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made to see that their interests are common. The workman ought to understand that when the price of that which his labor produces is low, his wages must be low, and the employer ought to recognize that his workmen are entitled to a share in the increased profits of a better market. In short, the system known as the "sliding scale," already adopted in some places with excellent effect, must become universal. When wages rise and fall with the price of products, neither employer nor employe has ground for complaint. In addition to these, there must be introduced that mode of adjusting difficulties by arbitration which distinguishes reason from passion, a higher from a lower civilization. If the advanced nations of the world are coming to see that an appeal to physical force can be substituted in all cases by equitable arbitration, surely the time has come when the issues between civilized employers and civilized workmen can be adjusted in the same way. Let the mode of procedure be similar to that adopted in the settlement of national controversies. Let there be an impartially constituted board of arbitration and conciliation. Let there be a clear and candid argument of the claims of each side by its own chosen representatives, and then let there be cheerful, honest acquiescence in the decision. Thus would justice obtain her own, and the evils, not to speak of the terrors, of labor conflicts soon disappear.

Organic Union in Churches.

The meeting of the General Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, was the occasion of a mutual interchange of fraternal messages between the two great Methodist bodies, indicative of the kindly relations existing between them. In the times immediately subsequent to their separation, which occurred in 1844, the two Methodisms assumed very antagonistic attitudes. This hostile feeling was greatly intensified by the civil war, in which, on either side, many members of each denomination were actively engaged. But within the last few years both denominations have, in a great degree, laid aside the bitterness and animosity engendered by separation and strife, and a more Christian feeling has come to prevail, resulting in mutual recognition, and also in fraternal relations being established between them. If, now, having come into fraternal relations, these two ecclesiastical bodies would take one more step and resolve on organic union, the cause of Methodism and of Christianity in our country would be greatly subserved. The same statement applies with equal force to Presbyterianism, which, like Methodism, is divided into two separate ecclesiastical bodies, one north, the other south of Mason and Dixon's line. It is certainly high time that a movement in this direction should be inaugurated. The old issues are dead and ought to be laid aside. They are things of the past and will gradually fade from the recollection of this generation and will be practically unknown to the next, and in no case ought they to be allowed to constitute barriers in the future to ecclesiastical unity.

What we have said with regard to organic union between kindred denominations North and South is still more emphatically true of such denominations existing in the same sections of the country. The sub-divisions of Methodists, Presbyterians, and Baptists and other denominations, into numerous branches, is a source of weakness and constitutes one chief cause of the slow progress Christianity is making in the land. The various sub-divisions of each great denomination are usually one in doctrine and in polity. Their mission and their aims are assuredly the same. And yet some minor matter suffices to keep them apart, and thus divides and weakens the forces of the Christian Church. Perhaps some small concession in each case would be necessary to secure organic union between the divisions of these great bodies, but the results would far more than re

pay such sacrifices, if, indeed, there would be any real sacrifice in the matter.

Organic union would also result in much greater economy in administering ecclesiastical affairs. As it is, each denomination has its separate boards for conducting its different church enterprises. The different branches of Methodism, for instance, have six or eight separate missionary societies, administered by as many different boards, with salaried officers. If Presbyterianism was an ecclesiastical unit its entire missionary work could be directed by one set of officers. The same is true of all the great enterprises in all the denominations. It also frequently happens that two or more churches of kindred denominations exist in the same community, all alike feeble, and having a hard struggle for existence, and so exercised to perpetuate their own existence that they have but little time or strength left to expend in aggressive work in the community. If organic union obtained, such feeble'societies would coalesce and would at once become vigorous Christian churches, entirely self-supporting and self-reliant, and full of that aggressive spirit that always characterizes a healthy, spiritual, vigorous Christian Church. Let there, then, be no more weakening of the forces of the Church by schism, or separation, or by the formation of new sects, but rather let the sub-divisions of kindred denominations cultivate a spirit of fraternity and seek to form such alliances with each other as may in the future result in bringing about complete organic union.

The Temperance Question.

