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it was


HOPIA The Promontory of Lepte Extrema, near Berenice, mouth of the Red Sea, formed by the Promontory ETHIOPIA

(nearly in 24° N.) called by Pliny (ii. 73) the City of called Diré. The last named place was near Berenice
the Troglodytæ, was one, and the Eastern extremity of epi Dires, mentioned by Pliny, (ibid.) who says

the Avalitic Gulf the other, boundary of their country. built on a long spit of land where the strait is narrowest,
They resembled in many respects the Káfirs of the not being there more than seven miles and a half across.
present day, leading, like them, a wandering and pastoral Cape Diré separated the Red Sea from the Avalitic Cape Dire.
life; taking shelter in caves during the rainy season, Gulf, and was to the South-East of the corresponding
whence they received their name; and having, like the point on the Avalian side, (Ptolemæi Geogr. ; Strabo,
inhabitants of Jambulus's Happy Island, all their wives xvi. p. 529.) On the shore of the Sinus Avalites were
and children in common. They buried their dead in the Cape, Town, and Port of Mossylon, the extremity Mossylon.
the midst of mirth and laughter, and were continually of the conquests of Sesostris, (Pliny, N. H. vi. 34,)
engaged in feuds with their neighbours. Swords and and thence cinnamon was exported. The Town and
lances, bows and arrows, were their weapons; the bone Cape named Aromata, from the spices collected there,
and meat pounded into one mass and then roasted in terminated this Gulf on the East. It was followed
the skin was their food; blood, water, and milk, their by the Barbaric Gulf, on the shore of which lay the
drink. Their Princes, however, drank mead, and had region called Barbaria, by Ptolemy; this was bounded
wives to themselves. Their country was, according to on the East by the Town and Promontory of Apocopa.
Pliny, (vi. 29,) called Michoë or Midoë, and under the In this sea were the Azanian Roads, according to Barbaria or
Ptolemies several emporiums or trading-places were Marcian of Heraclea, (who lived probably in the IIId Azania.

built on different parts of their coast : the first was century,) and it is called the Azanian Sea by Pliny, renice. Berenice, nearly in latitude 24° N., the ruins of which (N. H. vi

. 34,) the name of the adjoining country were visited by M. Belzoni, in 1818, (Travels, 329, 330.) being at that time Azania, a term derived perhaps from It was named after the mother of its founder, Ptolemy the Arabic word Ajan, which exactly corresponds Philadelphus. A little to the South of it was an island with the Greek Bápßapos, (barbarus.) The Southern

first called Ophiodes, from the serpents by which it was Horn, (Noti Cornu,) the next great Promontory, was Noti Cornu pazos. infested, and afterwards Topazos, from the gems found much lower down, and supposed by the Ancients to be

in it, (Diod. iii. 39.) Under the Ptolemies all access South of the Equator. Beyond it were the Ports of
to it, except by the agents of the Government, was Sarapion and Nicon. Rhapta, near a Cape and River Rhapta.
strictly prohibited, and the wretched garrison was often of the same name, and still further South, was the
in danger of being starved. The five-peaked mountain, Capital of Barbaria, according to Ptolemy, and the last
called Pentedactylus, (Pliny, N. H. vi. 29,) was to the emporium in Azania, according to Arrian, (Peripl.
South of Berenice. The Deep Harbour, (Baows Aturu,) Maris Erythræi.) From this point little seems to have
that of the Dioscuri; the “ Saviour” Port, (perhaps been known, except that there was a vast gulf,
the Port of “the Saviour Gods," i.e. Ptolemy Soter II. called “the Short Sea," bounded by Cape Prasum, a Prasum.
and his mother Cleopatra,) that of the Bringers of Good very bold Promontory, the shores of which were inha-
Tidings, and Ptolemaïs, all followed in succession from bited by cannibals, (Marcian. Heracleota.) This Cape is

North to South. The last, (in North latitude 19') placed by Ptolemy in 15° South latitude, and all beyond tolemais.

called Ptolemaïs Ferarum, from the elephants taken in it, he says, is terra incognita, (aywotos.) The Island
its neighbourhood, is marked by Strabo as a place of Menuthias was not far from Cape Prasum.

