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Hîc nullus verbis pudor, aut reverentia mensæ: IIO
109. In the Astiacan galley.] Carina properly fignifies the keel, or bottom of a ship, but, by fynec. the whole thip or veffel. It denotes, here, the fine galley, or veffel, in which Cleopatra was at the battle of A&tium ; which was richly ornamented with gold, and had purple fails. Regina (Cleopatra) cum aureâ puppe, veloque purpureo, se in altum dedit. Plin. Lib. xix. c. I. ad fin.
From this, it is probable, that our Shakespear took his idea of the vessel in which Cicopatra, when the first met M. Anthony on the river Cydnus, appeared : the description of which is embellished with some of the finest touches of that great poet's fancy. See Ant. and Cleop. Act. ii. Sc. ii.
Neither of these women were so effeminate as the emperor Otho...
110. Here is no modesty, &c.) Juvenal having censured the effeminacy of their actions and dress, now attacks their manner of conversation, at their facrificial featts.
Reverence of the table. ] That is, of the table where they feafted on their facrifices, which, every where else, was reckoned sacred : here they paid no fort of regard to it.
111. Of filthy Cybele.]' Here they indulge themselves in all the filthy conversation that they can utter ; like the priests of Cybele, who used to display all manner of filthiness and obscenity before the image of their goddess, both in word and action.
With broken voice.] Perhaps this means a feigned, altered, lisping voice, to imitate the voices of women, or of the priests of Cybele who were all eunuchs.
112. An old fanatic.] Fanaticus (from Gr. Oavovan, appareo) denotes one that pretends to inspiration, visions, and the like. Such the Galli, or priests of Cybele were called, from
Here is no modesty in their discourse, or reverence of the
their strange gestures and speeches, as if actuated or possessed by some spirit which they called divine.
See Virg. Æn. vi. 1. 46-51. a description of this fanatic inspiration : which shews what the heathen meant, when they fpake of their diviners being-pleni Deo-afflati numine, and the like. See Park. Heb. and Eng. Lex. as, No 4.
Such a one was the old white-headed priest here spoken of.
113. Chief priest of sacred things.] of their abominable rites and ceremonies, which they performed, in imitation of the wo. men, to the Bona Dea.
114. An ample throat.] A most capacious swallow he set an example of most uncommon gluttony.
A master to be hired ] If any one would be taught the science of gluttony, and of the most beastly fensuality, let him hire such an old fellow as this, for a master to instruct him.
Ter. And. Act i. Sc. ii. 1. 19. has a thought of this kind. Simo says to Davus
Tum fi magiftrum cepit ad eam rem improbum. 115: What do they wait for, &c.] As they wish to be like the priests of Cybele, and are fo fond of imitating them, why do they delay that operation which would bring them to a perfect resemblance?
117. Gracchus.] It should seem, that, by this name, Juvenal does not mean one particular person only, but divers of the nobles of Rome, who had shamefully practised what he mentions here, and afterwards, l. 143. gave a dowerdotem dedit--as a wife brings a dower to her husband, fo did Gracchus to the horn-blower.
400 feftertia.] See note, Sat. i. 1. 106. about £•3125. 118. A born-blower, &c.] A fellow who had been either F2
Signatæ tabulæ: dictum feliciter ! ingens
this, or a trumpeter, in the Roman army, in which the Romans only used wind-instruments: the two principal ones were, the cornua, or horns, and the tubæ-trumpets : they both were made of brass : the horns were made crooked, like the horns of animals, which were used by the rude antients in battle. The trumpets were strait, like ours, therefore Juvenal supposing the person might have been a trumpeter, fays-recto cantaverat ære. That these two inftruments were made of brass, and shaped as above mentioned, appears from Ovid, Met. Lib. i. 1. 98. Non tuba directi, non æris cornua flexi. See an account of the Roman martial musical instruments, Kennet, Antiqu. Part ii. book iv. c. 11. 119. The writings.] The marriage-writings. See note on
Happily”----said.] They were wished joy, the form of which was by pronouncing the word_" feliciter”-I wish you joy, as we say : this was particularly used on nuptial occafions, as among us.