Never before in the history of our country has the subject of temperance attracted so much attention, or occupied so large a place in the public mind as at present. There have been times of greater excitement in reference to the matter, but never heretofore did the current of public sentiment in favor of temperance run so deep and so strong as now. Until within the last few years the efforts of the advocates of temperance to suppress the liquor traffic have been confined almost entirely to moral suasion, but at last they have become convinced of the fact that moral suasion is too mild a method to conquer so malign an evil, entrenched as it is in the appetites of depraved humanity, and fortified by greed for gain on the part of the manufacturers and dealers. The State of Maine first set the noble example of using legal enactment, placing a prohibitory law upon the statute books, which has proven very efficient in restraining the liquor traffic in that Commonwealth. Recently Kansas struck a powerful legal blow at the very root of the traffic, by adding an amendment to her constitution prohibiting both the manufacture and sale of all alcoholic liquors for beverages within her borders. This act of the citizens of Kansas has produced consternation among the liquor men, and inasmuch as they foresaw that the successful enforcement of such an enactment in Kansas would be speedily followed by the passage of similar constitutional amendments by other States, they have been doing all that they could to break down the law, or to render it a dead letter upon the statute books, but happily thus far without success. The legislature of Iowa at its last session voted to submit a similar constitutional amendment to the people, and the verdict of the citizens of that State on this vital question will be rendered before this article will be perused by our readers. We most earnestly hope that it will be given on the side of temperance, and that Iowa will take its place by the side of Maine and Kansas in this great issue. By the passage of the Pond Bill and the Smith Sunday-closing Bill at its last session, the Ohio legislature gave to the citizens of that State two excellent laws for holding in check the traffic in alcoholic liquors. But the Supreme Court of that State has unfortunately rendered an adverse decision

as to the Pond Law, declaring it unconstitutional because the Constitution prohibits the licensing of the liquor traffic. We had hoped for a wiser decision on this matter, as a tax imposed upon a business does not by any means imply the licensing of it. The decision will be productive of good, however, if it only causes the temperance people of Ohio to realize that the only effectual method of eradicating the evil, is by affixing an amendment to their constitution prohibiting both the manufacture and sale of ardent spirits.

In no part of the country has the temperance sentiment made more rapid progress of late years than in the South. The foreign element, which is strong and influential, at least in political circles, in the North, is solidly arrayed against legislation in favor of temperance, and is one of the chief hindrances to legal enactments for the suppression of the liquer traffic. In the South the foreign element is small and weak, and if the colored people could be brought into hearty sympathy with the temperance cause, it would be an easy matter to secure a grand temperance victory. It would not be surprising if the South, in the near future, would lead the advance in the interests of this great cause. The triumph of the temperance movement is only a question of time. The right must prevail. If temperance people in all sections of the country will only work industriously, wisely, and unitedly, in due time they will reap the reward which their labor so richly deserves, and this foul iniquity will be swept from the land.


Now is the time to renew your subscription to the CHAUTAUQUA ASSEMBLY DAILY HERALD and THE CHAUTAUQUAN. All subscriptions expire with this number. We do not continue any names on our list without an order requesting us to do so. Read our combination offer on another page.

The steamers are now running regularly on Chautauqua Lake, and make connections with all trains at Jamestown, Lakewood, and Mayville.

The preachers in France, on the whole most celebrated for eloquence of the highest order, are said to be Father Hyacinthe and Father Monsabre. Father Monsabre is now preaching in the church of Notre Dame. He has openly extolled the Holy Inquisition. Father Hyacinthe challenged his successor in the cathedral to a public discussion. Monsabre consulted his superiors and declined.

Speaking of Mr. Longfellow's personal appearance and manner, a writer in the Indianapolis Journal says: "His dress was scrupulously tasteful and becoming. His hair and beard, set off against a snowy collar and a coat of black, showed silvery bright, but were in quantity and texture much thinner and finer than his engravings represent. The features, too, were not so full and rugged as in his portraits, but were minutely lined by time, and of that peculiar pallor of complexion that comes only of extreme age. Yet he was wonderfully agile in his movements, and continually shifting positions-sometimes settling forward, his elbow resting on the table, the head propped restfully in his hand, then suddenly leaning backward, the entire figure assuming an air of enviable languor."

The Hotel Athenæum, at Chautauqua, approaches completion. It will cost $100,000, and it will be one of the best furnished and best kept public houses in Western New York.

Mr. Bancroft has been forty-eight years writing the history of the United States, and has only brought it down to the first president.