where the longest day has only thirteen hours. It was The interior of this country was almost as little
built by Eumedes, sent by Ptolemy Philadelphus to known to the Greeks as to us, and Abyssinia, which
preside over the elephant hunt, near the Monolean formed a part of Æthiopia Proper, seems to have been
Lake, 4820 stadia (602 miles) from Berenice, (Pliny, the limit of their discoveries in that part of Africa.
N. H. ii. 73.) Saba, or Sabre, was another Port and on the North and North-West were the Nubi, or Nubi.
large Town further South, near which elephants were Nubians, a Libyan people, who appear to have been a
caught, (Strabo, xvi. 530.) This was either in, or near, migratory tribe, originally occupying the Western side
the Bay of Adulis or Adule, ("Aộovlıs or 'Aooban,) the of the Garamantic valley, (Jermah to the West of
principal emporium after Berenice. Near to Sabæ, Fezzán,) and afterwards spreading themselves over the
probably the Sabat of Ptolemy, was a second Berenice, tract now called Nubia and a part of Abyssinia. Their
called Panchrysos, (Pliny, N. H. vi. 29,) from the principal settlement seems to have been on the North-
richness of its gold mines, and Sabæan (kard Lapas) West of Æthiopia Proper; and they were probably of
from the neighbouring harbour.

the same race as the Nobatæ, who were mingled, on Adulis. Adulis was built by runaway slaves from Egypt, the East and North-East, with the Blemmyes, another Blemmyes.

(Pliny, N. H. vi. 34,) and was distant from its Port wild and vagrant race, scattered over the mountains
20 stadia, (two miles and a half.) It could hardly and deserts between Egypt and the Avalitic Gulf.
therefore be, as has been supposed, Arkikó (in 15° 40' They were called Blembi, and Balnemmówi by the
N.) on the South-West side of the Bay of Masuwwah. Egyptians, (Quatremère, Mém. sur l’Egypte, ii. 128,)
It was the great mart for ivory, rhinoceros-horns, and were found in the greatest numbers on the Asta-
hippopotamus-hides, tortoise-shell, gold, slaves, and boras, (Atbara,) and

According to
monkeys, and was adorned with a statue of Ptolemy Agathemerus, (Geogr. Min. ii. p. 41,) they were the
Euergetes, the inscription beneath which has been Ostrich-eaters, (Struthiophagi;) the Æthiopians were
preserved by Cosmas Indicopleustes (the Indian Navi- their masters when that country had powerful Sovereigns,
gator) who flourished in the Vth century. It records but at other periods found them dangerous neighbours.
the victories of that Prince, and shows that his Empire They were, doubtless, some of the fiercest and most
was extended far beyond the bounds of Egypt. The barbarous of the African Tribes known to the Greeks
Promontory of Saturn, and the villages of Mandaëth and and Romans, and for that reason were said to have no
Arsinoë, intervened between Adulis and the Strait at the heads, but a mouth and eyes in their bosoms, (Pliny,

near Adulis.

ETHIOPIA N. H. v. 8.) The first seen at Rome were those who Nile flows onwards, with an uninterrupted stream, to ETHICFIS

appeared in the Triumph of Aurelian, (. D. 272.) Egypt, though, as was before observed, in a tortuous But they must have been more civilized in the next course. The country is mountainous and well-wooded; half century, for they sent ambassadors to the Court and contains mines of copper, iron, gold, and salt. Some of Constantine the Great, (Euseb. Vita Const. iv. 7.) of the inhabitants are migratory, some hunters, and Their fierceness and warlike habits are frequently men- others husbandmen. In their towns, the houses have tioned by the early Christian writers, and we learn walls made of interwoven palm-slats, or of bricks. The from Procopius, (De Bello Persico, i. p. 60,) that they most common trees are the Palm, (Phænir dactylifera,) worshipped Isis, Osiris, and Priapus, (Mendis,) and the Persea, (Balanites Ægyptiaca?) the Ebenus, offered human victims to the Sun; a part of their reli- (Diospyrus Ebenus,) and the Ceratia, (Ceratonia gious belief, therefore, was borrowed from Egypt and siliqua.) The beasts are elephants, lions, and leoEthiopia. Heliodorus (Ethiop. x. p. 495) represents pards; there are also serpents, which attack (eren) them as crowned with garlands of bows and arrows, the elephants, and many other wild beasts ; for (such garnished with serpents' teeth ; and so daring as to animals) fly from the hotter and more parched regions, creep under their enemy's horse, stab him in the belly, to the moist and marshy places."

