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They added besides, that suche mariners as caried ye mercnduntes, and the drudges of tharmye, through coueousnes of the gold, which had been reported vnto them, anded in the ilande, and were neuer seene after. Brende. Quintus Curtius, fol. 287

Hadst thou like vs, from our first swath, proceeded
The sweet degrees that this briefe world affords,
To such as may the passive drugges [drudges] of it
Freely commandst; [command] thou would'st have plung'd

In generall riot.-Shakes. Timon of Athens, Act iv. sc. 3.
And though she be some dunghill drudge at home,
Yet can he her resign some refuse room
Amidst the well known stars: or if not there,
Sure will he saint her in his Kalendere.

Bp. Hall, b. i. Sat. 7.

In black Egyptian slavery we lie; And sweat and toil in the vile drudgery, Of tyrant sin. Cowley. The Plagues of Egypt. There is no life happy but that which is spent in continuall drudging for edification.

Bp. Hall. Cont. The Faithful Canaanite.

Nature is not master of that consummate art and wisdom according to which it acts, but only a servant to it, and a drudging executioner of the dictates of it.

Cudworth. Intellectual System, p. 156.

So all the vain

And weak productions of man's wit,
That aim at purposes unfit,
Require more drudgery, and worse
Than those of strong and lively force.

Bulier. On the Weakness & Misery of Man.

All that I gain is but a threadbare coat,
And that with utmost pains and drudging got.
Dryden. Juvenal, Sat. 9.

In the judgment of the writer De Mundo, it is not so decorous in respect of God neither, that he should avTouрyew davra, set his own hand, as it were, to every work, and immediately do all the meanest and tri ingest things himself drudgingly, without making use of any inferior or subordinate instruments.-Cudworth. Intcl. Sys. p. 149.

But now I can mount, in the sun-beams I play,
While you must, for ever, drudge on in your way.
Cunningham. Pomona. A Pastoral.

A creative imagination disdains the mean offices of digging for a foundation, of removing rubbish, carrying materials: leaving these servile employments to the drudges in science, it plans a design, and raises a fabric. Reid. Inquiry, c. 1. s. 2.

Nor is it less likely that our vices may debase us to the servile condition of inferior animals, in whose forms we may be severely punished for the injuries we have done to mankind when amongst them, and be obliged in some measure to repair them, by performing the drudgeries tyrannically imposed upon us for their service.

Jenyns. Origin of Evil, Let. 4.

DRUERIE. "Fr. Druerie, that is to say, amitié," (Menage.) With the Italians, says Du Cange, druderia is - jocus amatorius. The Low Lat. Drudaria, amicitia. Drudi, amici; from the Ger. Trewe, fides; Dut. Drut, druyt, fidelis. Mr. Tyrwhitt interprets it, "courtship, gallantry." Ritson adds, illicit love.

Wymmen ne kepte of no knygt as in druery,

Bote he were in armys wel yprowed.-R. Gloucester, p. 191. Hit is as der worth a druwery, as dere God himselve. Piers Ploukman, p. 17.

Of battaile and of chevalrie,

Of ladies love and druerie

Anon I wol you tell.

Chaucer. The Rime of Sire Thopas, v. 13,823.

And saith, that for no druerie

He woll not leue his sluggardie.-Gower. Con. A. b. iv.

That somme men clepen sorcerie,

Whiche for to winne his drewrie,
With many a circumstance he vseth,

There is no point, whiche he refuseth.-Id. Ib. b. vi.

Syr, hydyr I com for swych a thyng,

To skere Launfal the knyght,

That he never, yn no folye

Besofte the quene of no drurye,

By dayes ne be nyght.-Ritson. Launfal.

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mean dryed up; that is, worthless, (Tooke, ii. 414.) To drug, the verb, is formed upon the noun,To give or supply drugs; any thing having qualities or producing effects similar to those of drugs.

Chaucer once writes Dragg.

Lyf leyvede [believed] that leche craft. lette sholde elde, And to dryve away deth. with dayes [diets and] drogges. Piers Plouhman, p. 401.

Full redy hadde he his apothecaries To send him dragges, and his lettuaries, For eche of hem made other for to winne. Chaucer. The Prologue, v. 428. Withoute blame to be giuen to the physytians, sauynge onely, that some of them [be] not diligent inough in beholdynge their drouges or ingredience at all tymes dispensid and tried. Sir T. Elyot. The Castel of Helth, Pref. I haue drugg'd their possets, That death and nature doe contend about them Whether they liue or dye.

Shakespeare. Macbeth, Act ii. sc. 2.
Oft they assayd,
Hunger and thirst constraining, drug'd as oft,
With hatefullest disrealish writh'd thir jaws
With soot and cinders fill'd-Milton. Paradise Lost, b. x.
Others take

Drugs to procure a heavy sleep, that so
They may insensibly receive the means
That casts them on an everlasting slumber.

Massinger. The Renegado, Act v. sc. 3. Fraternities and companies, I approve of as merchants' burses, colledges of druggers, physicians, musicians, &c. Burton. Democritus to the Reader, p. 63.

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Then I could rest as still as those
Whom he has drugg'd to sure repose.

Fenton. To the Knight of the Sable Shield.
Fletcher's despis'd, your Jonson's out of fashion,
And wit the only drug in all the nation.

Dryden. Epil. at the acting of the Silent Woman. As a man never pleads better than where his own personal interest is concerned, he exhibited to the court with great eloquence, that this new corporation of druggists had inflamed the bills of mortality and puzzled the College of Physicians with diseases for which they neither knew a name or cure.-Tatler, No. 131.

In the other place stating the several orders of their citizens, they place their ministers after their apothecaries;

that is, the physician of the soul after the drugster of the

body; a fit practice for those, who, if they were to rank things as well as persons, would place their religion after their trade.-South, vol. i. Ser. 4.

But O th' important budget! usher'd in
With such heart shaking music; who can say
What are its tidings? have our troops awak'd?
Or do they still, as if with opium drugg'd,
Snore to the murmurs of th' Atlantic wave?

Cowper. Task, b. iv. Mouffell adds, that Bucklersbury being replete with physic, drugs, and spicery, and being perfumed, in the time of the plague with the pounding of spices, melting of gum, and making perfumes for others, escaped that great plague whereof such multitudes died, that scarcely any house was left unvisited.-Pennant. London, p. 576.



Lye, and others, think is the British Deruidhon, (q.d.) persapientes, very wise men; WachDRU'IYSH. ter, (who states copiously the various etymologies that have been proposed) from British Derw, an oak, and udd, a lord or master; Skinner, that the Druids were not so called by themselves, but that the name was given to them by the Greek settlers at Marseilles, propter quercuum cultum, from the Gr. Apus, an oak. See the quotation from Pliny; the word dry in Somner; and Selden's Illustrations of Drayton, song 9. Du Cange (in v. Arbor), remarks, that long after the introduction of the Christian Religion, the worship of trees and groves so flourished in Africa, Germany, Italy, Gaul, and other provinces, that it cost kings and popes much trouble to root it


The Druides are occupied about holy things: they haue the dooing of publicke and priuate sacrifices, and do interprete and discusse matters of religion. Goldinge. Cæsar, fol. 155.