An editorial in a recent number of Harper's Bazar begins thus: "There are physiologists who do not hesitate to assert that the European races are deteriorating as their civilization is crystallizing, and that the deterioration is not seen altogether in the royal families where insanity prevails, and where intermarriage has been the rule, but in the middle classes and the aristocracy as well, and it is to be ascribed, as much as to anything else, to the constant excitement, more or less, of the brain through the daily use of strong beers and wines and spirits by the mothers of the race there."

Sir Joseph Hooker, the great botanist, will publish a biography of Charles Darwin. Mr. Darwin, by the way, was one of the first to favor woman suffrage in England.

Will any members of the C. L. S. C. who are willing to give assistance to students less advanced than themselves, send their names and addresses to the Plainfield, N. J., office? There are now recorded about fifty members corresponding for mutual help, and besides these a number who have volunteered to help, and some who need assistance, but the latter are more than the former. If there are any others who can and are willing to aid in this way we shall be glad of their assistance.

It was a sad sight to witness the return to our shores of the four survivors of the "Jeannette." Lieutenant J. W. Danenhower, Mr. Raymond L. Newcomb, Jack Coles, and Long Sing came back in a pitiable condition. Lieutenant Danenhower has lost the sight of his left eye, and his health is broken. Jack Coles is a maniac, recognizing his nearest relatives only at intervals. In his delirious moments he is climbing over icebergs, while his suffering is intense. The history of this expedition into the arctic regions is an account of exposure, suffering, and death, and not one good result which commends the undertaking to the approval of reasonable or humane men.

From the Himalayas to the sea every leading town of India has given immense audiences to the Rev. Joseph Cook, who has made forty-two public appearances in India and Ceylon in eighty-four consecutive days.

Two years ago the types in the ASSEMBLY DAILY HERALD said, "The C. L. S. C. will march to the camp-fire beyond the grave." It should have read, "beyond the grove." There is where the C. L. S. C. camp-fires will be this year—“beyond the grove."

The Crescent, the organ of the Delta Tau Delta college It is a fraternity, is issued by the Meadville chapter. monthly journal published under the direction of Chapter Alpha, at Allegheny College, and devoted to the interests of the order which it represents. It is a sixteen page, ably edited sheet, printed on very heavy paper of the royal purple and silver grey tint.

The great day at Chautauqua, this year, will be August 12. The C. L. S. C. class of '82 will graduate with accompaniments of music and eloquence. It will be a high day. Read Dr. Vincent's programme on another page.

We furnish our readers in this number with the course of the C. L. S. C. reading and study for 1882-3. It will be a popular course, and it will strengthen the C. L. S. C. among the members as well as with scholarly men everywhere.

The Presbyterian Ministerial Association, of Philadelphia, at its meeting on Monday, May 29, adopted unanimously, by a rising vote, the following emphatic sentiments:

"Resolved, That we hail with profound satisfaction the deliverance of the General Assembly at Springfield, on Saturday last, with reference to the existence and spread of unbelief in our land, and the timely and solemn warning on this point administered to the teachers in our Theological Seminaries. The power of the gospel depends largely, under God, upon the young men who come to our pulpits from those Seminaries, and the taint of current Rationalism in their views of the construction of the Bible and its inspiration would paralyze their power for good and make them a curse rather than a blessing to the church."

One of the new men on the Chautauqua programme this year who will receive a cordial welcome is the venerable Dr. Mark Hopkins.

Mr. Will Carleton, the poet, and his wife, visited Chautauqua with the New York Press Association in June. He lingered about the Lake for several days, sight seeing, and he promised to visit us in August, when Chautauqua is in its glory.

Any desiring information concerning phonography, or desiring to ask questions about classes in phonography this year at Chautauqua, are requested to write to Rev. W. D. Bridge, 718 State Street, New Haven, Conn.

The Rev. Dr. Jesse B. Thomas, of the First Baptist Church, Brooklyn, last week received four calls-to a chair in Crozier Theological Seminary, Pennsylvania; to a chair án Andover Theological Seminary; to the pulpit of a promiment Baptist church in Rochester; and to the pulpit of the Seventh Baptist Church, Baltimore. He has declined the first three, and will doubtless also decline the fourth, as he is strongly attached to his Brooklyn church, which is one of the finest in that city. Dr. Thomas will lecture at Chautauqua this year.