and massacre his rider, as soon as he was thrown by “ The Libyans occupy the Western, and the Æthi. Bojah or his struggling beast, (Ibid. x. 435.) The Bojah, con- opians the opposite bank of the Nile; but the latter, Bejah.

sidered by the Arabs as a Berber race, occupied nearly being the stronger, are masters of the islands, and the the same country, and, in their character and habits, water's edge. They use wooden bows, four cubits

strongly resembled these barbarians. They are now long, and bent by means of fire. They arn their Bishareen. replaced by the Bishárí, (Burckhardt's Nubia, p. 148,) women, most of whom have a copper ring in one of

who were themselves driven from the Northern part of their lips. They wear sheep-skins, but not covered this territory by the Abábideh Arabs, the latter now with wool, for their sheep have hair like goats. Some extending as far as Berenice, and being in possession go naked; others have small sheep-skins, or neatly of the emerald mines, (Belzoni, p. 309,) which for- woven hair-cloths girt (round their loins.) They bemerly belonged to the Bojah, (Macrízi, in Burckh. lieve one God to be immortal, and the cause of all Nubia, p. 503.) Far from being as hideous as the things; another, a mortal, nameless being, not disBlemmyes, “the Bishárin of Atbara,” says Burckhardt, tinctly known. For the most part, however, they con(Ibid. p. 371,) they are a handsome and bold race sider their benefactors as Gods, whether they be private of people.” They are constantly armed, much given to individuals, or persons of Princely dignity: the latter quarrelling, thieving, and drunkenness. This, more- are honoured publicly, as the common saviours and over, " is not the worst part of their character;" for guardians of all; the former privately, by those on

they appear to be treacherous, cruel, avaricious, and whom they confer benefits. Amongst the inhabitants revengeful,” heedless of any laws, human or divine. of the burned country, some are reckoned Atheists, They are as bad Musulmáns as the Negroes are good, and said to abhor the Sun, whom, when they see him and as inhospitable as the latter are liberal. Raw rising, they revile, as scorching and making war upon meat, and blood warm from the animal, are their them ; and they afterwards fly to the marshes. The greatest dainties, (Ibid. p. 149.) They have a dark inhabitants of Meroë also worship Hercules, Pan, and brown complexion, with fine eyes and teeth, (p. 370 ;) Isis, together with another foreign God." Diodorus, but their language, of which Burckhardt and Seetzen who evidently drew his materials from the same sources, formed vocabularies, (Nubia, p. 160 ; Vater's Proben has added some facts omitted by Strabo. “ The Gods Volksmundarten, p. 263 ; Salt's Travels, Append. p. xv.) whom they believe to be eternal and incorruptible are," does not appear to have any affinity with that of the he says, (iii. 9,) “the Sun, the Moon, and the whole Bojahs or Takas, (Takué of Salt ;) who were probably Universe;" those who partake of a mortal nature are dislodged by them, just as they were themselves sup- men, “ who, by their virtue and universal beneficence planted by the Abábidehs.

to mankind, have obtained immortal honours." He Æthiopia The narrow valley through which the Nile seems to names Jupiter as one of the Deities worshipped by the Proper. force its way towards Egypt, and the extensive plains Æthiopians of Meroë, so that this account differs less

lying between that valley and junction of the Nile with from that of Herodotus than his learned translator, the Atbara, form the Northern paii of the region which M. Larcher, (Herod. ii. 217, ed. 1802,) has hastily was peculiarly called Æthiopia by the Ancients.* The affirmed. Some of their dead the Ethiopians threw central and most valuable part of Æthiopia Proper into the river, (Strabo, l. c.; Diodor. ii. 9,) others they was the peninsula, or, (as the Greeks supposed,) preserved in their houses enclosed in glass; others the Island of Meroë, “ reported,” says Strabo, (p. 117, again they buried in coffins (sori) made of eartherned. Casaub.; 565, ed. Almelov.,) " to have the form ware, in the sacred enclosure round their Temples, and of an oblong shield, and to measure—(perhaps the when they swore by them, the oath was considered as account is exaggerated)--3000 stadia (375 miles) most sacred. Their Kings were chosen either for their in length, and 1000 (125 miles) in breadth. On the beauty, excellent management of their cattle, courage, Libyan side it is enclosed by large sand-hills; on the or wealth ; and for many Ages, the government was Arabian, by continual precipices ; on the South, by the entirely under the controul of the Priests, who caused it confluence of the rivers Astaboras," (Tacazzé or At- to be intimated to the King when they thought it was bara ;) Astapus,” (Bahr-el-azrek, Blue River, or time that he should despatch himself, and make way for Abyssinian Nile;) “and Astasobas," (Bahr-el-abyad, his successor. This hierarchical dominion was, howWhite River, or true Nile ;) “ but to the North, the ever, subverted by the determined conduct of Erya.

