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The objects of mercy themselves will be present, and will with pleasure discover the blessed hands that relieved them; nor shall their testimony be wanting, when the judge of the world doth, as it were, point and appeal to them in the throng, as evidences of the equity of that sentence he is then about to pronounce: Inasmuch as ye have done it to one of the least of these my brethren, ye have done it unto me. Atterbury, vol. ii. Ser. 5.

If this passage be compared with the preceding letters and instructions, all equitable men may judge whether the king did not pass sentence against himself, and absolve the high court of justice.-Ludlow. Memoirs, vol. iii. p. 262.

The law of Moses did allow of retaliation in case of real injuries, an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth; and so by an equitable construction of the law, it may extend to personal affronts.-Stillingfleet, vol. iv. Ser. 7.

From this method of interpreting laws, by the reason of them, arises what we call equity, which is thus defined by Grotius, "the correction of that wherin the law (by reason of its universality) is deficient."-Blackstone. Comm. Intr.

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Fr. Equivalent; It. and Sp. Equivalente; (q.d.) æque valens. Lat. Val-ere, from the Gr. Ουλ-ειν (the v prefixed;) and ovλew, from the Ionic Ouλ-os, for óλ-os, integer, sanus, whole, sound.


Equally firm or strong, powerful, efficacious; equally valuable.

His termes of like force, and meaninge, which he calleth equivalent, must need importe thus mutche.

Jewell. A Replie to M. Hardinge, p. 302.

But when he waveth the fault, and recompence,
He dampneth this his dede and fyndeth playne
Atwene them two no whitt equiualence.-Wyatt, Ps. 51.
No fair to thine

Equivalent or second, which compel'd
Me thus, though importune perhaps, to come
And gaze, and worship thee of right declar'd
Sovran of creatures, universal dame.

Milton. Paradise Lost, b. ix.

Whether the sin of our first parents were the greatest of any since, whether the transgression of Eve seducing, did not exceed that of Adam seduced, or whether the resistibility of his reason did not equivalence the facility of her seduction, we shail refer to the schoolmen.

Brown. Vulgar Errours, b. i. c. 1. But there are yet three ways more by which single acts do become habits by equivalency and moral value, and are here to be considered accordingly.

Bp. Taylor. On Repentance, c. 4. s. 3.

I have translated divers passages rendering the words lirre, sous, and many others of known signification in France, into their equivalent sense, that I may the better be understood by my English readers.-Guardian, No. 52.

For, in the first place, in recompence for the expence to which this (the continuance of this work) will put my readers: it is to be hoped they may receive from every paper so much instruction, as will be a very good equivalent. Spectator, No. 445.

Of all our many necessities, none can be supplied without pains, wherein all men are obliged to bear a share; every man is to work for his food, for his apparel, for all his accommodations, either immediately and directly, or by commutation and equivalence.-Barrow, vol. iii. Ser. 18.

We do by this practice, not only expose ourselves to censure, but implicitly, and according to ready consequence, do press it upon ourselves, seeing we seldom, in kind or equivalently, are ourselves clear of that which we charge

apon others.-Id. vol. i Ser. 20.

This inferior state of well being requires, either that we should be totally exempt from pain, and all corporeal or mental sufferings; or that we continue in the possession of Some good that is more than an equivalent, and is capable, In some way or other, of indemnifying us for all that we

suffer, or may have suffered.

Cogan. Ethical Treatise. On the Passions, Disc. 3. § 2. You may think it dear of the postage, which may amour to four or five shillings. However, I fear you will not find an equivalence of amusement.

Dr. Goldsmith. To the Rev, H. Goidsmith.




Fr. Equivoquer; Sp. Equivocar, It. Equivocare, from æquè, and vocare, when by one word (und voce) various things are signified; and thus the specific meaning becomes biguous.


To speak ambiguously; to use ambiguous language; to use or employ words of ambiguous or doubtful significance, that may be variously or diversely interpreted.

Equivoke, Bullokar and Cockeram both have, "when one word signifieth the same things." Equivocal words are also equal words, words of equal meaning.

Equivocal generation, also called spontaneous; uncertain, unascertained.

Wherefore mokell folke saine, if a reasonable creature's soule, any thing feruently wilneth, affectuously he wilneth; and thus may wil by terme of equivocas, in thre waies been vnderstand.-Chaucer. The Testament of Loue, b. iii.

Tresham a little before his death in the Tower subscribed

his own hand, that he had not seen Garnett in sixteen years before, when it was evidently proved, and Garnett confessed they had been together the summer before; and all that Garnett had to say for him was, that he supposed he meant to equivocate.-Stillingflert, vol. ii. Ser. 2.

And hence we see that there is least use of distinctions where there is most knowledge; I mean in mathematicks, where men have determined ideas with known names to them; and so there being no room for equivocations, there is no need of distinctions.-Locke. Hum. Underst. § 30.

I know well enough how equivocal a test this kind of popular opinion forms of the merit that obtained it [publick confidence.]-Burke. Letter to a Noble Lord.

As to the second, that Moses's ignorance made him incapable of founding a good religion, it receives all its strength from an equivocation in the term, good; and a misrepresentation of the nature of the Mosaic history.

Warburton. Divine Legation, b. iii. App.

of nouns in Latin and English, and (er) of comER, also written, Or, Our; the termination the front; in time or space; the person so being; paratives in English, seems to be the A. S. Er,the prime person or agent (Lat. Her-us; Gr. Hp-ws); in comparison denoting precedence, pri

Now wold these heretikes blynde vs with theyr equiuoca- ority, &c. See ARE, ERE, and EARL.

cion.-Sir T. More. Workes, p. 266.

Thou hast no proper father of thine own,
But art a bastard got by th' town,

By equivoque generation.--Brome. Against Corrupted Sack.
I know your equivocks,

You are growne the better fathers of 'hem o'late.

B. Jonson. The Devil is an Asse, Act iii. sc. 1.

ERA, or as more usually written, Era. Lat. Era, of uncertain etymology. Joseph Scaliger thinks that Era was used for Number, (pro numero.) See Vossius. Perhaps the Goth. Air; A. S. Er. See ARE, and ERE.

An Era is an indefinite series of years beginning

Kin. As thou art a knaue and no knaue, what an equivo- from some known Epoch, with which last word it is often used synonimously.

call companion is this!