The number of aliens who arrived at the port of New York in May, upon foreign vessels, as shown by the Custom House records, was 85,677, as against 78,359 for the same period in 1881. The total arrivals since January 1, were 227,325, an increase of 39,843 over the first five months of last year. On the last day of May 6,000 arrived at New York. Of those arriving during the month of May, the Germans take the lead with 30,049; followed by Ireland, with 13,453; Sweden, 12,481; England, 9,263; Italy, 5,518; Norway, 3,948; Austria, 3,073; Denmark, 2,399; Scotland, 2,164; Switzerland, 1,493; Russia, 1,175; Bohemia, 896; Holland, 849; Hungary, 480; France, 455; Wales, 310; other countries, 861.

The Rev. C. P. Hard, of Buffalo, secretary of the Chautauqua Foreign Missionary Institute, accompanied by his wife, will sail from New York, August 26, for India. Mr. Hard goes to Southern India to enter upon missionary work, which he was obliged to leave in 1878 because of failing thealth. He will attend the Chautauqua meetings in August.

Professor Henry Jackson, Vice-Master of Trinity College, Cambridge, says, concerning university education for women in England: "From the very foundation of the two colleges (Girton and Newnham) the movement has been cordially supported by Conservatives as well as by Liberals. The all-important report for the admission of women to the degree of examinations for the university was carried by three hundred and ninety-eight to thirty-two. We knew beforehand that among the residents there was a large majority in favor of this report; but the vote taken proved conclusively that all England was sincerely and deeply inter

ested in the cause. The performances of women in examination at Cambridge and elsewhere I look upon as wholly encouraging. The standard by which I should test them is an absolute one, and judged by that, they show work that is intrinsically good and worth doing. I have been surprised at the number of first classes and other distinctions that they have gained. At present there are close upon one hundred and fifty women studying in Cambridge, of whom the majority are reading for honors and examinations."

We saw George Francis Train sitting in Madison Square Park, New York, recently on a pleasant day, with a group of happy children gathered about him. He goes out into the park in the morning supplied with roller skates, balls, hoops, jumping ropes, and confectionery for the children, who visit him, and he keeps them busy at play. The little people bring him button-hole bouquets, climb over him, and enjoy the romping greatly. One peculiarity of these occasions is that George refuses to hold conversation with grown up people. The children monopolize his time from day to day, and they are very fond of him.

During the past year reports have been published in THE CHAUTAUQUAN from a large number of local circles. These reports have set forth with more or less detail the manner in which the exercises have been conducted and the plans of work pursued by the different organizations. They show the stimulating effect of unity of labor and the contact of those engaged in the same work. Local circles are undoubtedly a great help when properly conducted. They aid in keeping up the interest, and are a constant incentive to induce the members to be up with the current reading. They serve to develop the capacities of members, and the association in study gives a powerful twist in the right direction of mental discipline. They are also an inspiration in communities, and often attract the best talent outside the circle to the aid of the C. L. S. C. The thought, however, should not be lost sight of that the primary object of the local circle is a place for review of the work and exchange of ideas, rather than a meting for the first study of a subject. The real, downright work of the members should be done before coming to the circle meeting. It is not a substitute for individual study, but a supplement to it. There are thousands of C. L. S. C. members whose reading is all done without meeting in circles. Those who have the advantages of these organizations should not attempt to abate one whit of outside personal work. Class recitation of the pupils in our public schools can no more take the place of individual study than can the exercises of local circles be substituted for that study and persistent reading and thinking that each member of the C. L. S. C. must do for himself if he would attain to the best results.

It is estimated that between fifty thousand and sixty thousand children joined in the annual parade in Brooklyn this year. Children in ribbons of every hue, and in the flush of excitement incident to the anniversary of the Sunday-school Union, darted hither and thither. They poured into the streets so fast after the noon hour that the wonder was where they all came from, and where so many of them got nurses. Lithe little legs, encased in pink, yellow, écru, blue, red, and purple hose, hurried along. Over the public buildings floated flags, and from the windows of private houses bunting was suspended. The ringing of the bell in the City Hall tower at 11 a. m. gave notice to the other bells in the city to ring out a signal that the day was fair, and that therefore the processions would form. There were seven divisions, marching in different parts of the city. Each school first met in its own church, and then marched to some central meet

ing-place, where the songs composed for the occasion were sung and addresses were made. Then a parade over a fixed line of march followed, after which each Sunday-school hurried back to its home to feast on ice cream, cake, candy, and fruit.