menes, (contemporary with Ptolemy Philadelphus, * This tract of country was in later times called Nubia, and under

A. D. 235—247,) who entered the sanctuary at the that head the Reader will find a more detailed account of it. head of a faithful band of soldiers, and massacred all

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ETHIOPIA the Priests, instead of preparing to kill himself, when- named after his wife, sister, or mother ; but this, he- ETHIOPIA

ever they should please to recommend it. The Ethi- sides being unnoticed by Herodotus, who lived so near
opians had also a pleasant mode of protecting their the time of that Prince, is manifestly an error, as, by
Kings against injuries: it was this; if ever his Majesty, Strabo's own account, Cambyses was not able to
by any accident, broke an arm or a leg, lost an eye, advance beyond Premnis, (Ibrím.)
had a tooth drawn, &c. it was deemed expedient all In the time of the geographer last quoted, the Egyp-
his courtiers to suffer voluntarily a similar deprivation; tian Automoli (i. e. voluntary emigrants) were esta-
as nothing, it was said, could be more inconsistent with blished, under the name of Sembrites or Sebrites, i. e. Sembrites.
the decorum of the Court, than for any of the King's Strangers, (xvi. 4, p. 1115, D. ; xxii. 1, p. 1135,) con-
friends and companions to appear with two legs, when siderably to the south of Meroë, in a tract called
his Majesty had only one; or to hesitate about going Tenesis, behind the Port of Saba, on the Red Sea.
out of the world, when the time for his Majesty's They were governed by a Queen, to whom the Ethi-
departure was announced.

opians were subject. Esar or Sapen on the Western,
According to Herodotus, (ii. 29,) Jupiter and Bac- and Sai or Dason on the Eastern side of the river,
chus were the only Gods worshipped by the Æthiopians, were their principal places. They are the Semberritæ
and they had a celebrated Oracle of the former, by of Pliny, (vi. 35;) and Sembobitis, mentioned by him Sembobi.is
which they professed to be guided in their warlike as their chief city, is perhaps only a corruption of the
expeditions. Like the Egyptians, they circumcised

It was, according to Bion, twenty days' their children, and were, in fact, according to Diodorus, journey (400 miles) from Meroë. (iii. 3,) the stock whence Egypt was originally peopled, There were, as we learn from Diodorus, (iii. 8,) on Wild by a colony under the direction of Osiris. The agree- each side of the river many other tribes of savages,