The Druida (for so they call their divinours, wise men, and the state of their clergie) esteeme nothing more sacred in the world than misselto, and the tree whereupon it

breedeth, so it be on oke. Now this you must take by the way, these priests or clergie men chose of purpose such groves for their divine service, as stood only upon okes; nay they solemnize no sacrifice, nor perform any sacred ceremonies without branches and leaves thereof, so as they may seem well enough to be named thereupon Dryide in Greeke, which signifieth as much as the oke-priests. [Vt inde appellati quoque interpretatione Græca possint Druides videri.]-Holland. Plinie, b. xvi. c. 44.

In all places, where the Druiysh religion was frequented, such was the estimation of the preests of this profession, that there was little or nothing doone without their skill. ful aduise.-Holinshed. Description of Britaine, c. 9.

You, of your ancient princes, have retriev'd
More than the ages know in which they liv'd;
Explain'd their customs and their rights anew,
Better than all their Druids ever knew.

Waller. To a Person of Honour.

In yonder grave a Druid lies,
Where slowly winds the stealing wave,
The year's best sweets shall duteous rise,
To deck its poet's sylvan grave.

Collins. On the Death of Mr. Thomson. There was a class of the Druids, whom they called Bards, who delivered in songs (their only history) the exploits of their heroes; and who composed those verses, which contained the secrets of druidical discipline, their principles of natural and moral philosophy, their astronomy, and the mystical rites of their religion.

Burke. An Abridgement of English History, b. i. c. 2. But still the great and capital objects of their [the Saxons] worship were taken from Druidism; trees, stones, the ele ments, and the heavenly bodies.-Id. Ib. b. ii. c. 1.



A. S. Drem-an, drym-an, jubilare, to make a joyful noise. Dut. and Ger. Trommelen, pulsare tympanum; Ger. Trom men, sonare, susurrare..

To beat a drum; to have or cause the action or sound of a drum; the rattling, cheering noise of the quick beat, the dub a dub, as Gascoigne calls it, of "the spirit-stirring drum," (Shakespeare;) then to the base hum: and hence, to drum is also to emit a humming, droning, sullen, murmuring sound or noise. See TRUMPET.

For particular applications of the word, see the quotations from Ray, and Paley, and Smollet.

Drumble appears to be merely the diminutive; and in Shakespeare to be applied not to a droning noise, but to a droning, loitering action; in Scotch, drumby is droning, dull, sullen, lowering, gloomy; and thus also dark, thick, and muddy: and so Bacon uses droumy.

Drum-wine,-in the citation below from Massinger, Mr. Gifford says, may be such bad wine as is disposed of by sutlers at the drum-head; or such as was found at auctions or outcries, to which people at that time were summoned by beat of drum; unless, indeed, (which he considers to be more probable,) Dodsley's reading, "stum wine," be Is it not droumy wine?


The drummes crie dub a dub, the braying frumpets blow, The whistling fifes are seldom herd, these sounds do drowne the so.-Gascoigne. Flowers.

Which came running to hinder my passage, supposing that we had bene other people, for we caried with vs a fifer, & a drummer, and I was clad in other apparell then I went in before, when they saw me first of all.

Hackluyt. Voyages, vol. iii. p. 437 She was immediatly assaulted by diuers English pinasses, hoyes, and drumblers.-Id. Ib. vol. i. p. 601. His drumming heart cheers up his burning eye.

Shakespeare. The Rape of Lucrece.

In drums, the closeness round about, that preserveth the sound from dispersing, maketh the noise come forth at the drum-hole, far more loud and strong, than if you should strike upon the like skin, extended in the open air.

Bacon. Naturall History, § 142. A parley was concluded, and a drummer dispatched twice to the enemy before they would take notice of it. State Trials. Colonel Fiennes, an. 1643. Hark, hark; what drummings yonder! I'll lay my life Brewer. Lingua, Act ii. sc. 4

they are come to present the show I spake of.

Cloris. Violins, strike up aloud, Ply the gittern, scour the crowd, Let the nimble hand belabour The whistling pipe, and drumbling tabor. Drayton. The Muses' Elysium, Nymphal 8.

M. Ford. What, John, Robert, John; go, take vp these cloathes heere, quickly: wher's the cowle-staffe? Looke how you drumble?

Shakespeare. Merry Wives of Windsor, Act iii. s. 3.

He was slaine and all his companie, there being but one man the drumslager left aliue, who by swiftnesse of his foote escaped.-Holinshed. Ireland, an. 1580.

Item, a collar of good large fat brawn
Serv'd for a drum, waited upon by two
Fair long black puddings, lying by for drumsticks.

A yonge man to be a dronkelewe.-Gower. Con. A. b. vi.

Wake vp ye dronckardes, and wepe: mourne all ye winesuppers, because of youre swete wyne, for it shall be taken away from your mouth.-Bible, an. 1551. Joel, c. 1.

Ye shall be droncken, but not with wyne. Ye shall fall, but not thorowe dronckennesse.-Id. Esaye, c. 29.

Then drinke they all round both men and women: and sometimes they carowse for the victory very filthily and Cartwright. The Ordinary, Act ii. sc. 1. drunkenly.-Hackluyt. Voyages, vol. i. p. 96.

Gape round about me, and yet not find a chapman
That in courtesy will bid a chop of mutton,
Or a pint of drum-wine for me.

Massinger. The City Madam, Act iii. sc. 1.

That protestation of Catiline, to set on fire and trouble states, to the end to fish in droumy waters (turbidis aquis.) Bacon. Adv. of Learning, b. ii.

At the end of this hole is a membrane, fastened to a round bony limb, and stretched like the head of a drum, and, therefore, by anatomists called also tympanum, to receive the impulse of the sound, and to vibrate or quaver according to its reciprocal motions or vibrations.

Ray. On the Creation, pt. ii.

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The drum-stick falling upon the drum makes a percussion of the air, and puts that fluid body into an undulating motion.-Boyle. Works, vol. iii. p. 25.

He would invite me to the garden by drumming upon my knee, and by a look of such expression as it was not possible to misinterpret.-Cowper. Treatment of his Hares.

This is a riotous assembly of fashionable people of both sexes, at a private house, consisting of some hundreds; not unaptly styled a drum, from the noise and emptiness of the entertainment.-Smollet. Advice, a Satyr, Note 7.

It [the tympanum of the ear] bears an obvious resemblance to the pelt or head of a drum, from which it takes its name.-Paley. Natural Theology, c. 3.

It resembles also a drum-head in this principal property, that its use depends upon its tension.-Id. Ib.



Past part. of drink. Droncken; Ger. Truncken; Sw. Drucken; A. S. Drunce, druncen, ebrius, inebriatus, temulentus,-drunke, drunken, overtaken with drink. Druncennysse, drunkenness, (Somner.) See DRINK.

Drenched or soaked with liquid; having drunk or swallowed, (sc.) too much strong, intoxicating or inebriating liquor; tipsy, fuddled, intoxicated, inebriated. " Dronkelew, adj. Saxon. Given to drink," (Tyrwhitt.)

For let a dronken daffe, in a diche falle
Leet hym lyg.

Piers Plouhman, p. 227.

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For thei that slepen, slepen in the nyght, and thei that ben drunkun ben drunkun in the nyght.

Wiclif. 1 Tessal. c. 4.