A great man passed away when Garibaldi died. The following shows how he was esteemed by those who were directly benefited by his services: "The Standard's correspondent at Rome says the body of Garibaldi lies clothed in a red shirt. The room in which it rests is filled with flowers and wreaths. The following is the telegram of condolence to Garibaldi's family sent by King Humbert: 'From my youth up my father taught me admiration for Garibaldi. Later I witnessed his heroic acts, and in my family the admiration and gratitude grew greater. Accept my condolence, which is shared by the whole Italian nation.' The Swiss National Assembly has passed a resolution expressing admiration for the character of Garibaldi, and sympathy with the Italians at his death. The prefect of Rome has reprimanded the police for neglecting their duties when the office of the clerical newspaper 'Cassandrino was wrecked because that paper spoke disrespectfully of Garibaldi. The bust of Garibaldi is to be placed beside that of Count Cavour in the Italian Chamber of Deputies. M. Gambetta has telegraphed to Menotti Garibaldi recalling his father's services to France in 1870, and adding that the gratitude felt by France will make the death of Garibaldi a cause for national mourning. The government of Uruguay has issued a decree ordering that a solemn funeral service be held for Garibaldi, and has instructed its Minister at Rome to send a wreath to Caprera.

We send a copy of the CHAUTAUQUA ASSEMBLY HERALD this month to every subscriber of THE CHAUTAUQUAN. It contains two valuable lectures, and the complete programme for Chautauqua in July and August, together with a great deal of other valuable information concerning the grounds—great days and distinguished lectures. For $1.00 you can secure it for the Chautauqua season.

Our civilization develops strangely in some directions. One of its best outgrowths is the Christian work done among the foreign populations that are coming to us in swarms. Here is a good sign. The Chinese Sunday-school of the People's Baptist Church in New York gave an entertainment recently, of which the following is a brief report: The names make a peculiar and interesting feature of the report and sound new: "Lung Henry read the 126th Psalm. Kong Gou read the fifteenth chapter of Luke. The class in concert sang a hymn and repeated the Lord's Prayer, Lee Koon read the Ten Commandments, and Kum Ling made a Chinese address. Six members of the class then dressed in their native costume, burdened themselves with as many huge pasteboard boxes, and working their way through the throng, smilingly distributed nosegays. More singing and scriptural reading followed, and Ah Gee prayed in Chinese. A final burst of the Chinese instrumental music closed the entertainment."

Messrs. Lee and Shepard, of Boston, Mass., issue a set of eight books, beautifully illustrated and elegantly bound, entitled, "Oh, Why Should the Spirit of Mortal be proud," "He Giveth His Beloved Sleep," "Rock of Ages," "Nearer my God to Thee," "The Breaking Waves Dashed High," "Hannah Jane,” “Abide with me," "Home, Sweet Home." Chautauqua presents unusual attractions this season. The programme is both substantial and brilliant. It must cost more than $15,000. The prospects for a great gathering of people are flattering. Already they begin to assemble. New cottages are going up, old ones are being repaired, and E

nature is being aided in putting the grove in a beautiful dress, by the florist and a multitude of workmen of the æsthetic school.

Members of the C. L. S. C. will have finished their studies for the present year by the time this number of THE CHAUTAUQUAN is issued. The vacation will bring a welcome respite from study, and to many it will afford a much-needed rest. The C. L. S. C. people on the Pacific coast will assemble at Monterey. In Illinois they meet at Lake Bluff; some at Loveland, Ohio, and out in Indiana, at Island Park, there are to be camp-fires, lectures, and C. L. S. C. songs (we are sorry we can not respond to the invitation to be there.) Lakeside will catch the C. L. S. C. fire as it sweeps eastward, and by the time Chautauqua opens there will be quite a blaze. The day of days at Chautauqua will be August 12. The Framingham Assembly, in Massachusetts, will close the series of Assemblies, and then C. L. S. C. students will hie themselves to their books for another year.