Negroes ment of their Laws and Religion, the similarity of the black, flat-nosed, and woolly-headed; the most civilized different Orders of their Priests, and, above all, their of whom had not advanced beyond the Pastoral state. using the same written, or rather painted characters, to We read in the Hebrew Scriptures, (Gen. x. 6; 1 Chron. Cushites. express their words, were, he thought, sufficient proofs i. 8,) that Cush and Mizraim, Phut and Canaan, were of the truth of this assertion. The characters used by all sons of Ham; and that the last settled in Syria, the Egyptians were, he adds, of two sorts; those called the second and third in Egypt, an the first in Arabia; popular, which were taught to all; and those termed whence his descendants crossed over the Red Sea, and sacred, which were known only to the Priests: but the established themselves in Southern Ethiopia. Hence latter were used by all the Ethiopians. Now it is it arose, that Kush was used to express a part of evident, from an examination of the Rosetta Inscrip- Arabia, (Gen. x. 7,8; Numbers, xii, 1,) as well as tion, that the Enchorial or Demotic and Hieroglyphic Ethiopia, though more frequently the latter, as the characters mentioned in it, must be the two kinds proverb, “ Can the Ethiopian change his skin,” (Jer. meant by Diodorus; and his assertion, that the latter xii. 23,) plainly shows. The easy passage from Arabia were used by the Ethiopians, has been confirmed, not to Africa, afforded by the Strait of Báb-el-mandeb, only by the monuments lately examined in Nubia, must have led to emigrations at an early period; and many of which were erected by Egyptian Princes, but the Abyssinians themselves derive the race of their by those found in or near the Island of Meroë itself; Kings from the Queen of Sheba, who visited Solomon, and the discovery of the name of Tirhacah, both at and was an Arabian Princess. This is sufficient to show Thebes and in the ruins of Napata, (Merawéh,) or whence they sprang, notwithstanding their persuasion Meroë, (near Shendí,) is certainly not one of the least that she was an African; for their own traditions are curious of the many facts brought to light by the study too vague and imperfect to be put into the balance of that Inscription, (Salt's Phonetic System of the Hiero- against those of the Arabs. Eichhorn has suggested, glyphics.) That King, we know from the most indis- (De Cuschæis, Arnstad, 1774) that the emigration putable evidence, (2 Kings, xix. 9,) had extended his from Arabia to the African coast probably took place Empire beyond the boundaries of Egypt; if, therefore, under Abd Shems, the fourth descendant of Eber; Diodorus was rightly informed, hieroglyphical inscrip- but the story of the army sent to the West by Málik, tions, recording his reign, must have been made, not surnamed Náshiru'n-niâm, and buried there i the sand, only in Ethiopia, but in Egypt likewise; and, accord- seems to indicate the desertion of his troops, and their ingly, his name has been found inscribed on public having established themselves on the Western side

monuments in the Capitals of both those countries. of the Red Sea. If so, a later period may be assigned City of Meroë, the metropolis of the former, was near the for the commencement of the Abyssinian Kingdom ;

Northern extremity of the Peninsula bearing the same and as that Prince was the immediate successor of
name; and remains of it, which are still visible, have Belkis, whom the Arabs believe to have married Solo-
been discovered by Bruce and other travellers, to the mon, and was also the twenty-third in succession from
North-East of Shendi, in 17° North and 34° East. Cahhtán, son of Eber, he must, according to the
It was, according to Strabo and Pliny, 5000 stadia, Arabian traditions, have flourished about B. c. 1000 ;
(nearly 500 German miles,) from Syene ; twice that and in the reign of his twentieth successor, Dhú
distance from Alexandria ; and a journey of fifteen days Nuwás, the Abyssinians had become sufficiently power-

from the Red Sea, for an expeditious courier, (Strabo, ful to invade and make themselves masters of Yemen. Automoli. xvi. 4, p. 1115, D.) It was likewise exactly half-way As the plea for this invasion was Dhú Nuwás's cruel

between Elephantine and the Automoli, (Herod. ii. 30,) persecution of his Christian subjects, it is manifest that
i. e. descendants of the discontented Egyptian troops it must have taken place subsequently to the conversion
who went over to the Ethiopians, in the reign of Psam- of the Abyssinians, by Frumentius and Ædesius, A. D.
metichus, (about six centuries and a half before our era.) 330, just three centuries before the Flight (Hijrah) of
Strabo (xvii. 1, p. 1139, A. ed. Almel.) and Diodorus Mohammed. That the Abyssinian colony was esta-
(i. 33) say, that Meroë was built by Cambyses, and blished in its present site at a very early period, cannot,



therefore, be doubted; but it was either unknown or Abyssinia in most modern languages,) are the present ETHIOMA

unnoticed by the Greeks; and its language, which has names of those divisions of Ethiopia which were best ETI- a close affinity with the Arabic and other Semitic known to the Ancients, and have been in some degree ETON QUETTE. dialects, differs widely from the Ægyptian, (commonly accessible to the moderns. Of ABYSSINIA, an account

called Coptic,) which was, as may be collected from has been already given in its alphabetical place, the
Diodorus, (iii. 3,) spoken by the Ethiopians. It is other two will be found under their respective heads,
therefore most probable that the Arabs from Yemen, where this outline will be completed by illustrations
or the Southern Provinces of Arabia, established them- of ancient Geography drawn from the narrations of
selves in Africa subsequently to the time of Herodotus, recent travellers in those countries.
and were unknown, as Arabs, to the Greeks; and it See Herodotus, Diodorus Siculus, Strabo ; Ptolemæi
appears indisputable, that the Ethiopians, properly so Geographia ; Quatremère, Mémoires sur l’Egypte; Lar.
called, were of an entirely different race.

cher, Traduction d'Herodote, Paris, 1802; Rennell's Nubia, Sennár, and Habbesh, (transformed into Geography of Herodotus ; Ludolfi Historia Æthiopica.