But take ye heede to yoursilf: leste perauenture youre hertis be greuid with glotenye and drunkenesse, and bisynesses of this lyf: and thilke day come sodeyn on you. Id. Luk, c. 21.

Lordings, right thus, as ye han understond,
Bare I stifly min old husbondes on hond,
That thus thei saiden in hir dronkennesse.

And it shal be requisite for such as take that busines in hand to bee sobre. For drounkenship is hartlesse, and vncircumspecte, and not onelye harteles, but also rashe and temerarious.-Udal. Ephesians, c. 5.

Our stomachs bee neuer cloyed with dronkenship or surfeiting, as is commanded by our Saviour in Luke.

Fox. Martyrs, p. 1014. How to Fast truly after Scripture. He that killeth a man when he is drunke shall be hanged when he is sober.-Camden. Remains. Prouerbs.

Still as he rode, he somewhat still did eate,
And in his hande did bear a bouzing can,
Of which he supt so oft, that on his seat
His drunken corse he scarce vpholden can,
In shape and life, more like a monster then a man.
Spenser. Faerie Queene, b. i. c. 4.

Where, in his cups o'ercome with foul excess,
Straightways he plays a swaggering ruffin's part,
And at the banquet in his drunkenness,
Slew his dear friend, my kind and truest heart:
A gentle warning, friends, thus may you see,
What 'tis to keep a drunkard company.

Drayton, Idea 7.

Here it must not be omitted, That the English (who of all the dwellers in the northern part of the world, were hitherto the least drinkers, and deserved praise for their sobriety,) in these Dutch wars learned to be drunkards; and brought the vice so far to overspread the kingdom, that laws were fain to be enacted for repressing it. Baker. Elizabeth, an. 1580.

An old drunkard loves a tavern, though he cannot go to it, but as he is supported, and led by another, just as some are observed to come from thence.-South, vol. ii. Ser. 5.

The dissolution and drunkenness of that night was so great and scandalous, in a nation which had not been ac

quainted with such disorders for many years past, that the king, who still stood in need of the Presbyterian party, which had betrayed all into his hands, for their satisfaction, caused a proclamation to be published, forbidding the drinking of healths.-Ludlow. Memoirs, vol. iii. p. 17.

If the object of belief be single, the belief can scarce be double; unless by a drunkenness of the understanding, like that which doubles the objects of sense.

Warburton. Rem. On Hume's Nat. Hist. of Religion.

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Dry is opposed, (lit.) to wet; as water; any moisture; as juice, sap. Consequentially, to be dry is to be thirsty; also, to be barren, unfruitful, unproductive. (Met.) barren, unfruitful; as a dry style, i. e. barren of ornament, destitute of feeling; consequentially, harsh, rigid, severe, unfeeling. To dry is

To shake off, drive or drain off, to wipe off; or Chaucer. The Wif of Bathes Prologue, v. 5963. by any means free from moisture; to parch, to

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scorch, to wither.

To draw dry-foot is when the dog pursues the game by the scent of the foot, for which the bloodhound is famed. See commentators on Shakespeare's Comedy of Errors, quoted below, and Gifford's B. Jonson, i. 52.

Thulke zer was thut somer so druye & so hot, That zut to this daye of none hattore me not. R. Gloucester, p. 531, And yf hus hous be unhelede. and ryne in hus bedde He seketh and seketh. or he slepe drye. Piers Plouhman, p. 337. And other fel on stoons: and it sprunge up, and driede, for it hadde not moisture, (it widdred awaye, because it lacked moystures.-Bible, 1551.)-Wiclif. Luk, c. 8.

And he entride eftsoone into the synagogue & ther was a man havynge a drie hond, and they aspieden him if he heelide in the Sabotis to accuse him.-Wiclif. Mark, c. 3.

Wherwith they made hem stately fires great
To dry their clothes yt were wringing weat.
Chaucer. The Floure and the Leafe.

The brode river sometime waxeth drey.

Id. The Knightes Tale, v. 3026. Thilke ice, whiche that the horsemen bare To brake, so that a great partie Was dreint of the chiualrie, The rerewarde it toke aweie,

Came none of hem to londe drey.-Gower. Con. A. b. ii.

And thus ye see that these three [faith, hope, and charitie] inseperable in this life haue yet seperable and sondry offices and effectes, as heat and drith beyng inseparable in the fyer, haue yet their seperable operations.

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As one then in a dreame, whose drier braine
Is tost with troubled sights and fancies weake,
He mumbled soft, but would not all his silence breake,
Id. Ib. b. i. c. 1.

This is another thing likewise to be considered of, that the trees and bushes growing by the streets' sides; doo not a little keepe off the force of the sunne in summer for drieng vp the lanes.-Holinshed. Description of Britaine, c. 19. It looks ill, it eats drily, marry 'tis a wither'd peare. Shakespeare. All's Well that Ends Well, Acti. sc. 1. The soul in all hath one intelligence; Though too much moisture in an infant's brain, And too much dryness in an old man's sense, Cannot the prints of outward things retain.

Davies. Immortality of the Soul, s. 22.

Then he would never suffer those sterilities, but himself by a cup of sensible devotion would water and refresh those drinesses.-Bp. Taylor. Set Forms of Liturgy, s. 60.

A hound that runs counter, and yet draws dri-foot well. Shakespeare. Comedy of Errors, Activ. sc. 2.

This account is very dry in many parts, only mentioning the name of the lover who leaped, the person he leaped for, and relating in short, that he was either cured, or killed, or maimed by the fall.-Spectator, No. 233.

In our methods of surgery, nothing is found of such effect in the case of old ulcers as fire, which is certainly the greatest drawer and drier, and thereby the greatest cleanser that can be found.-Sir W. Temple. Cure of the Gout.

Some on the leaves of ancient authors prey,
Nor time, nor moths e'er spoil'd so much as they:
Some drily plain, without invention's aid,
Write dull receipts how poems may be made.

Pope. Essay on Criticism.
One hand sustain'd a helm, and one the shield
Which old Laertes wont in youth to wield,
Cover'd with dust, with dryness chapt and worn,
The brass corroded, and the leather torn.

Pope. Homer. Odyssey, b. xxii. The fall of the Angels, by F. Floris, 1554; which has some

good parts, but without masses, and dry.

Sir J. Reynolds. Journey to Flanders and Holland. The poet either drily didactive gives us rules, which might appear abstruse even in a system of ethics, or, triflingly volatile, writes upon the most unworthy subjects.

Goldsmith. Of the Augustan Age in England.

Whether it proceed from a mere barrenness of thought, and a native dryness of soul, that he is not able to vary his matter, and to amplify beyond the formal topics of an analysis, or whether it arise from affectation of such a way of talking, is hard to say.

Watts. Of Instruction by Preaching, pt. ii. c. 6. s. 2. DRYAD. Dryades or nymphs of the woods; introduced into all European languages; Gr. Apv-udes, from 8pvs, an oak. See DRUID.

[Eve] like a wood-nymph light
Oread or Dryad, or of Delia's traine,
Betook her to the groves, but Delia's self
In gait surpass'd and Goddess-like deport.
Milton. Paradise Lost, b. ix.
When Cheerfulness, a youth of healthiest hue,
Her bow across her shoulder slung,

Her buskins gemm'd with morning dew,
Blew an inspiring air, that dale and thicket rung,
The hunters call to fawn and Dryad known.
Collins. The Passions. Ode for Musie
When late the trees were stript by winter pale,
Young Health, a Dryad-maid in vesture green,
Or like the forests silver-quiver'd queen,
On airy uplands met the piercing gale.

