arms and ened so that in death they are still divided. Even now, laid her on the peasant's bed, where, with one murmured after the miracles of 1860, the history of the siege of Rome, wail, "Menotti, Teresita, Riciotti," she smiled into his eyes as recorded by hostile writers and recounted by eyewit- and died. nesses and actors, has in it elements of valor and reckless Another weary month of wandering. When Garibaldi heroism which vie with the bravest story of Sparta, Greece reached Genoa the Piedmontese government detained him and ancient Rome. From the 3d of June to the 30th inter- till, moved by a vote of censure from the opposition memvened twenty-six days of increasing, ferocious, hopeless bers of the Chamber, they allowed him to visit his old struggle. Forty thousand French soldiers against nine mother and children at Nice, whence, alone for the first thousand raw recruits ! Austria victorious in the proy time in ten eventful years, he started for Tunis, Gibraltar, inces, Bomba revelling in vengeance, Piedmont defeated, and, finally, for New York, where he supported himself by Lombardy reënslaved. Hope there was none: only the working in a tallow chandler's shop, and then, starting for certainty that “Italy would live when Italians knew how Lima, voyaged to China and returned to Italy in 1854. to die” remained, and that sufficed. The aspect of the le
THE CAMPAIGN OF 1859. gionaries was in itself fantastic. Dressed in red shirts and Here he found parties and politics greatly changed. The gray trousers, with a scarf around their waists, brigand hats hopes of the majority of Italians were now centered in and plumes, vaulting into their saddles with the ease of Victor Emmanuel, who had at least maintained the constimen who had ridden barebacked all their lives, or running tution, which all other Italian princes had violated, and at lightning speed at a word or glance from their chief, the whose army might form the nucleus for a greater Italian remnants of San Antonio soon drilled and disciplined the army. Garibaldi accepted the vice-presidency of the N&youths, many of them mere lads, who flocked round the tional Italian Society, of which Cavour was the inspirer, fair-haired, lion-faced hero, whose face women pronounced and Pallavicino La Farina and Mamie the chief agents. 'angelic" and Frenchmen "diabolical;'' whose words were With intense satisfaction he watched the little Piedmon
tese army gaining its spurs in the Crimea, and when called Bertani, the indefatigable, miraculous organizer of the exby the government, in 1859, to form a volunteer corps to act peditions of 1860, after expressing his "mortification" for with the allied armies, he obeyed with glad alacrity, and reproaches addressed to him, he said: the followers of Mazzini who refused to enlist, not because Under Cavour I scarcely know how the affair of the subscription of the monarchical flag, but because they would not ally (for the million muskets) will go. I do not doubt that at this mothemselves with the murderer of the Roman and French
ment they are studying every means to get them out of our hands. republics, alone excepted, all his old officers and soldiers
I have sent Colonel — to the king, but I hope little. We shall see. and the flower of the young generation flocked to his stand
In any case, you can assure our friends of Southern Italy that I am
always at their service when they are seriously resolved to act, and ard. Before they could reach the general of their heart
that if I have arms these also will be at their service if they intend to they were, for the most part, drafted off into the regular put them to a profitable use. From your letter I see that the desire corps. "You gave me the cripples and hunchbacks," said
to act an act well exists, and I, God knows, am as anxious as any Garibaldi to Cavour on their memorable field day in the one to shoulder a weapon once more. Tramu lo sa Dio come chiunque House, but with these the “Red Devil,” as the Austrians di menare le mani una colta ancore. surnamed him, wrought wonders. Up to the 3d of May he
“ITALY AND VICTOR EMMANUAL.' had worn his usual costume, but on that day, receiving The negotiations went on for the first three months of 1860. news that the Austrians were advancing, he donned his Rosalino Pilo on the 24th of February informed Garibaldi Piedmontese uniform. The képi worried him considerably. | that the Sicilians were ready, that Mazzini made no quesFinally he stuffed it into his saddle bag and covered his tion of the republic. Garibaldi's reply is characteristic and head with his bandana colored silk handkerchief as usual. important as an answer to those who accuse him of enlist