ETHNARCH, (Gr. Ovápx": Ovos, a nation, apxw, logy, Menage says, is natural enough! But the inter-
I govern,) a Governor subordinate to a superior Prince. pretation of Cotgrave leads plainly to the true Etymo-
The word occurs 2 Cor. xi. 32. It is used also by Jo- logy. It is
sephus and Strabo.

A ticket; delivered not only, as Cotgrave says, for
ETHNICK, n. Gr. Ovikòs, from Ovos, a nation the benefit or advantage of him that receives it, but also
ETHNICK, adj. or people. Applied to nations entitling to place, to rank; and thus applied to the ce-

Not of the Jewish or Christian remonious observance of rank or place; to ceremony.
E'THNICISM. faith.

He cannot drink five bottles, bilk the score,
The ethnicke authours stirre the hearers, being well applied to the

Then kill a constable, and drink five more;
Wilson. The Arte of Rhetorique, fol. 193.

But he can draw a pattern, make a tart,

And has the ladies' etiquette by heart.
Back, Flamen, with thy superstitious fumes,

Couper. The Progress of Errour.
And cense not here ; thy ignorance presumes

It (simplicity] is guilty of ludicrous offences against the laws of
Too much, in acting any cthnick rite
In this translated temple.

custom, or the ctiquettes of fashion, although by its reasoning wrong,

according to prevailing ideas, it frequently evinces just aud accurate Ben Jonson, Part of the King's Entertainment in passing to his

conceptions of what is right.

Cogan. On the Passions, vol. ii. p. 198. Acquirement, &c.
Shortlie after it so came to passe that Penda, King of Mercia, (that
cruell ethnike tyrant) made sore warres vpor Egricus.

ETON, a Town in the County of Bucks, on the
Holinshed. England, Anno 652. banks of the Thames, opposite to Windsor, with which
Yea, such was the detestation of this effeminate

, unnaturall, odions it is connected by a bridge. Population in 1821, 2475. practice of men's putting on women's apparell, even among the eth

Distant from London 22 miles North-West. nickes, that the Lycians when they chanced to mourne, did usually The College of Eton was founded by Henry VI. in put on the woman's garment, that the very deformity and infamy of 1440, and consists at present, with a slight alteration that array might move them the sooner to cast off their foolish sorrow. Prynne. Histrio-Mastir, part ii. act ii sc. 2.

from its original constitution, of a Provost, Vice-ProEthnicke would understand justice itself to have failed, as it is a

vost, seven Fellows, two School-masters, two Conducts, virtue abstract, and may be considered without a person.

seven Clerks, ten Choristers, and 70 Scholars; some of
Ralegh. History of the World, book i. ch. vi. sec. 4. which Scholars are annually elected, as vacancies occur,
Be advised, therefore, (till you understand the case better) to for- to King's College, Cambridge, where they afterwards
bear to take of the lamp of nature in the night of ethnicism ; but become Fellows. No Scholar, however, can remain at
know, that the light of the law of God, and right reason, and common
practice, give sufficient allowance to that which your misprision subsequent advantage, after he is 19 years old, at which

Eton College, and none, therefore, can partake of the
cavills at.
Hall. Works, vol. ii. fol. 231. An humble Remonstrance to the age he is superannuated. Besides these students on the
High Court of Parliament.

Foundation, a large number of other Boys (Oppidans)
Most strange is that which they write of certaine Brasilians within are educated at this great public school. The Collegiate
the land, which either hauing seen the religious rites of the Portugals, buildings form two Courts; the outermost of which
or instructed therein by some fugitiues or apostatas, had set vp a new contains the School-rooms, Dormitory, houses of the
sect of Christian ethnicisme, or mungrell-Christianity.
Purchase. His Pilgrimage, book ix. ch. v. sec. 3.

two Masters, and Chapel ; the innermost, the houses “What means," quoth he, “this Devil's procession

of the Provost, Vice-Provost, and Fellows, and the With men of orthodox profession ?