Warton. On Bathing, Son. 2.


It. Duale; Lat. Dualis, from DUALITY.duo; Gr. Avo, two.

This dualitie after determission, is founden in euery creature, be it neuer so single of onhed. Chaucer. The Testament of Love, b. ii.

And so conjoyned the unity and duality of the soul, and made out the three substances so much considered by him ¡Plato.-Brown. Cyrus' Garden, c. 4.

They absolutely deny, that there can be any more persons in the godhead than only one, and consequently, that a duality, or binary number of persons in it, would, in a Socinian's account, pass for no less an absurdity, than even a trinity itself; the grand article controverted between us and them.-South, vol. iv. Ser. 7.

Pythagoras talked, it is said, of an immaterial unity, and a material duality, by which he pretended to signify, perhaps, the first principles of all things, the efficient and material causes.-Bolingbroke. Human Reason, Ess. 2.

All primitive and uncompounded languages seem to have a dual as well as plural, number. This is the case of the Greek, and I am told of the Hebrew, of the Gothic, and of many other languages.-4. Smith. Formation of Languages.

Between (formerly written twene, atwene, bytwene,) is a dual preposition, to which the Greek, Latin, Italian, French, &c. have no word correspondent; and is almost peculiar to ourselves, as some languages have a peculiar dual number. Tooke. Diversions of Purley, vol. i. c. 9.

DUB, v. "And dubbade his sunu Henrie to ridere there." And dubbed his son Henry a knight there, (Sax. Chron. an. 1086.) Junius ;-from the A. S. Dypp-an, to dip, baptizare, to confer a new name as if by baptism. Hickes thinks the A. S. Dubb-an, creare equitem, to create a knight, (Gram. A. S. p. 151,) is borrowed from the Islandic, dubba, (generally) to strike:-but Ihre says, that he has nowhere found that word used, unless specially,-gladio nudato equitem creandum perstringere; and agrees in opinion with those who think it sprung from the Low Lat. Adobare, which, with Du Cange, he takes from the Lat. Adoptare giving as his reason, that the ceremony of adoption was performed by a stroke or blow of a sword; that the rank of knight was afterwards conferred by a similar ceremony; and that the individual himself was called Miles Adobatus. The editor of Menage accords with Hickes, and adds in confirmation, that the old Fr. Dauber vel dober signifies, percutere, to strike, (to dab.) Hickes remarks, that, before the introduction by the Normans of creating knights by dubbing (per dubbationem), the ceremony was by consecration; (sc.) by absolution after confession, by vigils, masses, &c. To dubb is, consequentially

To confer a new name or title.

& an abbot of Scone, that dubbid the kyng.

R. Brunne, p. 331.

- He lokede As is the kynde of a knyght. that cometh to be doubed To geten hus gilte spores. Piers Plouhman, p. 339. Certes, the swerd that men yeven first to a knight whan he is newe dubbed, signifieth, that he shuld defend holy chirche, and not robbe it ne pille it: and who so doth is traitour to Crist.-Chaucer. Persones Tale.

And when any man is made a knight, he kneeling down, is strooken of the prince, with his sword naked, upon the back or shoulder, the prince saying, sus or sois cheualier au nom de Dieu, and (in times past) they added St. George, and at his arising the prince saith Avancey. This is the manner of dubbing of knights at thys present: and that terme dubbing, was the old terme in this point, and not creation.

Smith. Commonwealth, b. i. c. 18.

There him he caused to kneele, and made to sweare,
Faith to his knight, and truth to ladies all;

And neuer to be recreant, for feare

Of perill, or of ought that might befall;
So he him dubbed, and his knight did call.

Spenser. Faerie Queene, b. vi. c. 2.

But he that temper'd thee, bad thee stand vp,
Gaue thee no instance why thou shouldst do treason,
Vnlesse to dub thee with the name of traitor.

Shakespeare. Hen. V. Act ii. sc. 2.

But are these men (who have thus dubbed themselves true Protestants) in good earnest such mortal enemies to popery, and the popish interest, as they pretend themselves to bel-South, vol. vi. Ser. 1.

Should he succeed, you'll give him his degree;

If not, within he will receive no fee!

The college, you, must his pretensions back,
Pronounce him regular, or dub him quack.

Garrick. Prologue. She Stoops to Conquer

DUB, v.

DUB, n. S the sound of a

See DUB, ante. Fr. Dauber, dober,-
To strike; to emit or send forth
stroke or blow, (to dab.)

But this relation having been somewhat dubiously dellvered to me, I must tell you, that Kelly having an unsettled mind, left Oxon abruptly, without being entered into the matricula, and in his rambles in Lancashire, committing Wood. Athena Oxon.

Dubbing,- -see DAB; and the quotation there certain foul matters, lost both his ears at Lancaster. from Walton.

Wherin I meane to tell what race they ronne
Who followe drummes before they knowethe dubbe,
And bragge of Mars before they feele his clubbe.
Gascoigne. The Fruits of Warre.

But shall I say? this lesson learne of me,
When drums are dumb, and sound not dub a dub,
Then be thou eke, as mewt as [is] a mayde
(I preach this sermon but to souldiours)
And learn to liue, within thy bravries bounds.

For as the smith with hammour beats
His forged mettall, so

He dubs his club about their pates
And sleas them on a row.

Id. The Steele Glas.

Warner. Albion's England, b. ii. c. 7.

But say, Sir Huon, Now the drums dubbs, and the sticks turn'd bed-staves, All the old foxes hunted to their holes, What trade do you mean to follow ?

Let us therefore at present acquiesce in the dubiousness of their antiquity, and think the authority of the past and present times a sufficient plea for your patronizing, and my dedicating, this poem.-Philips. The Splendid Shilling, Ded. This is done by the Goddess, [Minerva] that she may be thought to be really a man, as she appears to be; she speaks with the dubiousness of a man, not the certainty of a Goddess.-Pope. Homer. Odyssey, b. i. Note.

I very readily admit of your excuse in regard to Sempronius, well knowing that your conduct upon that occasion may justly be imputed to those errors to which we were all equally liable, whilst we trod the dark and dubious paths of bondage.-Melmoth. Cicero, b. xiii. Let. 23.

But yet this bright and luminous truth, this judgment of nature, was clouded by such a multitude of superstitious notions that it appeared dubiously.

Bolingbroke, Ess. 3. On Monotheism.

Beaum. & Fletch. The Mad Lover, Act i. sc. 1. thing doubted of, at least to the reasons occurring for and

As skilful coopers hoop their tubs
With Lydian, and with Phrygian dubs.


Hudibras, pt. ii. c. 1.

Lat. Dubius, dubitare, (q.) duitare, (i.) in duo itare. (See TO DOUBT.) Dubious: equivalent to the Fr. Doubteux;

It seems almost a self evident proposition that there must be assurance where there is no doubt; but dubitation in the nature of it implies an assent to something, if not to the against it: for if you see none on either side, what can you doubt about?-Search. Light of Nature, vol. i. pt. i. c. 2. Fr. Ducat; It. Ducato, ducaDUCATO'ON. Stone; Sp. Ducado. misma. A ducal coin. See DUKE.