He was the first to cross the Ticino and the f 'st to cross ing under the republican flag, and when at Talamone changfire with the Austrians on the 8th of May near ne village ing to the monarchical. It reads: "Caro Rosalino—When of Pontestura. At his approach the people of' Varese rose, you receive this come to an understanding with Bertani and disarmed the Austrian garrison and proclaimed the dicta the Direction at Milan to obtain as many arms and means torship of Victor Emanuel. General Urban, attacking him of action as possible. In case of action remember that the at Como with cavalry, artillery and five thousand infantry, programme is Italy and Victor Emmanuel.” He added that was beaten, routed and pursued to Malnate, with heavy loss the moment did not seem opportune for action, and that in dead, wounded, prisoners and two cannon. Following nothing ought to be attempted without reasonable prospects up his advantage, Garibaldi entered Como at one side, the of success. Bertani, Crepi and Bixio wrestled with GariAustrians fleeing at the other. Thus, with three thousand baldi, who had left Caprera for the Continent. He, knowvolunteers, eight thousand of Austria's best soldiers were ing the immense loss of prestige which his failures would defeated. From Como to Bergamo, Brescia, Tre Ponte and engender, keeping to his belief that there is a time to be Salo, back to Bergamo, Lecco, then into the Tyrol Edolo, prudent as well as a time to dare, insisted on waiting for Breno, Treo, Vestone, in less than three months the volun- precise news from Sicily. On the 26th of April came a telteers marched over nine hundred miles, with one slight egram that confirmed him in his resolution, thus: “Total check at Laveno, victorious always until the peace of Villa- failure in city of Palermo and provinces.” Later came franca suddenly cut short the triumphal march.
brighter news. Bertani, Crepi and Bixio went to him On the 11th of August Garibaldi and his officers resigned.
* Very well," he answered, “we will go, On the 15th he had a private interview with the king at and go at once." A thousand volunteers were gathered on Bergamo, and consented to command a portion of the troops the shore of Quarto. Rubattino, the patriotic prince of of Central Italy not yet annexed to Piedmont. His object was Italian ship-owners, shut his eyes while the “corsairs" to carry the revolution into the States of the Church or to seized two of his best steamers, the Piedmonte and the Lomsecond a movement in Sicily and Naples. In this project bardo. Garibaldi landed about a hundred men with Zamthe Dictator of Parma and Modena, Signor Farini, was bianchi, with orders to invade the Papal States. As the d'accord. Indeed, he gave money for the purpose, but the Sicilian insurrection succeeded, it is now said that this Governor of the Romagna, Cepriani, a Bonapartist, opposed microscopic expedition was meant to divert the attenthe scheme. The king, fearing that the Emperor of France tion of the government from the South. Had the Sicilian would intervene and prevent the annexation of Tuscany, revolution failed, it was believed that Garibaldi would have Parma, Modena and the Romagna, recalled Garibaldi just flung himself into the Papal States. In any case, he thought as he was about to cross the Rubicon. In high dudgeon he it wise to have two strings to his bow. But he succeeded in threw up his command, and, when all hopes of a revolu- landing at Marsala without firing a shot. “Veni, vidi, vici," tion in the south of Italy were at an end, returned to Ca was the summary of his five nionths' campaign. Now as it prera. Garibaldi's friends were not satisfied with his ab is shown that Garibaldi did not initiate the Sicilian revorupt withdrawal, but—and it is necessary to insist on this lution, it is believed that but for his timely arrival it would fact to understand the man's work and character-Garibaldi have been suffocated. Rosalino, encamped round Palermo, never counselled a special insurrection at a special time. fell with a bullet through his brain while marching to meet When the king said, “Enroll volunteers to fight against Garibaldi: Cinimeria, Ventimiglia, Mezzondo, Carione and Austria," he enrolled them; even as in 1849 we have seen Misilmeri were invaded by armed bands, but it was not him offer his services first to the Pope, then to Charles until after the battle of Calatapini that the Bourbon troops Albert, then skirmish on his own account, then head the felt that a mightier than “Bomba” was among them. Garforces of the Roman Republic against France and the ibaldi sought out Calatapini as the bloodiest and most darBourbon, then don the Piedmontese uniform, then standing of the feats of his "red shirts." The Bourbons manned to his guns in the center till further insistance would have the heights, resolute