Library, which is very richly furnished. 'Tis ethnique and idolatrous,

Brand, in his Popular Antiquities, has noticed from a From heathenism deriv'd to us."

MS. in the British Museum, Status Scholæ Etonensis Butler. Hudibras, part ii. can. 2.

1560, (Donat 4843,) numerous customs observed at ETHULIA, in Botany, a genus of the class Synge- Eton College. The Boys on the first of January used nesia, order Æqualis, natural order Corymbifere. Ge- to play for New Year's gifts, and to present verses neric character: calyx equal, nearly globose, squarrose; to their Masters, and to one another. On Shrove Monflorets variously formed, those of the disk five-cleft, of day, also, they wrote verses in praise of Bacchus, to the radius subulate, toothless; receptacle naked; down whose tutelage Poets were assigned. On the following

Tuesday they played through the whole day, from Four species, natives of the East Indies. Persoon. eight o'clock in the morning; and the Cook fastened

ETIQUETTE, Fr. etiquette; Sp. etiqueta. Bourdelot a Pancake to a Crow, near the School door, while its and Huet derive from Gr. stixos, order ; thus, otiyos, young were calling upon the unhappy Bird. On Ash stichus, stichellus, stichetta, etiquette. And this Etymo- Wednesday they confessed themselves to such of their

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ETON. ETON. Masters or Chaplains as they thought fit. On the First Warton (Hist. of Eng. Poetry, ii. 375, 4to ed.) says, of May, if it were fair weather, and the Master granted that this custom originated from the ancient and

ETY. leave, those who chose it might rise at four in the popular practice of theatrical processions in Collegiate MOLOGY. morning to gather May branches, if they could do so Bodies.” Brand, on the contrary, traces it to the election without wetting their feet. On that day, also, they of Boy Bishop in many similar foundations on St. Niadorned the windows of the Dormitory with green cholas's day, a custom which, as a profanation of things leaves. On Midsummer eve they hung pictures upon sacred, was abolished by Henry VIII. in 1542. It is their beds, and affixed to their bed-posts copies of plain that a Boy Bishop used to be elected by the Eton verses, transcribed in a fair hand, in honour of the Bap- Scholars, and Brand supposes that from a natural reluctist. On Midsummer day, at the close of the morning tance to lose their holyday they substituted playing at prayers, they approached a fire lighted in the Eastern Soldiers for playing at Priests. In order to strengthen end of the Chapel, and after the performance of three this very probable conjecture, he shows, that the MonAntiphonies were dismissed to luncheon, (merenda.) tem is known to have existed as far back as the reign of The same practice occurred on the Feast of St. Peter ; Elizabeth ; that within the memory of man, it was kept on the Feast of the Translation of St. Thomas they just before the winter holydays ; that St. Nicholas's day made a Bonfire, and had a holyday, (si placet Præcep- (Dec. 6) is still observed as a gaudy day in the College, tori.) On a certain day in September, (Brand conjec- and that the procession is (or till of late years was) tures the 14th, Holy Cross day, because a similar custom accompanied by a mock Chaplain and Clerk. He adds is observed on that day elsewhere,) they were employed many authorities to prove that Salt is emblematical of as follows. It would be unjust to our readers if in this Learning; and he thus paraphrases the cry of the Saltinstance we omitted to give the original words. Si bearers, (“Salt,” “ Salt,”) while they are demanding visum fuerit Preceptori liberrimè ludendi facultas pueris contributions, “Ladies and Gentlemen, your subsidy conceditur: et itur collectum avellanas, quas domum money for the Captain of the Eton Scholars. By this cum onusti reportaverint, veluti nobilis alicujus prædæ Salt, which we give as an earnest, we pledge ourselves portionem, Præceptori, cujus auspiciis susceptum illius to become proficients in the Learning we are sent hither diei iter ingressi sunt, impartiunt ; tum vero communi- to acquire, the well-known emblem of which we now cant etiam Magistris. Priusquam vero Nuces legendi present you with in return.” potestas permittetur, carmina pangunt, Autumni pomi- ETTEN, Dr. Leyden says, ettyn, a giant; A. S. feri fertilitatem et fructuosam abundantiam pro virili eten. Hence Red-Ettyn, the Red-Giant; forte a A. S. describentes, quinetiam adventantis Hyemis durissimi etan, to eat; hence an Anthropophagus.” Gloss. to Anni temporis lethalia frigora, quâ possunt lamentabili Complaint of Scotland; and Benson, etan, edere, eten, oratione deflent et persequuntur : sic omnium rerum comestus, gigas. Somner says, perhaps from Oetus. vicissitudinem jam a pueris addiscentes, tum Nuces (ut Wife. Faith, husband, and Ralph says true, for they say the King in proverbio est) relinquunt, id est, omissis studiis ac of Portugal cannot sit at his meat, but the giants and the ettins will