Shakespeare. All's Well that End's Well, Act v. sc. 3. I encline to this opinion, that from the evening ushering But if this fear be instanc'd in a matter of religion, it will in the first day of the world, to that midnight which began be apt to multiply eternal scruples, and they are equivocal the first day of the Christian era, there was 4003 years, mies to piety and a wise religion. effects of a good meaning, but are proper and univocal ene-seventy dayes, and six temporarie houres; and that the true nativity of our Saviour was full four years before the beginning of the vulgar Christian era, as is demonstrable by the time of Herod's death. Usher. Annals. The Epistle to the Reader. For learned men are not all agreed in the fixing of the true time of Christ's incarnation, some placing it two years, and some four years before the vulgar æra.

Bp. Taylor. Of Repentance, c. 1. s. 2
Whatsoever pretends to be a service of God in an uncom-
manded instance, by being the specification of a general
command, or the instance of a grace, must be naturally and
univocally such, not equivocally and by pretension only.
Id. Rule of Conscience, b. ii. c. 3.
Yea, and an answere by oracle later than these before
cited, which verely was true, but no less ambiguous and
equivocant, Aio te, Eacide, Romanos vincere posse, i. I say,
thyself acides the Romans vanquish may.
Holland. Ammianus, p. 224
For these Jesuits, they indeed make no vow of speaking
truth, and yet even this equivocating and lying is a kind of
unchastity against which they vow and promise.
State Trials. Henry Garnet, an. 1606.

So then our equivocation is not to maintain lying, but to
defend the use of certain propositions; for a man may be
asked of one who hath no authority to interrogate, or exa-
mine concerning something which belongeth not to his
cognizance who asketh, as what a man thinketh, &c. So
then no man may equivocate, when he ought to tell the
truth, otherwise he may.-Id. Ib

My question is, where have you hope of reconciliation? except only in equivocation of name.

Drayton. Poly-Olbion, s. 13. Selden's Illustrations. Ham. How absolute the knaue is? we must speake by the carde, or equiuocation will vndoe vs.

Shakespeare. Hamlet, Act v. sc. 1. Faith-here's an equiuocator, that could swear in both the scales against eyther scale, who committed treason enough for God's sake, yet could not equivocate to heauen: oh, come in equivocator. Id. Macbeth, Act ii. sc. 3.

The second ranke is of lyars, æquivocators, as Apollo Pythius, and the like.-Burton. Anat. of Melancholy, p. 44. It is so evident, that all animals, yea and vegetables too, owe their production to parent animals and vegetables, that I have often admired at the sloth and prejudice, of the ancient philosophers in so easily taking upon trust the Aristotelian, or rather the Egyptian doctrine of equivocal gene ration.-Derham. Phys. Theol b. iv. c. 15. Note.

These sorts of faith are in comparison to that we speak of but equivocally so called; it includes a firm resolution to perform carefully all the duties enjoyned to Christians, to undergo patiently all the crosses incident to Christianity. Barrow, vol. ii. Ser. 4.

The equivocalness of the title gave a handle to those that
came after to understand it of a form of faith, composed by
Athanasius; just as the equivocal title of the Apostolical
given to the Roman creed occasioned the mistake about its
being made by the Apostles.

Waterland. Critical Hist, of the Athanasian Creed, c. 8.
"Then," said the Hind, "as you the matter state,
Not only Jesuits can equivocate:

For real, as you now the word expound,
From solid substance dwindles to a sound."

Frideaux. Connection, vol. i. Pref. p. ii.

Ne bloody rumours violate the ear,
Of cities sack'd and kingdoms desolate,
With plague or sword, with pestilence or war,
Ne rueful murder stain thy era-date.

Thompson. An Hymn to May.
E-RADIATE, v. Lat. e, and radius, from
thence transferred to other things which resemble
the Gr. 'Pascos, virga, and

longitudinem virga, (the length of the rod,) and among these, to the lines which the sun throws forth or emits. See IRRADIATE.

To throw forth, eject or emit, (sc.) like rays from the sun.

A kind of life eradiating and resulting both from intellect and Psyche. More. Notes on Psychozoia.

He first supposeth some eradiation and emanation of spirit, or secret quality, or whatsoever, to be directed from our bodies to the blood dropped from it.


Hale. Remains, p. 288. Lat. Eradicare, (e, and radix, radicis, the root.) To pluck up the root, to root out. The Lat. Radix, Vossius thinks, terred by the difference of usage: for as the is from the Gr. 'Padi, a branch; nor is he deupper part of the tree spreads itself in branches, so the lower disperses in fibres (quasi ramulis) through the earth.

To root up or out; to pluck or tear up by the roots, to destroy utterly; to exterminate. Since I must now eradicate the flame, Which, seeing you, love in my bosome plac'd, And the desires, which thus long could last, Kindled so well, and nourish'd in the same. Colton. Sonnet, out of Astrea. The third affirmeth the roots of mandrakes do make a noise, or give a shreek upon eradication; which is indeed ridiculous and false, below confute.

Brown. Vulgar Errours, b. ii. c 6. The first work, therefore, that a man must do, to make himself capable of the good of solitude, is, the very eradication of all lusts; for how is it possible for a man to enjoy himself, while his affections are tied to things without him

Dryden. The lind and the Panther. self!-Cowley, Ess. Of Solitude.

Which case, because it seldom or never falls out to agree In all circumstances, with the case of any other sinful people, cannot lawfully prescribe to the eradicating of any other (though in our opinion never so great) enemies of God, until it appear as demonstrably to us, as it did to those Israelites, that it was the will of God they should be so dealt with.-Hammond. Works, vol. iv. p. 589.

Whereas no kind of institution will be sufficient to eradi cate these natural notions out of the minds of men. Wilkins. Natural Religion, b. i. c. 4.

It usually begins to work early, and does it without causing near so much straining as vulgar emetics; and yet makes copious evacuations, eradicative of the morbific matter.-Boyle Works, vol. v. p. 386.

Thus sometimes eradicatives are omitted, in the beginning requisite; as in violent motions of the matter; specially to the more noble parts; then, how absurd to rest in lenitives. Whitlock. Manners of the English, p. 88.

And it were highly to be wished, that legislative power would thus direct the law rather to reformation than severity. That it would seem convinced that the work of eradicating crimes is not by making punishments familiar, but formidable.-Goldsmith. Vicar of Wakefield, c. 27.