120. A valt fupper fet.] A fumptuous entertainment, on the occasion, set upon the table. Or, ingens cæna may here be used metonymically, to denote the gueits who were invited in great numbers to the marriage supper: the word sedet is supposed equivalent with accumbit. This lait is the interpretation of J. Britannicus, and C. S. Curio : but Holyday is for the first : and I rather think with him, as the word fedet is used in a like sense, where our poet speaks (Sat. i. 1.95–6.) of setting the dole-basket on the threshold of the door :
Nunc sportula primo
The new-married, &c.] As Sporus was given in marriage to Nero, fo Gracchus to this trumpeter : hence Juvenal humourously calls Gracchus, nova nupta, in the feminine gender. Nubere is applicable to the woman, and ducere to the
In the husband's boom.] i. e. Of the trumpeter, who now was become husband to Gracchus. 121. Oye nobles.] O proceres ! O ye patricians, nobles,
The writings were figned: “Happily”-said :-a vast Supper is set: the new-married lay in the husband's
bofom. O ye nobles ! have we occasion for a cenfor, or for a footh
sayer ? What! would you dread, and think them greater prodigies, If a woman should produce a calf, or a cow a lamb ? Collars, and long habits, and wedding veils he takes,
senators, magistrates of Rome, to whom the government and magistracy, as well as the welfare of the city is committed ! Many of these were guilty of these abominations, therefore Juvenal here sarcastically invokes them on the occasion.
121. A censor.] An officer, whose business it was to inspect and reform the manners of the people. There were two of them, who had power even to degrade knights, and to exclude senators, when guilty of great misdemeanours. Formerly they maintained such a severity of manners, that they stood in awe of each other.
Soothsayer.] Aruspex or haruspex, from haruga-a fa. crifice (which from Heb.ann, to kill or slaughter) and specioto view. A diviner who divined by viewing the entrails of the facrifices. A foothsayer. When any thing portentous or prodigious happened, or appeared in the entrails of the beasts, it was the office of the haruspex to offer an expiation, to avert the supposed anger of the gods.
q. d. Do we, in the midst of all these prodigies of wickedness, want most a censor for correction, or an haruspex for expiation? For, as the next two lines intimate, we ought not, in all reason, to be more shocked or amazed, at the most monstrous or unnatural births, than at these monstrous and unnatu. ral productions of vice.
124. Collars.] Segmenta-collars, ouches, pearl-necklaces worne by women. Ainsw. from seco, cut-segmen, a piece cut off from something: perhaps fegmina may mean pieces of ribbon, or the like, worne as collars, as they often are by women among us.
Long habits.] The ftola, or matron's gown, which reached down to the feet.
Wedding veils.] Flameum or flammeum, from fiamma, a flame, because it was of a yellowish or flame-colour. A kind of veil or scarf, put over the brides's face for modesty's sake.
He takes.] Gracchus puts on, who once had been one of the Sali.
Arcano qui facra ferens nutantia loro
125 Sudavit clypeis ancilibus. O pater urbis ! Unde nefas tantum Latiis paftoribus? unde Hæc tetigit, Gradive, tuos urtica nepotes ? Traditur ecce viro clarus genere, atque opibus vir : Nec galeam quaffas, nec terram cuspide pulsas, 130 Nec quereris patri !-Vade ergo, & cede feveri
125. Who carrying facred things.] This alludes to the sacred images carried in the processions of the Salii, which waved or nodded with the motion of those who carried them, or, perhaps, so contrived, as to be made to nod, as they were carried along, like the image of Venus when carried in pomp at the Circensian games, mentioned by Ov. Amor. Eleg. Lib. iii. Eleg. ii.
Annuit & motu figna fecunda dedit.
A secret rein.] A thong, or leather strap, secretly contrived, so as, by pulling it, to make the image nod its head: to the no small comfort of the vulgar, who thought this a propitious fign, as giving affent to their petitions. See the last note.
'126. Sweated with Mars's shields. ] The ancilia were so called from ancifus, cut or pared round,
In the days of Numa Pompilius, the successor of. Romulus, a round shield was said to fall from heaven: this was called ancile, from its round form ; and, at the same time, a voice said, that " the city would be of all the most powerful, while that " ancile was preserved in it.” Numa, therefore, to prevent its being stolen, caused eleven shields to be made fo like it, as not to be discerned which was the true one. He then instituted the twelve Salii, or priets of Mars, who were to carry these twelve shields through the city, with the images, and other infignia of Mars (the supposed father of Romulus the founder of Rome) and while these priests went in procession, they sang and danced till they were all over in a sweat. Hence these priests of Mars were called Salii, a saliendo.
The poet gives us to understand, that Gracchus had been one of these Salii, but had left them, and had funk into the effemi. nacies and debaucheries above mentioned.
-- O father of the city!] Mars, the supposed father of Romulus, the founder of Rome, and therefore called pater urbis. See Hor. Lib. i. Od. ii. 1. 35-40.
127. Latian Shepherds?] Italy was called Latium, from lateo, to lie hid : Saturn being said to have hidden himself there, when he fled from his son Jupiter. See Virg. An. viii. 319-23. Romulus was supposed to have been a fhepherd, as