to block the path of the invaders. engendered civil war, for had he crossed the Rubicon, Gen Garibaldi from his watch-tower counted their numbers, and eral Fauti would have of necessity disarmed him. Even saw at a glance that eight successive positions must be taken yo, when entreated by his friends to put himself at the head at the bayonet's point. Eight hundred volunteers against of a revolutionary movement, he replied invariably, “Pre four thousand Bourbons! So impossible seemed victory pare, show me a reasonable chance and I am with you; but that Bixio, a brave of braves, whispered to Garibaldi in the remember that the days for failure are past. An abortive foremost ranks, “I fear retreat is inevitable." “Retreat?” revolution would now retard Italy for years." And in a and Bixio never forgot the look that accompanied the private letter dated Fino, January 24, 1860, addressed to Dr. words, “Here we win or die!” One, two, three, five po
sitions were taken, the volunteers slipping over the blood had still 50,000 men under arms and the two strong fortresses and bodies of their companions in the onward, upward of Capua and Gaeta, and determined to give battle to Garistruggle. Then the clarion voice rang out: “One more for baldi on the Volturno. It is almost impossible to give the Italy! One more together! To the bayonet!” “To the faintest idea of the battle of the 1st of October. The Neabayonet! Viva l'Italia! viva Garibaldi!” The sixth and politans had 45,000 troops and sixty pieces of cannon. The seventh terrace carried; two little cannon secured at Orbetello young king had come from Gaeta in person. Garibaldi had come into play and complete the disorder of the enemy, about twenty thousand volunteers. On that day not a sin. literally stupefied by such audacity. They begin to waver, gle Piedmontese had arrived, and among his own generals to retreat, to carry off their guns? No! The “red shirts," were those who wished the royal troops to take part in the fired with vengeance for the terrible losses sustained, and final struggle. The Neapolitans gave him no option. At flushed with victory, resolve to secure a trophy; rush upon five a. m. his positions were attacked along the line, Milbetz the cannon, seize it, bayonet the defenders, who turn and at Santa Maria, Medici at Bitugelo, Bixio at Maddaloniflee, and receive from the inhabitants of Partinico and Mon- which position, if lost, cut the Garibaldians off from the telepee parting salutations. Still, while defeat would have city of Naples. In the first attacks the Neapolitans were been fatal to the volunteers, they could not rest on their victorious. Garibaldi's carriage was surrounded; his horses
Then came twenty-five thousand soldiers into Palwounded; he himself sprang down into one of the deep ermo, and Palermo had to be taken. Not a word spoke the ditches that run parallel with the river and reappeared in Duce dei Mille to son or friend. “March! march! march!" the midst of Media's hardly beset troops. The enemy rethrough scorching sun-rays, and some days torrents of rain. pulsed there he arrived on horseback at Santa Maria, sent On the 17th, 18th, 19th of May Passo di Renna is reached. | word to Bixio, who asked for reinforcements, that he must The enemy-Garibaldi's own staff-believed that Momedi shift for himself. Calm, but pale, at three p. m. he was was the objective point. Troops are sent out of Palermo to sur-standing with his glass fixed on the road leading from Casround the volunteer camp. Garibaldi sends all his artillery erta, whence the last reserves were expected. He had tasted and heavy baggage to Coillom, and in the twinkling of an no food that day and smiled as his people offered him some eye marches himself on Palermo. The Admiral's bridge is bread, figs and water. Just as he had taken a mouthful, defended hotly; the "surprise” is hindered by the shouting crash came musket balls around him, while a bomb exof the Picciotti. Precisely the last were first and the first ploded at his feet. "The day is ours," he said as the Milalast, for the order of battle was not kept at all. But Palermo nese brigade came rushing up. Then for a couple of hours is entered; Garibaldi and his handful of braves bivouac in the battle raged in deadly earnest, Garibaldi always in the the streets of the city garrisoned by twenty thousand men foremost fight. That day he seemed to possess the double with twenty guns. Vainly the enemy parleys, protests, gift of omniscience and of omnipresence. It was his last seeks to gain time. “Go, and make haste about it," was field day before the battle of Aspromonte rendered it imGaribaldi's reply; and the enemy went; showed once more possible for him evermore to practise his favorite maxim, fair fight at Milazzo.