Hence an attempt to eradicate religious fears, may be destructive to a principle of action, which is not only natural in itself, but has proved highly beneficial. What is the proper inference? That it is the province of true philosophy to give these principles a right direction, and a due influence, and it will then rejoice that a total eradication has not been accomplished.

Cogan. Ethical Treatise. On the Passions, Dis. 3.

ERA'SE, v. Lat. Erad-ere, asum, to scrape
ERA'SURE. out.

To scrape out, to scratch out; to rub out, to obliterate.

Erased, in Heraldry, signifies any bearing violently torn off, in contradistinction to couped, which means cleanly cut off.

Dragg'd out through straiter holes by th' ears,
Eras'd, or coup'd for perjurers.-Hudibras, pt. iii. c. 3.

A king is ever surrounded by a crowd of infamous flatterers, who find their account by keeping him from the least light of reason, till all ideas of rectitude and justice are erased from his mind.

Burke. A Vindication of Natural Society.

The most degenerate and horrid practice among the ancients, of exposing infants, was universal; and had almost erased morality from the minds of the best instructed, and instinct from the breasts of the most tenderly affected.

Warburton. The Divine Legation, b. ii. s. 4.

Habit, therefore, previously formed, would for some time preserve a respect for the records of the ancient church, when the pure religion was forsaken. And while this habit operated, fear would prevent any corruptions of them by wilful mutilation, changes, or erasures.

Horsley. Diss. on Prophesies of the Messiah.

ERE. Goth. Air; A. S. Er, prius, dudum, ERST. first, before. (See ER, and ARE.) A. S. Erista, primus. Junius says, that er was formerly applied to the morning; that is, the beginning or anterior part of the day; and was afterwards extended to any other precedent or antecedent time. See EARLY.

Ere is used prefixed, as ere-long, ere-now.
Erst is, Er-est. See EST.

The Kyng Egbrygt adde ybe kyng thre and thrytty ger,
That fole of Denemarch hyder com, as yt adde ydo er.
R. Gloucester, p. 259.
Ich seyh nevr palme. with pyk ne with shrippe
Asken after hym er now. Piers Plouhman, p. 120.
Er it was day, as she was wont to do,
She was arisen, and all redy dight.

Chaucer. The Knightes Tale, v. 1043.

And therfore wold I maken you disport
As I said erst, and don you some comfort.

Id. The Prologue, v. 778.

Valerian gan fast unto hire swere,
That for no cas, ne thing that mighte be,
He shulde never to non bewaien here;
And then at erst thus to him saide she.

Id. The Second Nonnes Tale, v. 15,619.
In harte I waxt so wonder gaie
That I was neuer erst, er that daie
So iolife, nor so wel bego,

Ne mery in harte, as I was tho.-Id. Rom. of the Rose. And the colour, whiche erste was pale

To beautee than was restored.-Gower. Con. 4. b. vii.

That gappe haue I stopped already that he shall sticke still at a stake and reste his bones in the bushes ere euer he geat out there.-Sir T. More. Workes, p. 528.

A great quarreller and fray maker, glad when he may be at defiance with one or other, he made such shiftes for money ere-now, that I maruaile how he hath liued till this day. Wilson. The Arte of Rhetorique, p. 95.

From his pavillion, where he sat in state,
Armud for the siege, and buckling on his shield,
Brave Henry sends his herald to the gate,
By trumpet's sound to summon them to yield,
And to accept his mercy, ere too late.

Drayton. The Battle of Agincourt.
Should we defer it,

I think ere-long, he will believe, and strongly
The Dauphin is not worthy of her.

Massinger. The Unnatural Combat, Act iii. sc. 2.
Then when I am thy captive talk of chaines,
Proud limitarie Cherub, but ere-then
Far heavier load thyself expect to feel
From my prevailing arm.-Milton. Paradise Lost, b. iv.
It cannot be
But that success attends him; if mishap,
Ere-this he had return'd, with fury driv'n
By his avengers.
Id. Ib. b. xX.
And fabled, how the Serpent, whom they call'd
Ophion, with Eurynome, the wide-
Encroaching Eve, perhaps, had first the rule,
Of High Olympus, thence by Saturn driv'n
And Ops, ere-yet Dictæan Jove was born.-Id. Ib.
For, since the red crosse knight he erst did weet
To been with Guyon knit in one consent,
The ill which earst to him, he now to Guyon meant.
Spenser. Faerie Queene, b. ii. c. 3.

Those thick and clammy vapours which erst-while ascended in such vast measures, and had filled the vault of heaven with smoak and darkness, must at length obey the laws of their nature and gravity, and so descend again in abundant showers, and mingle with the subsiding ashes, which will constitute a mudd vegetative and fertile.

Glanvill. Pre-existence of Souls, c. 14.

Now were the fields overspread with the bodies of slain men, and strewed thick with armour, ere-while so brave and glorious.-Holland. Livivs, p. 344.

He pensive oft reviews the mighty dead,

That erst have trod this desolated ground; Reflects how here unhappy Sal'sbury bled,

When faction aim'd the death-dispensing wound. Langhorn. Written among the Ruins of Pontefract Castle.

I who ere-while have worn the chain

Of many a fair-one for a day,
Then flung the flowery band away,
Am now involv'd and fetter'd fast
In links that will for ever last.

Fawkes. Odes of Anacreon. The Dream, Ode 45.
Fr. Eriger; It. Ergere, erig-
ere; Lat. Erigere, (e, and
regere,) to rule or order.


To set upright, to rise or raise upright; to set up, to lift up, to raise or elevate.

And saw wel that the shadow of every tree
Was as in lengthe of the same quantitee
That was the body erect, that caused it,
And therfore by the shadow he toke his wit.

Chaucer. The Man of Lawes Prologue, v. 4429. Now there is no building of pillars, no erecting of arches, no blasing of armes, that doth more set forth a man's name, then doth the encrease of children.

Wilson. The Arte of Rhetorique, p. 46. The trifoile, against raine, swelleth in the stalk; and so standeth more upright; for by wet, stalkes doe erect; and leaves bow downe.-Bacon. Naturall History, s. 827.

Then, Fortune, thou art guilty of his deed, That didst his state above his hopes erect; And thou must bear the blame of his great sin, That left'st him worse than when he did begin. Daniel. Civil Wars, b. i. Whose first part may be true; if we take erectness strictly, and so as Galen hath defined it, for they onely, saith he, have an erect figure, whose spine and thigh bone are carried in right lines; and so indeed of any we yet know man onely is erect.-Brown. Vulgar Errours, b. iv. c. 1.