As fine as a ducket in Uenise,
Of which to lite all in my pouche is.

Ducale nu

Chaucer. House of Fame, b. iil. There were in the sayd ship fifty-five thousand ducates in merily shared among themselves.

"Doubtful, uncertain, in suspence: also, variable, in- redy money of the Spanish king's gold, which the souldiers ambiguous, perplexed, subject to cavilling or exDUBITATION. constant, staggering; also ception, whereof a question may be made, a controversie raised, or divers senses gathered," (Cotgrave.)

This saiyng litel or nothyng pleased the Duke of Burgoyne's messengers, for they thought that it had bene much more profitable to Kyng Edward, to haue circumspectly forsene afore, and prouided to stoppe his landyng, then now sodainly to abide the fortune of battaile, which is euer dubious and vncertayne.-Hall. Edw. IV. an. 9.

And as for the trewe inuocacion of God thorow Cryst, thei haue turned it into a dowtfull dubitacion.

Joye. Exposicion of Daniel, c. 12. stir up ingenuous dubiosities unto experiment, and by an These relations leaving unsatisfaction in the hearers, do exploration of all, prevent delusion in any.

Brown. Vulgar Errours, b. vii. c. 18.

Since those ordinary means of expounding Scripture, as searching the originals, conference of places, parity of reason, and analogie of faith, are all dubious, uncertain, and very fallible, he that is the wisest and by consequence the likeliest to expound truest in all probability of reason, will be very far from confidence.

Bp. Taylor. The Liberty of Prophesying, s. 4.

For first, Albertus Magnus speaks dubiously, confessing he could not confirm the verity hereof; but Aldrovandus plainly affirmeth, there can be such inequality [in the badger's legs] observed.-Brown. Vulgar Errours, b. iii. c. 5.

Whatsoever is not of faith, is sin; and therefore the ground of invocation of saints or angels being at least dubitable, their invocation is sin. More. Antidote against Idolatry, p. 25.

Only our stupid, undisciplin'd, absurd, illogical hearts have the skill to avoid it, running headlong and wilfully after the old impurities, even then when they are most fully without all dubitancy resolved, that all the joys of heaven are forfeited by this choice. Hammond. Works, vol. iv. p. 505.

Whereas the right use of reason is, to make things doubtfull-certaine; and not to call things certaine, into doubt. Wherefore I report as deficient a calendar of dubitations, or problemes in nature, and approve the undertaking of such a worke, as a profitable pains.

Bacon. On Learning, by G. Wats, b. viii. c. 4.

But another hypothesis there is in Saint Austin, to which without dubitation he does peremptorily adhere, which I before intimated, viz. that although he admit of purgatory pains after this life, yet none but such as shall be at the day of judgment.-Bp. Taylor. Dissuas, from Popery, pt. ii. b. ii.

Thither to haste, the region to explore,

Was first my thought: but, speeding back to shore,
I deem'd it best to visit first my crew,
And send out spics the dubious coast to view.

Pope. Homer, Odyssey, b. x.

Harkluyt. Voyages, vol. i. p. 598. There was one that was very curious in keeping of his beard, and it was reported that hee bestowed euery moneth two dukats vpon the trimming of it. If it be so (said Poole) his beard will shortly be more worth than his head.

Camden. Remaines. Wise Speeches.

T' other day for six ducatoons she was willing,
Which I thought a great deal too dear.

Cotton. Epigramme De Monsieur Des Portes. A ducatoon formerly passed at three guiiders, and three stivers, or sixty-three stivers.

Locke. Considerations of the Lowering of Interest. Upon engaging to pay an annual tribute of twelve thousand ducats, and to deliver every year six hundred Christian captives, or in case there being none to release an equal number of Moors, the Moors at last obtained a peace or rather a truce.-Swinburne. Spain, Let. 20.

DUCK, v. Dut. Duyken, ducken; Ger. Duck, n. Ducken; Sw. Dyka, urinari, DUCKER. immergere; which Ihre thinks DUCKING, n. is the frequentative from the DUCKLING, n. A. S. Duf-ian, to dive. To dip, dive or sink; to drop, to plunge, to immerse.

Applied by our older writers to the cringing or bowing of hypocrites or sycophants.

To make ducks and drakes upon the water, is to throw any thing so as to imitate the motion of those birds upon the water; to play at duck and drake with money, is to throw it away as boys (for such purpose) throw stones or other things upon the water; to squander it, spend it wastefully, uselessly.

Then shal thou swim as mery, I undertake,
As doth the white doke aftir her drake.

Chaucer. The Milleres Tale, v. 3576. Master William Antony the master of the ship himselfe (when none else would or durst) ventured with danger of drowning by creeping along upon the maine yarde (which was let downe close to the rails) to gather it vp out of the sea, and to fasten it thereto, being in the mean while ofttimes ducked ouer head and eares into the sea.

Hackluyt. Voyages, vol. ii. pt. ii. p. 164. He walketh vp & downe all day musing and imagining mischief, a douking hypocrite made to dissemble. Tyndall. Works, p. 374.

With their countenaunces framed to a grauitie, thei are ofte and much present in the high stretes, & in places of great resort of people, to the intente thei maie there baue much crouching and doucking made vnto them. Udal. Luke, c. 20.

The wanton maydens him espying, stood
Gazing awhile at his vnwonted guise;
Then th' one herselfe lowe ducked in the flood,
Abasht that her a stranger did avise.
Spenser. Faerie Queene, b. H. c. 12.

It is said, that then holding divers books in his hand, he dld never let them go, but kept them always upon his head above water, and swam with his other hand, notwithstanding that they shot marvellously at him, and he was driven sometimes to duck into the water.-North. Plutarch, p. 609. Play at duck and drake with my money.

Beaum. & Fletch. The Chances, Act iv. sc. 2. Pre'thee goe in (my duck) I'le but speak to 'em And return instantly.-Id. Spanish Curate, Act ii. sc. 2. The duck and mallard first, the falconers only sport, (Of river-flights the chief, so that all other sort, They only green-fowl term) in every mere abound, That you would think they sat on the very ground. Drayton. Poly-Olbion, s. 25.

No, dainty duckers, Up with your three pil'd spirits, your wrought valours. Beaum. & Fletch. Philaster, Act iv. sc. 1.

For my kneeling down at my entrance, to begin with prayer, and after to proceed with reverence, I did but my duty in that; let nim scoffingly call it cringing or ducking; or what he pleases.-State Triais. Abp. Laud, an. 1640.

If he be not fain before he dies to eat acorns, let me live with nothing but pollerd, and my mouth be made a duckingstool for every scold to set her tail on.

Wilkins. The Inforced Marriage, Act iii.

I must have my capons
And turkeys brought me in, with my green geese,
And ducklings i' th' season.

Beaum. & Fletch. The Beggars' Bush, Act i. sc. 2.

Yet, ere the armies join'd, that hopeful elf,
Thy dear, thy dainty duckling, bold Mathias
Advanced, and stared like Hercules or Golias.

Massinger. The Picture, Act ii. sc. 1.

This was now discovered to have been the blood of a duck, which they renewed every week; and the one side of the vial was so thick that there was no seeing through it, but the other was clear and transparent; and it was so placed near the altar, that one in a secret place behind could turn either side of it outward.