“Chi vuole va, chi non vuole manda" (Who wills goes, who That battle gained, Garibaldi turned his thoughts toward wills not sends). At five p. m. he telegraphed laconically Naples.
to the king, "Victory along all the line.” On the morrow ON TO NAPLES.
of the great victory Garibaldi made a number of NeapoliNegotiations were still going on between the Neapolitan tan prisoners, and in this the Fourth battalion of Bersagliand Piedmontese courts, and the king, in an autograph let ere assisted, or rather were present. On the preceding day ter, begged Garibaldi not to cross the straits, and precise not a single soldier wearing the king's uniform either witorders were given to Persano, admiral of the fleet, to afford nessed or took part in the action. The Piedmontese troops him no help in case of defeat. But there were no Italian who had beaten Lamoriciere and freed Umbria and the troops arrayed under the tricolor flag who could enforce the Marches, now entered Rome with the king, with the exprayer-no civil war to be feared, as in Central Italy 1859 plicit object of preventing Garibaldi from carrying his vicand later in Naples itself. Garibaldi did not hesitate; he tories further. He had but one alternative-to array volunconcentrated all his available troops at Messina, sent over teers against the regular army or to withdraw. He adopted a band of chosen pioneers, followed quickly, gave battle to the latter. He had handed over the Neapolitan fleet to the the Bourbons at Reggio and granted them an honorable king on his entrance into Naples, now he summoned the capitulation at San Giovanni and Souvrier. Then he left plebescito, and when the populations had voted in favor of in an open carriage. The Bourbon troops dispersed “like annexation he consigned the southern province formally to ena' wreaths in thaw;" Garibaldi entered Naples with Victor Emmanuel. seven of his officers, with the cannon of San Elmo pointed In England he was welcomed as Wellington himself was at the city and the Bourbon troops in occupation. The 7th not welcomed, but with fear and trembling by the governof September, 1860, must remain a never-to-be-forgotten ment. After his return to Caprera he kept quiet until the day for those who witnessed the wild, exulting joy of the war of 1866, when, shut up in the fastnesses of the Tyrol, to liberated. Their cry that rose above the “Viva Garibaldi!!! be kept out of the way while Venice was being bargained was “Viva l'Italie! Una! Una! Una!" When, late in the for rather than fought for, he could do no more than make evening, an officer went out on the balcony of the Nigra his volunteers fire up at the sharpshooters with their Palace to say that Garibaldi was weary and would sleep, wretched flint-locks, while the sharpshooters fired down on hush fell on the mighty crowd. One whispered to the other, them with their far-reaching, unerring rifles. In the spring “Do padre dorme" (the father sleeps), and lifting up their of 1867 he went over to the Continent and made a sort of forefingers in token of Italy, One! One! One! the Neapoli- electoral tour throughout the Venetian provinces, but the tans slept their first bright hours of liberty. Clamors for Venetians were yet in their honeymoon, and with one eximmediate annexation of Sicily arose then at Naples, and ception sent up government members. His object was to Garibaldi more than once had to leave the camp for Palermo arouse the enthusiasm of the provinces, so recently freed, for or Naples in order to restore peace between the conflicting Rome still enslaved. In September he appeared at Geneva parties. He never for a moment dreamed of hindering the at the Peace Congress, where he dwelt especially on the annexation, only he wished to expel the Bourbon entirely seventh resolution of the peacemakers:—"Slaves alone have and be free to march or sail to Rome without compromising a right to make war on tyrants"—then resolutely set his the Italian government with foreign courts. The Bourbon face Romeward. His stanchest friends and officers were
opposed to an attempt on Rome. The Ratazzian govern. against Bourbaki. Hence there was always the consoling ment still shilly-shallied; allowed him to cross the frontier, reflection that “there were plenty more behind." then arrested him and confined him in the fortress of Ales
HIS GENIUS IN THE FIELD. sandria, then allowed him to return to Caprera and there From the first hour of the combat Garibaldi, who in person blockaded him. He would not believe that the affair was had previously studied the ground, so that he knew every serious until on attempting to go on board the mail steamer knoll and ditch and vineyard, directed every movement in to return to the Continent, the Italian man-of-war Zesia person-in a carriage, on horseback, or on foot. He posted fired into his boat, took him on board and landed him on the guns, distributed his scanty troops, "went," nor delehis island prison.