As for the end of this erection, to look up toward heaven; though confirmed by several testimonies, and the Greek etymologie of man, it is not so readily to be admitted. Id. Ib. This was in the yeare after the birth of our Sauiour 203, from the creation of the world 4170, and after the first erection of the Scotish kingdome 330.

Holinshed. Scotland, an. 203. For birds, they generally carry their heads erectly like man, and have advantage in their upper eye-lid.

Brown. Vulgar Errours, b. iv. c. 1.

We see this in Roboam s young councellors, who were not only the mediate instruments of rendering the kingdome,

but also in some relation, were the erectors of Jeroboam's

Calves.-Mountague. Devonte Essayes, pt. i. Treat. 9. s. 2.

When eager for the course each nerve he strains,
Hangs on the bit, and tugs the stubborn reins,
At every shout erects his quivering ears,
And his broad breast upon the barrier bears.

Rowe. Lucan, bi,

Our Panther, though like these she changed her head,
Yet as the mistress of a monarch's bed,
Her front erect with majesty she bore,
The crosier wielded, and the mitre wore.

Dryden. The Hind and the Panther. Whereas the other was to be diffused throughout the world, and to endure together with it; that is, to be, indeed, what we find it not long after its first erection styled, the Catholic Church.-Atterbury, vol. i. Ser. 4.

Round her throne,

Erected in the bosom of the just,
Each Virtue, listed, forms her manly guard.

Young. The Complaint, Night 8.

By an unanimous vote of the court (of Directors of the East India Company) it was resolved, that a monument to his [Sir William Jones] memory should be ordered, for the purpose of being erected in Saint Paul's Cathedral, with a suitable inscription, and that a statue of Sir William Jones should be prepared at the expence of the Company, and sent to Bengal with directions for its being placed in a proper situation there.-Life of Sir W. Jones, by Lord Teignmouth.

The only measure that can be of any essential service, is the erection of several spacious parish churches, capable of receiving very large congregations, and affording decent accommodations for the lower and inferior, as well as the higher, orders of the people.-Porteus, vol. i. Lect. 8. (Note.)

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And ermytes and monckes of other studes bysyde
Bede God, that the Brutons the maystrye moste bytyde.
R. Gloucester, p. 235.

In abit az an ermite, unholy of workes
That wente forthe in the world.-Piers Plouhman, p. 1.

Au eremite in Italie, professing a maruailous straight life, and eschewing the citie, dwelt in a deserte, where he made him selfe a caue, wrought by his owne hands with spade and shouell.-Wilson. The Arte of Rhetorique, p. 152.


Thou Spirit who ledst this glorious eremite
Into the desert, his victorious field
Against the spiritual foe, and broughtst him thence
By proof the undoubted Son of God, inspire,
As thou art wont, my prompted song else mute.

Milton. Paradise Regained, b. i.

An old physician had in his custody a leaden box, which, as he affirmed, was found in the ruins of an old eremitage, as it was a repairing.-Skelton. Don Quixote, p. 136.

Saint Bertilin was a Britton of a noble birth; and led an eremiticall life in the woods near Stafford.

Fuller. Worthies. Staffordshire.

So much, as doing good, is better than not doing evill, will I account Christian good fellowship better than an eremilish and melancholike solitariness.

Bp. Hall. Meditations & Vows, Cont. 1. More blest the life of godly cremite, Such as on lonely Athos may be seen, Watching at eve upon the giant height.

Byron. Childe Harold, c. 2. s. 27. Here with a few companions he revived or augmented the primitive austerity of the Benedictine order, intermixed with its rule some portion of the eremitical life, and laid the foundation of the congregation called, from its principal monastery, Camaldulensis or Camaldolese.

Eustace. Classical Tour through Italy, vol. iii. c. 11.

The examples explain this word.

As, for example, in the case of murder, the Brehon, that is their judge, will compound between the murderer and the friends of the party murdered, which prosecute the action, that the malefactor shall give unto them, or to the child, or wife of him that is slain, a recompence, which they call an eriach.-Spenser. View of the State of Ireland.

The Irish, who never had any connections with the Ger man nations, adopted the same practice till very lately; and the price of a man's head was called among them his eric; as we learn from Sir John Davis.

Hume. Hist. of England, vol. i. p. 220. App. 1.



Fr. Ermine, upon which Sir Philip Sidney bestows the expressive epithet of Hatespor.

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The men of Rutland, to them marching nigh,
In their rich ensign bear an ermin ram.

Drayton. The Battle of Agincourt.

On the first day of which parlement, the lord deputie, representing hir maiesties person, was conducted and attended in most honorable manner vnto Christes Church, and from theuse vnto the parlement house: where he sat vnder the cloth of estate, being apparelled in the princelie robes of crimson veluet doubled or lined with ermin.

Holinshed. Ireland, an. 1568.

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Whitehead. The Goat's Beard.

For, brandishing the rod, she doth begin
To loose the brogues, the stripling's late delight!
And down they drop; appears the dainty skin,
Fair as the furry-coat of whitest ermilin.

Shenstone. The School-mistress.

Lat. Erodere; e, and rod-ere, to gnaw. "Fr. Eroder, — to

ERODE, v. ERO'SION. gnaw off or about; to eat into."

It hath been antiently received, that the sea hare [air] hath an antipathy with the lungs, (if it commeth neer the body,) and erodeth them.-Bacon. Naturall History, s. 983. This affects ulcers of ill condition, where the membranes and tendons are eroded.-Wiseman. Surgery, b. fi. c. 1.

If that erosion be with jagged and callous lips, it is at least

virulent. Id. Ib.

The people here [Santa Cruz] believe it [Euphorbia Canariensis] to be so caustic as to erode the skin.

Cooke. Third Voyage, b. i. c. 2.

EROGATION. Lat. Erogare, atum, (rog-are, from opey-ew, to stretch, to reach after, and thus,

to seek.)


To seek, (sc.) money for the public expenses; erogare legem, to enact a law, (sc.) for the advancement of such money; and then, generally

To grant money; to bestow, to give or grant. For to the acquirynge of science belongeth understandyng and memorye, which, as a treasory, hath power to retayne, and also to erogate, and dystribute, when opportunitie happeneth.-Sir T. Elyot. Governour, b. iii. c. 22.