Burnet. History of the Reformation, an. 1538.

So have I seen, within a pen,

Young ducklings foster'd by a hen;

But, when let out, they run and muddle,

As instinct leads them, in a puddle.

Swift. The Progress of Marriage.

A giantess she seems; but, look behind,
And then she dwindles to the pigmy kind.
Duck-legg'd, short-waisted.-Dryden. Juvenal, Sat. 6.

At length, on the 18th of September, we crossed the line in the longitude of 8° west; after which the ceremony of

ducking, &c. generally practised on this occasion was not omitted.-Cook. Voyage, vol. iii. b. ii. c. 1.

The man who can see without pleasure a hen gather her chickens under her wing, or the train of ducklings follow their parent into the pond, is like him who has no music in his soul, and who, according to Shakspeare, is fit for treasons, murders, and every thing that can disgrace and degrade humanity.-Knox, Ess. 158.







Fr. Ductile; Lat. Duc-ere, to draw; Ductilis, (contracted from Ductibilis,) that may be drawn. Consequentially, Ductile is

Easy to be drawn; easy to be turned or bent; tractable, flexible, pliable; easy to be induced, complying, yielding.

For, (as Mr. Cowper saith) if we consider in this duct (the thoracic duct) its several divisions and inosculations, its numerous valves looking from below upwards, its advantageous situation between the great artery and vertebræ of the back, together with the ducts discharging their refluent lympha from the lungs and other neighbouring parts, we shall find all conduce to demonstrate the utmost art of nature used in furthering the steep and perpendicular ascent of the chyle.-Derham. Phys.-Theol. b. iv. c. 11. Note (50.)

It [iron] is the most impure of all metals, hardly meltable (but with additaments:) yea malleable and ductible with difficulty.-Fuller. Worthies. Shropshire.

She gilded us, but you are gold; and she
Informed us, but transubstantiates you;
Soft dispositions, which ductile be,

Elixir like, she makes not clean, but new.

Donne. To the Countess of Huntingdon.

I, when I value gold, may think upon The ductilness, the application, The wholesomeness, the ingenuity, From rust, from soil, from fire ever free.-Id. Elegy 11. Goid is remarkable for its admirable ductility and ponderosity, wherein it excels all other bodies hitherto known. Ray. On the Creation, pt. i.

Yet, by the but meanly wise and common ductions of bemisted nature, it would have been no very powerful oratory, to perswade the taking up of our cross to follow him. Feltham, pt. ii. Resolve 66.

The ductile wax with busy hands I mould,
And cleft in fragments, and the fragments roll'd:
Th' aerial region now grown warm with day,
The wax dissolv'd beneath the burning ray.

Pope. Homer. Odyssey, b. xii.

But interest, and design, are a kind of force upon the soul, bearing a man oftentimes besides the ducture of his native propensities, and the first outgoings of his will. South, vol. viii. Ser. 1. And now, let any one judge whether it is fitter for us to steer our practice according to the ducture of the universal church, or the broken voice of a particular faction, compared to that, both small in number, and inconsiderable in qualification.-Id. Ib. vol. ix. Ser. 5.


Fourthly, the main pipe, which carries the chyle from the reservoir to the blood, viz. the thoracic duct, being fixed in au almost upright position, and wanting that advantage of propulsion which the arteries possess, is furnished with a succession of valves to check the ascending fluid, when once it has passed them, from falling back.

Paley. Natural Theology, c. 10.

Nor do I doubt the ability of Shakspeare to have continued his [Mercutio's] existence, though some of his sallies are perhaps out of the reach of Dryden; whose genius was not very fertile of merriment, nor ductile to humour, but acute, argumentative, comprehensive, and sublime.

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Johnson. Observations on Shakspeare's Plays.

There is not yet such a convenient ductility in the human understanding, as to make us capable of being persuaded, that men can possibly mean the ultimate good of the whole society, by rendering miserable for a century together the greater part of it.-Burke. Tracts on the Popery Laws.

DUDDER, to dodder, (qv.) To tremble, to


"Tis woundy cold sure. I dudder and shake like an aspen leaf every joint of me. Ford. The Witch of Edmonton, Act ii. sc. 1.



Skinner says, from Ger. Dolch, pugio, (q.d.) Dolchin or Dolkin; or from Ger. Deagen, degen, gladius, a sword. Junius,Dudgeon haft; manubrium apiatum; "which means a handle of wood with a grain rough, as if seeds of parsley were strown over it," (Steevens.) Wilkins (noticed by Mr. Nares) says, "Dudgeon,

indignation. Root of Box. Dudgeon-dagger,short sword, whose handle is of the root of box." Gascoigne in his General Advertisement, "The most knottie peece of box may be wrought into a faire dudgen hefte." Dudgeon is applied to the haft or handle of a dagger or knife, to distinguish it from those which might have more costly hafts or handles; and thus Mr. Gifford thinks it became a term of contempt, and from a simple characteristic of poverty to be frequently employed in denoting the meaner passions. Dudgeon, (lit.) he interprets, wooden. "I am plain and dudgeon," in Beaum. & Fletch.-coarse, rude. "A clapper dudgeon," in B. Jonson,-one who claps his wooden dish at the door for broken meat, &c. (See Gifford's B. Jonson, vol. v. p. 96. Nares's Glossary, and the Variorum Shakespeare, (1821) Macbeth, Act ii. sc. 1, Note 5.) Mr. Gifford is undoubtedly right with respect to the consequential usages of the word; but that it neither means wooden nor root The word may be of box is plain from Holland. applied as an epithet to the box or any other wood, to express some particular quality, and it is not improbable that such quality is strength, Dut. Dooghen; A. S. Dug-an, to be strong, (whence our Doughty; which is also now used, as Dudgeon is, contemptuously;) and thus what Gascoigne calls "the most knottie peece of box" might with propriety be named dudgeon.

Dudgeon is applied, consequentially, toStubbornness, sullenness, quarrelsomeness; offence, ill-will.

Now for the box-tree, the wood thereof is in as great request as the very best: seldome hath it any graine crisped damaske wise, and never but-about the root, [raro crispanti, nec nisi radice] the which is dudgin and full of worke. Holland. Plinie, b. xvi. c. 16.

I fear no censure, nor what thou can st say,
Nor shall my spirit one jot of vigour lose;
Think'st thou my spirit shall keep the packhorse way,
That every dudgen low invention goes.

Drayton, Iden 81.
I see thee still;
And on thy blade, and dudgeon, gouts of blood;
Which was not so before.-There's no such thing:
It is the bloody businesse, which informes
Thus to mine eyes.-Shakespeare. Macbeth, Act ii. sc. 1
I fear

This peace will make me something that I love not;
For by my troth, though I am plain and dudgeon,
I would not be an ass: and to sell parcels,
I can as soon be hang'd.

Beaum. & Fletch. The Captain, Act ii. sc. I.

Here hee is! and with him-what? a clapper
That's a good signe; to haue the beggar follow him,
So neere at his first entry into for tune.