gated his authority to any. The honor of the first day beThe details of his escape are wonderful. From the Con- longs exclusively to Italians, commanded by Menotti and tinent a boat went up to release him, manned by his son-in- by Canzio, his son-in-law, and under them by Tanara and law and a young Sardinian. It was absent for fifteen days. other officers wounded at Mentana. Of Tanara's legion At length it returned with its precious freight. Garibaldi, alone eight officers were killed, seven wounded, with two warped of its approach, fixed a rendezvous, left Caprera in a hundred non-commissioned officers and soldiers. General beccacino-literally a snipe, in fact, a toy boat, utterly unfit Bassak, the brave Pole who had answered “Present" to libfor the high seas, but between rocks and water only a few erty's every roll-call, was killed on that day. So Imbriani, inches deep he paddled it to the Maddelena, remained con Cavalotti, Perla-beloved names in Italy—and hundreds of cealed twenty-four hours, crossed the island on horseback, heroes rest in nameless graves in the cemetery of Dijon, or slept in a cave, rode again for seventeen consecutive hours, in forgotten heaps their bones are whitening in the vinethen joined his rescuers and arrived safely in Florence, yards where they fell. Garibaldi's reports are laconic as while the commanders of the seven men-of-war stationed ever. The first runs thus: “The enemy, vigorously atat Caprera reported daily that he was sulking in the prison-tacked, was obliged to retreat after twelve hours' hard house. It had been agreed that no expeditions to Rome fighting. The army of the Vosges has once more deserved should take place till the Romans should bestir themselves well of the republic.” and commence their own revolution. But Garibaldi's ar Second day: “The enemy has again been compelled to rest made them wary and irresolute. The insurrection, retreat, pursued by our brave franctireurs." partial and unsuccessful, cost precious blood. Garibaldi, Third day: “The enemy repulsed for the third time. We who had crossed the frontier at Passo Corere, pushed on to have taken the flag of the Sixty-first regiment." Monterotondo, defeated the garrison on the 25th of October, That flag, the only Prussian flag lost during the campaign, and on the 4th of November was defeated by the French at was taken from the dead hand of the standard-bearer, who Mentana; or, to speak more correctly by the Papal troops lay under a heap of slain, and handed by Ricciotti Garibaldi assisted by the French, who, considering the invasion of to his father at the moment. It was still in the general's the States of the Church, even by volunteers, a violation of room when he penned the telegram. But that the armistice the convention of September, had landed at Civita Vecchia. followed so closely on the three days' victory there is little
On recrossing the frontier Garibaldi was arrested by the doubt that the Prussians would have taken their revenge, royal troops, once more sent to Alessandria and again al- for the loss was a bitter one. General Kettles a few days lowed to embark for Caprera.
afterward heard the exact truth. It seemed a relief, but he
added a moment afterward, “Still, it is lost, all the same.” THE FRANCO-PRUSSIAN WAR.