Touching the wealth of England, it never appeared so much by publick erogations and taxes, which the long parliament raised: insomuch, that it may be said the last king was beaten by his own image more than any thing else. Howell, b. iv. Let. 47.

EROTICAL. Gr. Epwrikos, (from epws, love,) that can or may love.

And so doth Jason Pratensis, c. 19, De Morb. Cerebri, (who writes copiously of this eroticall love) place and reckon it amongst the affections of the braine. Burton. Anatomy of Melancholy, p. 442.

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But for I am a lewed man, paraunter I myghte Passen par aduenture, and in some poynt erren. Piers Plouhman. Crede. What semeth to you, if thir weren to a man an hundrid scheep and oon of hem hath errid, wher he schal not leve ninty and nyne in desert, and schal go to feche that that erride.-Wiclif. Matthew, c. 18.

Jhesus answeride and saide to hem, Ye erren, not knowynge the Scripturis ne the vertue of God.-Id. Ib. c. 22.

Right so betwix a titleles tiraunt
And an outlawe, or else a thefe erraunt,
The same, I say, ther is no difference.

Chaucer. The Manciples Tale, v. 17,173.

And there he saw, with ful auisement The erratike sterres, herkening armony With sownes ful of heuines melody.-Id. Troilus, b. v. Trewly al were it but to shend erronious opinions, I may it no lenger suffer.-Id. The Testament of Loue, b. ii.

Youre conseil as in this cas ne shulde not (as to speke proprely) be called a conseilling, but a motion, or a meving of folie, in which conseil ye han erred in many a sondry wise. Id. The Tale of Melibeus.

O wery gost, that errest to and fro,
Why nilt thou flien out of the wofullest

Body, that euer might on ground go?--Id. Troilus, b. iii.

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Where lawe failleth, errour groweth,
He is not wise, who that ne troweth.-Id. Ib. Prol.

But surely they are in good case, for it is ynough for them to saye, thus it is, and neade neuer to shew any cause or reason why they so say, for they are the churche and cannot erre: so that yf they teache contrary thinges, yet al is good ynough.-A Boke made by John Fryth, fol. 67.

Now his felowes can say, and taught that errand traitour Dudley, Duke of Northumberland, upon the scaffolde, hoping on pardo of life, to declare upon his unlearned learning, and cobred conscyence, that the truthe hath bene banished, and England diuided from the Catholike faithe and churche, these xvi. years.

Bp. Gardner. True Obedience. Translator to the Reader.

God I take to record I neuer (to my knowledge) taught any erronious doctrine, but onely these things which the

Scripture leade me vnto, and that in my sermons I neuer maynteyned any errour, neither moued, nor gaue occasio of any insurrection.-The Life of Doctour Barnes.

Before all the worlde the exacte sentence of God shal be

opened, whiche shall neyther erroniously nor partially pronounce, as men are wont to doe, but as a moste vprighte iudge, and one that knoweth all thinge.-Udal. Rom. c. 2.

They can scarse suffer priuiledges, that is to say, licence to spoile our citizens, giuen them by our forefathers, and brought in by errorfull custome to be taken from them.. Fox. Martyrs, p. 990. A Protestation, &c.

Then blame me not if I haue err'd in count
Of gods, of nymphs, of riuers yet vnread:
For though their numbers do much more surmount,
Yet all those same were there which erst I did recount.
Spenser. Faerie Queene, b. iv. c. 12.

The causes of error are, 1st. ignorance, either of right or fact. For no other division of ignorance can concern the relation of an erring conscience.

Bp. Taylor. Rule of Conscience, b. i. c. 3. Rule 1. And at his warning, Whether in sea or fire, in earth or ayre, Th' extravagant and erring spirit hyes To his confine.

Shakespeare. Hamlet, Act i. sc. 1. Sometimes he [the Devil] tempts by covetousnesse, drunkennesse, pleasure, pride, &c. erres, dejects, saves, kils, protects, and rides some men, as they do their horses. Burton. Anatomy of Melancholy, p. 56.

It is therefore a safe advice (considering the errableness of our judgments, when extended to foreign and remote subjects) to contain them, as much as may be, within those terms where they may be exercised with the most certaintie, which is, in our own interiour state; and to point them to that mark whither they may carry level (as it were) and so much the surer, that is, to the universal justice and equitie of God.-Mountague. Devoute Essayes, pt. ii. Treat. 4. s. 4.


As knots, by the conflux of meeting sap,
Infect the sound pine, and diuerte his graine
Tortiue and errant from his course of growth.

Shakespeare. Troil. & Cress. Act i. ac 8.
Now she deuis'd amongst the warlike route
Of errant knights, to seeke her errant knight;
And then againe resolv'd to hunt him out
Amongst loose ladies, lapped in delight.

Spenser. Faerie Queene, b. v. c. 6. Our champion takes the alarm, and catches at his sword to assault the lady, contrary to all the rules of knight errantry.-Glanvill. Witchcraft, p. 128.

And therefore come not forth in generations erratical, [in some ed. erratically] or different from each other. Brown. Vulgar Errours, b. ii. c. 6.

Y' are now transcrib'd, and publicke view
Pursuing finds the copy true,
Without erratas new crept in

Fully compleat and genuine.-Cartwright. To Mr. W. B. An erroneous conscience commands us to do what we ought to omit; or to omit what we ought to do, or to do it otherwise than we should.

Bp. Taylor. Rule of Conscience, b. i. c. 3. Rule 1. Yea, this sincerity of life though severed from true profession, did seem such a jewel in the eyes of some of the ancient fathers, that their opinion was, and so have they in their writings (erroneously doubtless) yet have they testified it, that God hath in store for such men not only this mitigating mercy of which but now I spoke, but even saving grace so far forth as to make them possessors of his kingdom. Hales. Rem. Ser. Rom. xiv. 1.

Vntill that Brutus antiently deriu'd
From royall stock of old Assarac's line,
Driuen by fatall errour, heere arriu'd,
And them of their vniust possessions depriued.

Spenser. Faerie Queene, b. ii. c. 10. Errours of themselves are infirmities of the understanding, and not enormities of the will: for no man is willing to be deceived so that they ought not to be the objects of our hatred, but our pity.-Glanvill, Ser. 2.