The New York Press Association, John A. Hall, of the Jamestown Journal, president, held their annual meeting in Jamestown, June 7th and 8th, and made an excursion to Chautauqua. About three hundred guests were seated for dinner in the spacious dining-hall of the new Hotel Athenæum. A large audience assembled in the Auditorium, when Dr. Vincent made an address of welcome, which elicited much applause. Judge Tourgee, of Philadelphia, responded for the press, and then the company went down

the Lake on the steamer "Jamestown." It was an interesting and enjoyable excursion, but if these editors will visit Chautauqua in August, they will say, "the half has never been told” of Chautauqua's utility and glory.


[We solicit questions of interest to the readers of THE CHAUTAUQUAN to be answered in this department. Our space does not always allow us to answer as rapidly as questions reach us. Any relevant question will receive an answer in its turn.]

Q. Will the names of the graduates of '82 be published, and if so, where can I get them?

A. They will doubtless be published in the ASSEMBLY DAILY HERALD. See publisher's notice in this number of THE CHAUTAUQUAN.

Q. Is it "out of date" to affix "st" and "th" to the day of the month in writing, and if so please give the reason for dropping it?

A. No. It is at the writer's option. Some drop it from habit, or for brevity.

Q. Please give a short biographical sketch of Colonel John Trumbull, painter of the noted pictures in the Capitol at Washington.

A. Born at Lebanon, Conn., in 1756. He entered the Revolutionary Army, and in 1775 was appointed aid-decamp to Washington. In 1780 he went to London and became a pupil of the artist, West. Returning to America, he soon achieved a reputation as a painter. He labored hard and produced many works, ninety-five of which he presented to Yale College. He died in 1848.

Q. Who were the "Seven Sleepers of Ephesus?" A. Tradition has given them the names, Maximian, Malchus, Martinian, Denis, John, Scrapion, and Constantine. It is one of the legends of early Christianity. Seven noble youths of Ephesus, during the Decian persecution, fled to a cavern for refuge. They were pursued and walled in for a cruel death, but falling asleep were miraculously kept for two centuries. The Koran relates the same tale of the Seven Sleepers, and says that the sun altered his course twice a day that he might send his light into their cavern. Q. After the rebuilding of the temple at Jerusalem, when was it destroyed, and by whom?

A. During the final struggle of the Jews against the Romans, in the year 70, the temple was the last scene of conflict. Against the will of the Roman commander, Titus, a soldier threw a firebrand into the temple, and the whole structure perished. Its site is now occupied by a splendid mosque. Q. What were the Isthmian Games?

A. One of the great national festivals of Greece. They were celebrated on the Isthmus of Corinth, and consisted of gymnastics of every sort, boxing, wrestling, racing, and also contests in poetry and music. Sisyphus is said to have established them in honor of Neptune and Palæmon.

Q. Where is the Lithuanian language spoken?

A. In Lithuania proper, in parts of East Prussia, and in Samogitia. Schleier, Bopp and others, have established its affinity to the Sanskrit, and relation to other languages.

Q. Where is the mausoleum erected by Artemisia? and where the statue of Jupiter Olympus? Are they in a good state of preservation?

A. The mausoleum was at Halicarnassus, in ancient Caria. The statue was at Olympia, where was the sacred grove. It was a plain of Elis, near the town of Pisa. The former was buried under the débris of the ages, but has been unearthed in fragments, which are in most part in the British Museum. The latter was removed by the emperor Nicodosius I to Constantinople, where it was destroyed by fire in A. D. 475.

Q. Who are the Zuni Indians and where do they live?

A. They are one of the largest of the Pueblo nations, and inhabit Western New Mexico. For an interesting and instructive account of them see lecture by F. H. Cushing in Popular Science Monthly of June.

Q. Where will I find Socrates' discussions on the immortality of man?

A. Socrates himself wrote nothing. His discussions are to be found in the works of his disciples, Plato and Xenophon. Q. Is not Irving's life of Washington the best?

A. Among the excellent lives by Irving, Marshall and Jared Sparks it is difficult to pronounce which is best. The charm of Irving's style would recommend it to many readers above the others. That by Sparks is the most complete, including Washington's correspondence, addresses, messages, etc.

Q. Whose life of Lincoln and of Garfield shall we buy? A. There is no better life of Lincoln than that by Dr. J. G. Holland. The student should supplement it by H. J. Raymond's "Life and Administration of President Lincoln," Greeley's "American Conflict," and Mrs. Stowe's eloquent tribute to Lincoln in "Men of Our Times."