come and snatch it from him. nugis puerilibus, ad graviora magisque seria convertun

Beaumont and Fletcher. Knight of the Burning Pestle, act i. sc. 1. tur. On the Election Saturday, the Butcher of the

ETYMO'LOGY, College was used to give a Ram, to be hunted by the

Fr. etymologie; It. and Sp. Scholars. This rational and amusing pastime having

EtymoʻLOGER, ethimo, etimologia; Lat. etybeen found to be attended with some danger to health,

ETYMO'LOGIST, mon, etymologia; Gr. etuuo.o.

ETYMOLOGIZE, from the violent exertion sometimes required in the

Σγία, (έτυμος, and λόγος,) sermo

EtymoLO'GICAL, pursuit, the Ram was afterwards hamstrung, and with

de etymis, that is, oratio, quâ

EtymOLO'GICALLY, large clubs knocked on the head in the stable yard.

nominis ratio erponitur; a disBut this, as the narrator (Huggett) observes, “ carry


course in which the reason or ing some show of barbarity in it," the custom was cause of the noun or name is explained, or, in the entirely left off in 1747, but the Ram is still (1760) words of Cicero, qua de causâ quæque (verba) essent served up in pasties at the High Table. Finally, during ita nominata, quam Etymologiam appellabant. the Christmas Holydays, the Eton Boys were used to

Gr. etvuos, from étòs, verus, and hence, etymologia, act Plays.

sive de verâ vocum origine. T. H. in Lennep, (Tiberius These customs are extinct in the present day, but Hemsterhuysius.) there is one yet remaining, the ad Montem, concerning

The true origin of words ; of the meaning of words. the origin of which Antiquaries have differed.

The first part of this name we haue found,
On Whit Tuesday, in every third year, (it formerly

Let vs ethimologise the secound.

Chaucer. The Remedie of Loue, fol. 321. occurred every second year,) the Scholars, dressed in

Ransake yet we would if we might regimentals, the Seniors as Officers, the Juniors as

Of this worlde the true ortographie Privates, assemble with music and standards in the

The verie discent of ethimologie. school yard. After marching three times round it, they But how aptlie and trulie the same [chance and clere] may stand move in procession to Salt Hill, a rising ground in the to make the etymon of chancellor, I leave to others to consider. neighbourhood, (Mons puerili religione Ætonensium sacer

Holinshed. Scotland, Anno 1578 as it is styled in the MS. quoted above.) Hence, after

The superstitious man is afraid of the gods, (said the etymologist,) certain ceremonies, they return home, and the day is

δεδιως τους θεους ώσπερ τους τυράννους, fearing of God as if the were a

tyrant, and an unreasonable exacter of duty upon unequal terms, and concluded with festivity. In the mean time some of disproportionable, impossible degrees, and unreasonable, and great the Boys, richly attired in Fancy Dresses, scour the and little instances.

Taylor. Sermon 9. part i. neighbourhood to collect Salt from the numerous visi- The author of the Parallel of the Ancient Architecture with the tors who are attracted to the procession : and a sum Modern, (which many years since I made English) had at the end of exceeding £1000, has been sometimes obtained for the his treatise, began to explain a few of the hard words, technical terms

belonging to the art, the etymologies whereof he thought necessary to benefit of the Captain of the year, who is proceeding to interpret. Cambridge.

Evelyn. Misc. Writ. Account of Architects and Architecture, p. 353.

Id. 16.

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