I know it is doubted, whether a bare error in judgment can condemn but since truths absolutely necessary to salvation are so clearly revealed, that we cannot err in them, unless we be notoriously wanting to ourselves; herein the fault of the judgment is resolved into a precedent default in the will: and so the case is put out of doubt.

South, vol. i. Ser. 3.

If you miscarry, you are lost so far
(For there's no erring twice in love and war)
You'll ne'er recover, but must always wear
Those chains you'll find it difficult to bear.

Pomfret. Love Triumphant over Reason.

A generous disdain and reflection, upon how little he deserv'd from so excellent a father, reformed the young man, and made Edward from an errant rake become a fine gentleman.-Tatler, No. 9.

What more probable uses, then, to perform the office of so many suns? that is, to enlighten and warm so many systems of planets; after the manner as our sun doth the erraticks, encompassing it. And that this is the use and office of the fixt stars is probable.-Derham. Astro-Theology, b. ii. c. 2.

High o'er the main two rocks exalt their brow,
The boiling billows thundering roll below;
Through the vast waves the dreadful wonders move,
Hence nam'd erratick by the Gods above.

Pope. Homer. Odyssey, b. xii. When a man hath true notions of his duty, or of what is lawful or unlawful, we say that he hath a right conscience; but we do not say he hath a good conscience upon that account. And so when a man is misinformed as to the goodness or badness of an action, that we call an erroneous conscience: but it doth not therefore follow, that it is always an evil conscience.-Sharp, vol. iii. Ser. 16.

The very suppressing and hardning themselves against the thought of their true end, is in order to their present peace and quiet, which they do erroneously substitute in the room of their chief end.-Wilkins. Nat. Religion, b. ii. c. 1.

I have given you so plain an account of the popish doctrine in this matter [satisfaction and purgatory] and have so plainly confuted it from the Scripture, that I hope the most ordinary capacity may understand it, and be satisfied of the erroneousness of it.-Sharp, vol. vii. Ser. 8.

Knowledge being to be had only of visible certain truth, error is not a fault of our knowledge, but a mistake of our

judgment, giving assent to that which is not true. Locke. Of Hum. Underst. b. iv. c. 20. From his airy couch

He stoop'd sublime, and touching with his hand
My dazzling forehead, "Raise thy sight," he cry'd,
"And let thy sense convince thy erring tongue."
Akenside. The Pleasures of Imagination, b. il

And preaches like an errant Fury,
Gainst all the show folks about Drury,
Says actors are all hellish imps,
All managers the Devil's pimps.

Lloyd. To Garrick, (1981.) 4 X

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Now, hid beneath the flowery turf, they pass;
Ingulph'd, now sport along the velvet grass,
With many an errour slowly-lingering stray,
And murmuring in their course reluctant roll away.
Fawkes. Braham Park.

ERRAND. (Sometimes written Arrand, qv.) A. S. Erend-ian, to bear or carry tidings, to deliver a message, to declare or bring news.

Erend,-tidings, news, a message, an embassy. Godes arend-gast; an angel, a spiritual messenger or embassador, one going on God's errand. See Somner.

Tho me tolde him here ernde.-R. Gloucester, p. 147.
Now, sir king, quath Pandulf, thou sedest vs ar this
The priuete of thin herte, & ich the segge iwis
The priuete of oure, and wat oure erinde is.-Id. p. 501.
The messager doth na more. bote hus mouth telleth.
Hus lettere and us ernde sheweth and is anon delyvered.
Piers Plouhman, p. 217

If thou thine honour mightest saue
Or any erand mightest make

Thider, for thy loue's sake

Ful faine thou woldest, but for drede
Thou goest not, leest that men take hede.

Chaucer. Rom. of the Rose. And who (amongst all the rest of his seven sonnes) shall be pickt out for this service, but his youngest sonne David, whose former and almost worne-out acquaintance in court, and employment under Saul seemed to fit him best for this errand.-Bp. Hall. Cont. David & Goliah.

For remembring that he took no money with him when he came from his house, and that Cicero his brother also had very little for himself, he thought it best that Cicero should hold on his journey, whilest he himself made an errand home to fetch such things as he lacked, and so to make haste again to overtake his brother.

North. Plutarch, p. 729. He would understand men's true errand as soon as they had opened their mouths, and began their story in appearance to another purpose.

Locke. Memoirs of Anthony Earl of Shaftesbury.

At once, in bright procession spied,
The female world was at my side,
All, by inquiry, as I found,

On one important errand bound.

Brooke. Fables. Temple of Hymen.

ERRHINE. Fr. Errhine; Gr. Eppiva, from ev, and pw, the nose.

The examples explain the application of the word.

Likewise Lysimachia stancheth bloud either in drinke, liniment, or errhine put up into the nose.

Holland. Plinie, b. xxvi. c. 12. And we see sage or betony bruised, sneezing-powder, and other powders or liquors (which the physitians call errhines) put into the nose, draw flegme, and water from the head. Bacon. Naturall History, s. 38. Fr. Eructation; Sp. Eructar, eructation, It. Erutare, crut



Though he should sign a hundred protests ir a session, and daily eructate his invectives against the most respectable men, we will not be misled.-Knox, Ess. 9.

Never let him read with an indigestion, nor after vomiting, nor with sour eructations.

Sir W. Jones. Economicks and Private Morals.

E'RUDITE, adj. Į Fr. Erudition; It. Erudito, ERUDITION. dicion; Lat. Eruditio, from erudire, (e, and rudis, Seruditione; Sp. Erudito, erufrom raudus, which is from the Gr. 'Paßdos, virga, sc. impolita,) extra ruditatem ponere,-to free from roughness, (Vossius.)

Polished or well wrought; and, (met.) well instructed, well taught, deeply learned.

The kinges highnes as a most erudite price and a most faithfull kinge in hys moste famouse boke ainōge many other great authorities & reasons, preced him, [Luther] sore with yt that the gloriouse apostle Saynct Paule calleth it a great sacrament himselfe.-Sir. T. More. Workes, p. 645.

Fame be thy tutor, and thy parts of nature
Thrice fam'd beyond, beyond all erudition.

Shakespeare. Troil. & Cress. Act ii. sc. 3.

We have not all of us need of the skill in hunting, of military science, of the art of navigation, nor of the mechanicall handicrafts of artizans; but we all stand in need of learning and erudition.-Holland. Plutarch, p. 652.