Of Garfield, Hinsdale and Ridpath should both be read. The best work is yet to be published.

Q. What school for young ladies can you recommend, not denominational, yet of strong religious influence, and not too expensive for one of limited means?

A. We regret that our limited acquaintance with schools of the above description renders us unable to recommend any one in particular. The truth is such schools are not numerous. Inexpensive religious schools are the result of the fostering care of a religious denomination. We do not know of any outside. The question is referred to our readers for answer.

Q. How pronounce the words Pierre and Faneuil?
A. Pē-air, Fun-el.

Q. Can a citizen of Washington vote at a presidential election?

A. He can not.

Q. Will you please give some information in your next number about Hellen, from whom it is said the Hellenes descended, and also of Helen, wife of a king of Sparta?

A. Hellen, the mythical ancestor of the Greeks, was sup

posed to be a son of Deucalion and Pyrrha, and father of Dorus, Eolus, Xuthis. Hellenes was the name afterward applied to the whole Greek nation. Helen, celebrated for her beauty, was the daughter of the Spartan king, Tyndarus. Her hand was sought by Ulysses, Ajax, Diomedes, Menelaus, and others of the powerful princes of Greece. The suitors bound themselves with an oath to submit to the choice which she should make. She selected Menelaus, from whom she was abducted by Paris. On this account the Greeks declared war against Troy. She is said to have been put to death by Polyxo, Queen of Rhodes.

Q. What is the etymology of the word Fenian? A. Finians, or Fenii, the old militia of Ireland, so called from Fin, or Finn, or Fingal, a traditional Irish hero.

Q. In "Questions for Further Study," October CHAUTAUQUAN, page 50, it is asked, "Why was painting and sculp ture forbidden the Jews?" Is not this an assumption that these were forbidden? Where is there any authority for even the supposition?

A. Read the second commandment of the Decalogue.

Q. Are there such animals as mermaids; if not, how did the word derive its origin?

A. The animal exists only in fable. Mr. Barnum, some years ago, advertised one as among the wonders of his museum, but when dissected it turned out to be upper half monkey and lower half fish, joined together by man's hand. The word is from the French mer, sea, and maid, sea-maid. Q. Where can I get information as to silk worms and silk culture?

A. Write to the Woman's Silk Culture Association, Philadelphia.

Q. Can you give any rule for the pronunciation of the word "blessed" when used in different connections? In the sentence, "He shall be blessed upon the earth," we pronounce it in one syllable, but in the following, "Blessed are the meek," etc., we pronounce it in two syllables.

A. The difference in pronunciation depends on whether the word is used as adjective or verb.

Q. Will THE CHAUTAUQUAN please inform me when or by whom the "round towers of Ireland" were built, or, where in the American Encyclopedia I can find something concerning them?

A. The round towers of Ireland have been the subject of endless conjecture and speculation among antiquarians, who have connected them with pagan times and pagan rites. But it is now thought there can be no doubt that they are the work of Christian architects, and built for religious purposes. There are one hundred and eighteen still standing in Ireland. A short account of them may be found in the American Cyclopedia, Vov. IX, page 355.

Q. Will you please give me some information as to where the "Chautauqua Library of English History and Literature" is to be obtained?

A. Phillips & Hunt, 805 Broadway, New York.

Q. Do D. Appleton & Co. still publish Dickens's Works, cheap edition, paper cover? What is the price?

A. Yes. Nineteen vols., 12mo. Prices vary from 15 to 35 cents each. Price of set, $5.55.

Q. Will you inform me through the Editor's Table what countries, islands, etc., belong to the British Empire?

A. IN EUROPE: The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, with the adjacent islands, the Shetlands, Orkneys, Hebrides, Scillies, Man, Channel Islands, and Isle of Wight; Heligoland, Gibraltar, and Malta.

IN ASIA: British India, Ceylon, Singapore, Hong Kong, and Aden.

IN AFRICA: Cape Colony, Port Natal, Sierra Leone, Gambia, Gold Coast Settlements, Mauritius, St. Helena, and Ascension.

IN AMERICA: Dominion of Canada, Newfoundland, Prince Edward Island, Bermudas, West India Islands, British Honduras, British Guiana, and Falkland Islands. IN AUSTRALASIA: Australia, Tasmania, New Zealand,

Labuan, and Sarawak.

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