B. Jonson. Stap of Newes, Act ii. sc. 4.
They'l quarrel sooner for precedence here,
And take it in more dudgeon to be slighted,
Than they will in publique meetings, 'tis their natures.
Beaum. & Fletch. Wild Goose Chace, Act ii. sc. 1.
There's ne'r a one of these, the worst and weakest,
(Chuse where you will) but dare attempt the raising,
Against the sovereign peace of Puritans,
A may-pole and a morris, maugre mainly
Their zeal, and dudgeon-daggers.

Id. The Woman's Prize, Act v. sc. 1.

When civil dudgeon first grew high, And men fell out they knew not why; When hard words, jealousies and fears, Set folks together by the ears.-Hudibras, pt. i. c. 1. He is even ready to fear that divines should take his honest freedom in dudgeon; and that it may possibly procure him in return, some ecclesiastical Billinsgate; to be called infidel, deist, and perhaps atheist. Warburton. View of Bolingbroke's Philosophy, Let. 1.

DUE, n.
DUE, adj.




It. Dovuto; Sp. Debido; Fr. Deu, from devoir or debvoir; Lat. Deb-ere; from de, and habere, quasi de alio habere, to have of or from another. (See DEBT and Owɛ.) Due, n. (as Debt) is

Any thing had or held of or from another; his property or right of property; that which is owed, which any one ought to have; has a right to demand, claim or possess; which any one deserves, or has earned by service.

Due, adj. as the French, is, consequentially, "just, fit, right, apt, seasonable, convenient," (Cotgrave.)

Duty and right are reciprocal: if one has the right to command, it is the duty of another to obey.

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This wretched worldes transmutation
As weale & wo, now poore and now honour,
Without order or due discrecion
Gouerned is by fortune's errour.

Chaucer. Balade of the Village.

Than it is wisdom, as it thinketh me,
To maken vertue of necessite,
And take it wel, that we may not eschewe,
And namely that to us all is dewe.

Id. The Knightes Tale, v. 3046.

But craftily encourage her thereto
By other meanes, as by commending
And not to much, but duely mending
Both praise and blame.-Id. The Remedie of Love.
If holy church after the dute

Of Christ's word ne be not all auised
To make peace, accord, and vnite, &c.

Id. A Balade to King Hen. IV.

And right as Judas hadde purses smale
And was a theef, right swiche a theef was he,
His master hadde but half his duelee.

Id. The Freres Tale, v.6531.

And euery gouernance is due
To pitee, thus I maie argue,
That pitee is the foundeinente

Of euery kynges regimente.-Gower. Con. 4. b. vi.

For but a man's wit be swerued,

Whan kynde is duliche serued,

It ought of reson to suffise.-Gower. Con. A. b. vii.

I not howe that thei shall amende

The woful world in other thinges

To make peace betwene kynges
After the lawe of charitee

Which is the propre dewlee

Belonged vnto the priesthood.-Id. Ib. Prologus.

And for the honour of the indictment and manifesting the due of their proceedings, Mr. Secretary desired their judgments.-State Trials. Sir Christ. Blunt, an. 1600.

To this obiection I answere, that if God of his mercy and thorough the bloud of his sonne Jesus haue not remitted ye payne due vnto that crime, then shall we all be damned: for the payne due vnto euery disobedience that is against God, is eternal damnation.-Frith. Workes, p. 11.

And if it flyberalytye] be well and duely employed, it acquireth perpetualle honour to the gyuer, and moche frute and syngular commoditie therby encreaseth.

Sir T. Elyot. Governovr, b. ii. c, 10. Let us heare the end of all; feare God and kepe his commandments for this is the whole (dutie) of man. For God wil bring euerie worke vnto iudgement, with eurie secret thing, whether it be good or euil. Geneua Bible, 1561. Eccles. xii. 13, 14.

But death for an errour of such kind, in terms and words not altogether dutiful of certain bishops, cannot be but extreme cruelty.-State Trials. John Udal, an. 1590.

I will for ever hereafter forsake all such undutiful and dangerous courses, and demean myself dutifully and peaceably to all authorities both civil and ecclesiastical, established in this realm.-Id. Ib.

You think more libertie in wilfulness, than wisdome in dutifulnesse, and so run headlong, not to the mischief of other, but to the destruction of your selues.

Sir John Cheeke. The Hurt of Sedition.

To praise Achilles, or the Trojan crew,
Show'd little art, for praise was but their due.

Suckling. An Answer to Verses made in his Praise. Every third word a lye, duer pay'd to the hearer then the Turkes tribute.-Shakespeare. 2 Pt. Hen. IV. Act iii. sc. 2.

But thee, O Jove, no equall judge I deeme
Of my desert, or of my dewfull right;
That in thine owne behalfe maist partiall seeme.
Spenser. Faerie Queene, b. vii. c. 6.

To whom in sort, as he at first begonne,
He daily did apply himselfe to donne
All dewfull seruice, void of thoughts impure.

Id. Ib. b. vi. c. 10.
Yet did those two themselves so brauely beare,
That th' other little gained by the lone,

But with their owne repayed duely were,
And vsury withall.
Id. Ib. b. iv. c. 9.

Now then, when God had dissolved that dueness, that debt, (as I may call it,) that obligation, which according to the law of nature, in a way of meetness and comeliness it was fit for God as a creator, to deal with a creature, there is now room for grace.-Goodwin. Works, vol. i. pt. ii. p. 199.

So that this dueness imports only what it became God to do, and was worthy of him, in such or such a case; as he useth the word, Hebrews, ii. 10. for it became him, &c. Id. Works, vol. ii. pt. iii. p. 21. They both attone Did dewly to their lady, as became.

Spenser. Faerie Queene, b. ii. c. 9. Thus spake the kinde and prudent Astragon, And much their kinde impatience he appeas'd, For of his griefs (which heavier than their owne Were born by both) their dutious fears are eas'd. Davenant. Gondibert, b. iii. c. 2. You yet may, lady, In recompense of all my duteous service, (Provided that your will answer your power,) Become my creditress.

Massinger. The Fatal Dowry, Act iii. sc. 1.

If piety goes before, whatever dutiousness or observance comes afterwards, it cannot easily be amiss.

Bp. Taylor. Rule of Conscience, b. iii. c. 5.

By this meanes the multitude of the poor needy people (and all such rabble as had nothing to lose, and had less regard of honesty before their eyes) came to be of greater force (because their voyces were numbred by the pole) then the noble honest citizens, whose persons and purse did dutifully serve the commonwealth in their wars.

North. Plutarch, p. 195.

But now the best way to redeem this lost privilege (for which we may giue those thanks only) is to give all opportune appearance of obedience and dutifulness to his majesty's command.-State Trials. John Hampden, Esq. an. 1661.

Rather than offend them (as he expresses it,) rather than do a thing that might encourage others to refuse the payment of their dues, he orders St. Peter to lay down the noney they demanded.-Sharpe, vol. v. Ser. 2. VOL. L.

Hereby [by temperance and moderation] it comes to pass, that our senses, which are the instruments of our pleasures, are always preserved in that due purity and quickness, that is absolutely necessary for the right performing of their offices, and the rendering our perceptions of any thing grateful and agreeable.-Sharpe, vol. i. Ser. 1.

Could there be greater liberty than for their whole nation to be preserved from all the designs of their enemies, to enjoy their own laws, and matters of justice to be duly administered amongst them? and had they not all these under the government of Moses ?-Stillingfleet, vol. i. Ser. 7.