But sure there is a middle way to be followed; the management of a young lady's person is not to be overlooked, but the erudition of her mind is much more to be regarded. Spectator, No. 66. ""Twere well," says one, sage, erudite, profound, Terribly arch'd, and aquiline his nose, And overbuilt with most impending brows, ""Twere well, could you permit the world to live As the world pleases: what's the world to you?" Cowper. Task, b. iii. He was not long satisfied with his Institution of a Christian man; he ordered a new book to be composed, called the Erudition of a Christian man.

Hume. History of England, c. 32. ERUGINOUS. Lat. Eruginosus, from ærugo, the rust of brass, (æs, æris.)

Fr. Erugineux, which Cotgrave says is, "of the colour of verdigrease; rusty, cankred or corrupted."

It is in the nature of these eruptive diseases in the state to sink in by fits, and re-appear. Burke. On a Regicide Peace, Let. 1.

ES, our genitive and plural termination, may be the article As, in Ger. Es, equivalent in meaning to-taken.


E'SBAIED. Fr. Esbahir,- Abashed. BASE and BAW. Chaucer writes, abawed. Wherewith [the Letter of Parmenio] he [Alexander] beynge nothynge esbaied, helde in his handes the letter, and receyuyng the medycyne that Philippe gaue hym, at oone tyme delyuered the letter open to Philyp, and dranke also the medycyne.-Sir T. Elyot. The Governour, b. iii. c. 18.

ESCALADE. From scala, a ladder, so called from the separations between step and step; from A. S. Scyl-an, to divide, to separate.

"Fr. Escalade, a scalado, a skaling; the taking or surprising of a place by skaling," (Cotgrave.) Fr. Eschelle, a ladder. Brunne uses eschele, generally, for a division of an army.

The third eschele fulle harde was bisted.

R. Brunne, p. 190. And for the escaladaes, they had so bad successe, as the rebels were driuen from the walles with the losse of two hundred men.-Bacon. Hen. VII. p. 181.

ESCA'LOP. 66 I believe (says Skinner) from the A. S. Scala, a shell:" and shell is from the A. S. Scyl-an, to divide, to separate. The scollop is particularly so called, because the edges of the shell are unequal and jagged.

With such ornament and decoration as best becomes them; as to Nymphs, Tritons, Sea-Gods, escalop-shells, &c. Evelyn. An Account of Architects.

How can we imagine that any laws of motion can determine the figure of the leaves, that they should be divided into so many jags or escallops, and curiously indented round the edges.-Ray. On the Creation, pt. i. ESCAPE, v. ESCA'PE, n. ESCA'PER.

Menage (Orig. Della Lingua. Ital.) considers the It. Scapare and Scampare to be the same ESCAPING, n. words, and derives them from the Lat. Campus, q.d. ex campo exire. Kilian (in v. Schampen, abire) says, Gall. Eschap


is a rough and acrimonious kind of salt drawn out of fer- per; It. Scampare; Sp. Escapar; Ang. Escape.

Now artificial copperose, and such as we commonly use, reous and eruginous earths, partaking chiefly of iron and copper.-Brown. Vulgar Errours, b. vi. c. 12.


ERUPTION. Fr. Eruption; It. Eruzione; } Sp. Erupcion; Lat. Eruptio, from erumpere, eruptum, to break or burst forth, (e, and rumpere, to burst.)

A breaking or bursting out or forth; a bursting or rushing forth; a sallying forth; shouting or exclaiming.

Miserable losses and continual had the English by their frequent eruptions, from this time to the Norman Conquest. Drayton. Poly-Olbion, s. 1, Hor. In what particular thought to work I know not: But in the grosse and scope of my opinion This boades some strange eruption to our State. Shakespeare. Hamlet, Acti. sc. 1. For certain it is, that to his often mentioned secretary, Dr. Mason, whom he [the Duke of Buckingham] laid in a pallet near him, for natural ventilation of his thoughts, he would, in the absence of all other ears and eyes, break out into bitter and passionate eruptions.

Reliquia Wottonianæ, p. 227. All which is perverted in this eruptive generation. Brown. Vulgar Errours, b. iii. c. 16. So when the Cyclops o'er their anvils sweat, And swelling sinews echoing blows repeat; From the volcanos gross eruptions rise, And curling sheets of smoke obscure the skies. Garth. The Dispensary, c. 1. The confusion of things, the eruptions of barbarians, the straits of emperours, the contentions of princes, &c. did all snatch what he could to himself.

tazione; Lat. Eructatio, from eructare; Gr. Epevy-turn to account for him; and in confusion of things he did ew, to throw out, to force out.

To throw up, (sc. wind;) to belch.

They would make us believe in Syracusa, now Messina, that Etna in times past hath eructated such huge boggets of fire, that the sparks of them have burnt houses in Malta, above fifty miles off, transported thither by a direct strong wind.-Howell, b. i. s. 1. Let. 27.

But, after all, cabbage ('tis confess'd) is greatly accused for lying undigested in the stomach, and provoking eructations; which makes me wonder at the veneration we read the ancients had for them, calling them divine, and swearIng per brassicam.-Evelyn. Discourse of Salletts.

Barrow. Of the Pope's Supremacy. 'Tis listening fear and dumb amazement all: When to the startled eye the sudden glance Appears far south, eruptive through the cloud; And following slower, in explosion vast, The thunder raises his tremendous voice.

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out of difficulty, out of sight, out of notice. And To go away, (sc.) out of the reach of danger, as the

"Fr. Eschapper,-to flie, evade, avoid; shift away; to scape, come or pass through, safely; to free himself, or get rid from; to slip, creep of winde out of," (Cotgrave.)

Escaper,-occurs in the margin, 2 Kings ix. 15.
His praier did him bryng out of his hard cas,
Thanked God & him so well for him had schaped,
That of his anguys grim so lightly was escaped.
R. Brunne, p. 201.
He suld not escape, thorgh bisshop granted fre,
Of non bot of the pape myght he assoyled be.-Id. p. 122.
But swiche a rain down from the welken shedde
That slow the fire, and made to him escape.

Chaucer. The Monkes Tale, v. 14,650.
And though your grene youthe floure as yet,
In crepeth age alway as stiil as ston,
And deth manaseth every age, and smit
In each estat, for ther escapeth non.