As, however, there seemed no immediate intention of atHere he remained quietly until the news of the defeat of tack, Garibaldi turned his attention to Dole, which the Prusimperial France at Sedan reached him. Then, to the as sians had taken from the French, and which he knew was tonishment of Italy and the world, he offered "all that re essential to Bourbaki's retreat, and on the 28th the Garibalmained of himself” to an invaded people struggling against dian colonel, Bagbino, with eight hundred men, took Mont the invaders. This time few of his old officers, none of the Rolland, an important position above Dole, from the Prusvieux-gardes, accompanied him. They could not bring sians. themselves to fight side by side with the soldiers of the On the 29th came the news of the armistice. Chassepot. Moreover, the court and imperialist party ex. Garibaldi, so far from relaxing discipline, had turned every pected, the Italians heartily desired, success to Prussia, | moment to account to organize his little army. The GaribalPrussia who had freed Venice, nor asked for provinces or dians under Colonel Lobbia were the last to exchange shots pay; Prussia who had the power so far to cripple France as with the Prussians, for, unaware of the armistice, they conto prevent her, as an empire, a monarchy or a republic, tinued to make brilliant sorties from Laugres. Suddenly at from meddling in her neighbors' affairs, from further delay- | midday on the 2d, just as Garibaldi had completed a busiing the completion of "one Italy, with Rome for its cap ness-like review of Cauyroi's troops, the drum sounded the ital.” Still the cream of the rank and file responded to the call to arms. The Garibaldians were attacked at the outvoice that is ever raised for the oppressed. And in what posts. It turned out that the departments of the Doubs of stern discipline Garibaldi, so lenient to the French under the Jura and Côte d'Or were not included in the armistice, his command, "kept his own!” A murmur or complaint a fact communicated by the Prussians, not by the authoriand back he sent them across the frontier. Once, displeased ties of Bordeaux. So, with as much care and rapidity as the at a nomination on the staff, his best officers and one of his strapping on of a knapsack, every Garibaldian–the wounded sons tendered their resignations. "Only cowards resign in protected by the red cross of Geneva alone exceptedthe presence of the enemy; this evening the resignations marched out of Dijon, Ricciotti remaining till midnight to are withdrawn or they all go before court-martial,” was carry off the guns, and at dawn General Manteufel and his Garibaldi's answer. The jealousy of the French generals staff, and a portion of his army, entered and took possession prevented the government from offering him any position of Dijon. in which his genius could really avail France; but he
RESIGNS HIS FRENCH HONORS. never once complained. He obeyed orders; defended Lyons Named deputy for Paris, Nice, and the Cote d'Or, Garion the Doubs, Creuzot at Autun, and, during the three days baldi, who saw that peace would be proclaimed, and who of Dijon held his own against a Prussian army whose num felt that his presence would embarrass the negotiations, bers can not be estimated since General Kettles's troops went to Bordeaux, tendered his resignation as general and were told off from the immense mass led by Manteufel deputy, and went to the ministers to plead the cause of the
widows and families of the dead and of the wounded of his day his actions are scarcely of sufficient moment to call for army. The right of speech was denied him. He started on any special notice. He attended the commemoration of the same night for Bordeaux, for Caprera on the morrow, the Sicilian Vespers last March, and even then he was aland there, tending his flocks and herds, cultivating his vines most a corpse. It was a pitiable spectacle that of the old and maize fields, and cheered by the presence of his young hero being dragged about as a show through the streets, family, writing his novel of the "Thousand," which, with and it was perhaps done more to gratify the vanity of his all due respect to the writer, might better never have been family than to do honor to Garibaldi. published, and containing his autobiography, which is quite Had Garibaldi not been summoned by the needs of his another thing from his novels, being a terse, detailed, and country to devote his life to the sword, the spade and the veracious narrative of the facts of his eventful life, he spent plowshare would have been his favorite instruments. One the years of 1871, 1872, 1873 and 1874, then, being elected .can fancy him a great colonizer, as he assuredly was a wise deputy for the first college of Rome, he went to the Italian and successful agriculturist. One has but to remember the capital to try and realize his long-cherished project of pro- barren, rocky desert of Caprera, when he purchased a portion tecting Rome from inundation and for restoring to agricul- of it in 1856, with a small sum of money left him by his ture the waste lands of the Roman Campagna.
brother, Felix, and compare its present flourishing and proTHE GENERAL'S LATTER DAYS.