A seat, soft spread with furry spoils, prepare;
Due-distant, for us both to speak and hear.

Pope. Homer. Odyssey, b. xix.

The practical duties, which the Christian religion enjoyns, are all such as are most agreeable to our natural notions of God, and most perfective of the nature, and conducive to the happiness and well-being of man. Clarke. On the Evidences, Prop. 10.

A female softness, with a manly mind:
A daughter duteous, and a sister kind:
In sickness patient, and in death resign'd.

Dryden. On a Lady who died at Bath. This benevolence was presented to the queen in a very humble and dutiful manner in writing, bearing date the same fourth day of March by the archbishop, and signed with his seal. Strype. Life of Abp. Whitgift, b. iii. c. 17.

He calls them likewise σeßouevo, worshippers; such who deliberately resolving and foresceing what ought to be done, perform it with all dutifulness and diligence.

Id. Life of Sir John Cheeke. A Discourse of Superstition. It [religion] consists in that love to God, as a being perfectly holy in himself and good to us; and that dutifulness to him, as the author and ruler of the universe; which engage men to seek his favour by imitating his nature and obeying his laws.-Secker, vol. ii. Ser. 23.

If he sets sacrifice in competition with mercy, as the Jews did, when, under the pretence of rich offerings to the temple, they defrauded their parents in their old age of the support which was their due.-Bp. Horsley, vol. ii. Ser. 22.

If his spear prevail,
And I fall under him, he shall account
My spoils his own, and bear them to the fleet:
But he shall yield my body to receive
Its due funereal rites from Trojan hands.

Cowper. Homer. Iliad, b. vii. As the will of God is our rule; to enquire what is our duty, or what we are obliged to do, in any instance, is, in effect, to enquire what is the will of God in that instance? which consequently becomes the whole business of morality. Paley. Moral Philosophy, b. ii. c. 4.

I advised him to persevere in dutifully bearing with his mother's ill humour, till time and her own good sense should disentangle her from the web which ministerial cunning had thrown around her.-Anecdotes of Bp. Watson, vol. i. p. 367.

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If death be not more formidable to you than hell, you are fit for a reserve, or forlorne hope, for the cannon's mouth, for cuiraisiers, for fiends to duel with.

Hammond. Works vol. iv. p. 522.

Who, single combatant, Duell'd their armies rankt in proud array, Himself an army, now unequal match To save himself against a coward arm'd At one spear's length.-Milton. Samson Agonistes. And this vast man, besides his wondrous might, No man as he so skilful is in fight; Expert in all to duels that belong, Train'd up in arms, whilst yet he was but young. Drayton. David & Goliah.

Looking down from the pinnacle of the temple, into the houses, streets, highways, and fields of the world; where I find death acting in so many and so divers postures; methinks there's no one whereby the prince of darkness triumphs more over our humane nature, then (this wherein he imploys our courage, even the vertue of our nature to destroy it self) by the desperate practice of duels.

Mountague. Devoule Essayes, pt. ii. Treat. 11. s. 2. Agreeable to which is our style of duellers, challenging to the field.--Hammond. Works, vol. iv. p. 29.

I have character'd this spirit of duelling as ugly and deform'd as I could: and surely it is not an improper figure, in this design of death I have in hand; because death is fouler in that shape then in any other.

Mountague. Devoute Essayes, pt. ii. Treat. 11. s. 3.


Thirdly, his majesty's said attorney-general did, by many reasons which he brought and alledged, free the law of England from certain vain and childish exceptions, which are taken by these duellists. State Trials. Case of Duels, an. 1615

This being well forc'd, and urg'd, may have the power
To move most gallants to take kicks in time,
And spurn out the duelloes out o' th' kingdom. *

Beaum. & Fletch. Passionate Madman, Act iii. sc. 1.

If the business be not decided by this, or that if his majesty is pleased to admit torture before a duel-trial, the pannel is ready with him to bear out the torture, and to be tried thereby, with the said Lord Rea, and let the truth then appear.-State Trials. Lord Uchiltrie, an. 1631.

He must at length, poor man! die dully of old age at home; when here he might so fashionably and gentilely, long before that time, have been duell'd or flux'd into another world.-South, vol. ii. Ser. 6.

And therefore this duelling practice (what thoughts soever some may have of it) proceeds not from any sense of honour, but is really and truly a direct defiance and reproach to the laws and justice of a government; as if they could not, or would not, protect a man in the dearest concern he has in the world, which is his reputation and good name; but left every slandered person to carve out his own satisfaction, and so to make himself both judge in his own cause and executioner too.-Id. vol. vi. Ser. 3.

A duel, called by the Greeks uovoμaxia, and by the Latins duellum, receiving its denomination from the persons engaged in it, is properly a fight or combat between two by each of them.-Id. vol. x. Ser. 7. persons, mutually undertook, appointed, and consented to

I suppose I need not take any pains to prove the unlawfulness, nay, the sottishness of such duellings, where men sold their lives for a crown or an angel; and by a preposterous way of labouring, not to get their living, but to procure their death.-Id. Ib.

Oh, how I hate, abominate, detest and abhor, those perpetual talkers, disputants, controverters and duellers of the tongue.-Dryden. An Evening's Love, Act iii.

You may also see the hope and support of many a flourishing family untimely cut off by a sword of a drunken dueller, in vindication of something that he miscalls his honour. South, vol. vi. Ser. 3.

Him his cotemporary Theseus succeeded in the beargarden, which honour he held for many years: this grand duellist went to hell, and was the only one of that sort that ever came back again.-Tatler, No. 31.

Nothing surely can be more absurd and barbarous than the practice of duelling, but those who justify it say that it begets civility and good manners.-Hume. A Dialogue.

A duellist, you may observe, always values himself upon his courage, his sense of honour, his fidelity, and friendship; qualities which are here, indeed, very oddly directed, but which have been esteemed universally since the foundation of the world.-Id. Ib.

DUE'NNA. Sp. from Lat. Domina. Formerly any widow lady, or mistress of a family; now it is generally taken for a sort of ancient widows they keep in all great houses in Spain for grandeur, and not for any service they do, (Delpino.)

How could I know so little of myself when I sent my duenna to forbid your coming more under my lattice.

Sterne. Tristram Shandy. Slawkenbergius's Tale. DUG. Lye thinks the origin of this word must be sought in the Isl. Degg-ia, which he interprets lac præbere, to give or yield milk: and thus to


That which yields milk; the teat, the nipple: or may it not be that which is tug-ged; which the sucking young tug?

A harte there was of comely portes and huge with hornes
Whom Tirrhus children (from the dug withdrawen) for
pleasure bred.-Phaer. Virgill. Eneidos, b. vii.

She wildly breaketh from their strict embrace,
Like a milch doe, whose swelling dugs do ache,
Hasting to feed her fawn hid in some brake.

Shakespeare. Venus & Adonis.

Nor will I praise my cattle; trust not me,
But judge yourself, and pass your own decree:
Behold their swelling dugs; the sweepy weight
Of ewes, that sink beneath the milky freight.

Garth. Ovid. Met. b. xiv.
Meanwhile this hireling wretch (disgrace to swains!)
Defrauds his master, and purloins his gains,
Milks twice an hour, and drains the famish'd dams,
Whose empty dugs in vain attract the lambs.

4 L

Beattie, Past. 3,

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