ductive condition, to confess that this assertion is true. General Garibaldi did not have the felicity of an old age Add to this predilection his love for Rome, which ever of honor and repose. He was easily influenced by those since his boyhood and his first visit was an ever increasing around him, and communists and infidels eagerly seized passion; his often expressed regret that Italians should be every opportunity of making use of his name in agitations compelled to emigrate to foreign countries, with such acres against government, human and divine. One bright period and acres of waste but redeemable lands at home, and we in his history has been briefly alluded to above. It was have the key to what to some people seemed his "new when he presented himself at Rome to take his seat as hobby,” but which was instead but the manifestation, as deputy. The people of the Eternal City went mad over the time he deemed most fitting for success, of one of the their idol. When he reached the capital the bystanders favorite dreams of a lifetime—the reclamation of waste who had not seen him for years were struck with sympathy lands and the navigation of the Tiber. at his appearance. He was crippled with gout and rheumatism, and his aspect was that of a confirmed invalid. C. L. S. C. NOTES AND LETTERS. His son Menotti was obliged to assist his progress, and he was also sustained by crutches. He took his seat and On Friday evening, May 26th, the Oswego, New York, swore allegiance to his king. On January 14, 1880, arrived C. L. S. C. gave an art entertainment at the residence of good news at Caprera. The Court of Appeal at Rome had Mrs. H. Taylor, No. 108 East Third Street. annulled the sentence of the Civil Tribunal at Turin; the marriage of Giuseppe Garibaldi and Giuseppina Raymondi A member of the class of 1885 writes: "How thankful I was declared null and void on grounds that an Austrian am for the C. L. S. C.! I was obliged to leave school on accould allege but an Italian could not, and for this once Gari count of failing health before finishing my school educabaldi's inveterate enemies, the Austrians, did him a good tion. I love to study, but, until I heard of the C. L. S. C., I turn, for he had been married at Como before their jurisdic- did not know how to read or wbat to read. When I heard tion in that town was at an end. The story of his second of this people's college I joined right away, and I have enmarriage is interesting. The somewhat precocious daugh- joyed every minute I have spent in the company of my de ter of the Marquis Raymondi admired the warrior while lightful books." fighting in the Lakes in 1859. The Marquis himself had every reason to wish his daughter to wed; so Giuseppina A member of the C. L. S. C. relates the following interRaymondi appeared one day in the volunteers' camp with esting and encouraging incidents, illustrative of the good letters which, as she asserted, had been intercepted from results from the influence of Chautauqua and the C. L. S. C.: the Austrians. Garibaldi received her intelligence thank “Last summer a few old C. L. S. C.'s of us, together with a fully, but without having any sentiments of love kindled lady whose whole life was devoted to pleasure, attended the in his breast. Next day the father appeared in the camp Assembly. Though Chautauqua was not just suited to our and explained that his daughter wished to marry the gen
friend's tastes, she found some things that interested her. One eral. Garibaldi, somewhat electrified and taken aback, re evening she was induced to attend a prayer meeting of her plied, “Impossible! I never intend to wed again. Since church held in the office. On her return she said, 'I was so Anita's death my heart has withered; and besides, Signor ashamed. Every one could say a word for Jesus but me; Marchese, it is impossible that your daughter can feel any even a little girl spoke.' Since she has been greatly changed, attachment for me; she has met me but once." The Mar and to-day is an earnest worker in the Sunday-school and quis then cunningly touched the right chord in Garibaldi's church, and a devoted member of the C. L. 8. C. She often heart. “It is with freedom and Italian unity that my says, 'This has been the happiest winter of my life. Andaughter is enamored, and with you as the embodiment of other C. L. S. C., a lawyer, a graduate of a prominent Ohio it in Italy." Enough. Garibaldi immediately consented college, said but recently, “My studies this winter have to a union with so high minded a girl, only finding out on proven to me that Christian culture gives the truest and the steps of the altar the depths of her treachery and dis most lasting pleasure.'" honor. On January 24, ten days after the receipt of this intelligence from Rome, Francesca, his nurse, had her trous A lady member of the class of 1882 writes from Illinois: seau ready, the general donned his best clothes, and sat in "I enjoy THE CHAUTAUQUAN and find plenty of time to his smartest bath-chair, while Theresita and her husband read it all. If my health is good I hope to be at Chautauhurried from Genoa to assist at the nuptials. Menotti and qua to graduate this fall. I think I will be one of your oldhis wife, who came from Rome, and a few of the general's est students, as I will be in my seventieth year.”' oldest friends were invited-such as Fazzari, Froscinanti, Sgarallino - more as witnesses than as guests. Signora Another lady member of the class of 1882 says: “I have Francesca, the General's old nurse, and the mother of Man been an invalid, a great sufferer, and I did not expect to lio and Clelia, became his lawful wife. Since that eventful live until the present day. During my several years' sick.