Id. The Clerkes Tale, v. 7999. But fro this perille netheles With his wisedome Kynge Ullysses Escapeth, and it ouerpasseth. Gower. Con. d. b. i. However urg'd, the servants of the queen Assaulted his, as he from council went; Where his own person eagerly pursu d Hardly (by boat) escap'd the multitude.

Daniel. Civil Wars, b. vii.

Yet not escaped from the dew reward Of his bad deedes, which daily he increast. Spenser. Faerie Queene, b. iii. c. 5. Bos. Hee is fled, he is fled, and dares not sit it out. Bri. What has he made an escape, which way? follow, neighbour Haggise.-B. Jonson. Barthol. Faire, Act iv. sc.6. Which my father's servants had so well concealed, at the first breaking out of the war, in a private part of my house, that they escaped the search of the enemy, who had plundered all they could find, broken all the windows, taken away the leads, and pulled up the boards in most parts of the house.-Ludlow. Memoirs, vol. i. p. 186.

No sooner was the king's escape taken notice of by the guards, but Col. Whalley hastened to the parliament with the letter which the king had left upon his table, shewing the reasons of his withdrawing, and his resolution not to desert the interest of the army. Ludlow. Memoirs, vol. i. p. 191.

The greater the evil is, the more reason is there to venture the loss of a less good, or the suffering of a less evil for the escaping of it.-Wilkins. Natural Religion, b. i. c. 2.

But soon the victor must his conquest mourn:
See! great Alphonso swift to vengeance turn,
When not a wretch escapes the general doom
To bear the fatal tidings back to Rome.


Hoole. Orlando Furioso, b. iii. E'SCHAR. Gr. Eoxapa; Fr. Eschare; skar or hard scab upon a hurt, sore, wound; also, the crust which ariseth upon an actual or potential cautery, (Cotgrave,) from A. S. Scir-an, to shear, to separate. See SCAR.

The ashes of certain locusts without wings, called by the Greeks Tryxalides, cause the thick roufes and escarres that grow about the brims of ulcers to fall off.

Holland. Plinie, b. xxx. c. 13.

At length nature seem'd to make a separation between the cancerated and sound breast, such as you often see where a caustic hath been applied, the eschar divides between the living and the dead.-Boyle. Works, vol. vi. p. 647.



Fr. Eschet, which Cotgrave properly calls, a thing (fallen to; from escheoir, to ESCHE ATOR. fall; and cheoir is from the Lat. Cadere, to fall. In Legibus Neapolitanis et Sicanis, Excadentia dicitur. (See Spelman, Gloss. Archeologicum.) See the quotations from Fuller and Blackstone; and also To CHEAT.

To fall to, (sc.) to the lord or other superior power.

Lenlyn & Dauid haf born grete honour,

And Snowdon com to grith, ilk castelle and toure
To the kyng is eschete.

R. Brunne, p. 244.

Thorge goure awe ich leyve. ich lese meyne eschytes. Piers Ploukman, p. 72. Now is steward for his achates, now is eschetour for his wrongs, now is losel for his songs.

Chaucer. The Testament of Loue, b. ii.

With that the kynge right in his place
Anon foorthe in that freshe hete

An erledome, whiche then of eschete

Was late falle into his honde,

Unto this knight, with rent and londe,
Hath youe, and with his chartre seased.-Gower. C. A. b.i.

But surely my guise is not to laye the fautes of the noughtye, to the charge of my whole companye, vppon shyryffes and call them rauenous, nor to rayle vppon eschetours and call theym extorcionours.-Sir T. More. Workes, p. 868.

But being now prevented so by persecucion, that he cannot bestow them in that other good waie that he wold, yet while he parteth fro them, because he wil not parte fro the faith, thoughe the Diuel's escheatour violently take them from him, yet willinglie geueth he them to God. Id. Ib. p. 1227.

So this, breath'd on by no full influence,
Hath hung e'er since unminded in suspence,
As doubtfull whether 't should escheated be
To ruine, or redeem'd to majesty.

Cartwright. On Christ-Church Buildings.

And therefore composing and framing himselfe on purpose to counterfeit a noddie and a verie innocent, as suffering himselfe and all that he had to fall into the king's hands as an escheat, [prædæ,] he refused not to be misnamed Brutus, a name appropriate to unreasonable creatures.

Holland. Livivs, p. 39. For the name escheator cometh from the French word escheoir, which signifieth to happen, or fall out; and he by his place is to search into any profit accrewing to the crown by casualty, by the condemnation of malefactors, persons dying without an heir, or leaving him in minority, &c. Fuller. Worthies. Somersetshire.

And when the order of the Knights Templars was dis solved, it was then judged in favour of the lord by escheat. Burnet. Reformation, vol. ì. b. iii. In those times were established the ridiculous rights of escheatage and shipwrecks.

Montesquieu. The Spirit of the Laws, b. xxi. c. 13. Escheat, we may remember, was one of the fruits and Consequences of foedal tenure, the word itself is originally French or Norman, in which language it signifies chance or accident; and with us it denotes an obstruction of the course of descent, and a consequent determination of the tenure by some unforeseen contingency. Blackstone, Commentaries, b. ii. c. 15.

ESCHECKED, i. e. Checked or checkered,


Diuerse also were slain on the Earle of Richmond's part at this last encounter, and among other an English knight, that bare armes, eschecked siluer and gules. Holinshed. Edw. III. an. 1340. ESCHE W. Fr. Eschever; Dut. Schouwen, schuwen; Ger. Scheuen; Sw. Sky; and perhaps the A. S. Scun-ian, to shun. Menage (in v. Echever) derives from D'excavere. To shun, to avoid, to fly from. Hald nat of harlotes, huyre nat here tales, Nameliche atte mete, suche men eschywe.

Piers Plouhman, p. 130. But eschewe thou unhooli and veyne spechis, for whi tho profited mych to unfaithfulnesse.-Wiclif. 2 Tym. c. 2.

Now shul ye understonde, that al be it so that non erthly man may eschewe al venial sinnes, yet may he refreine him, by the brenning love that he hath to our Lord Jesu Crist, and by prayer and confession, and other good werkes, so that it shal but litel grieve.-Chaucer. The Persones Tale.

For thy my sonne if thou wolt liue

In vertue, thou must vice eschewe.-Gower. Con. A. b. i.

A tale thou shalt vnderstond,

How that a knight shall armes sewe,

And for the while his ease eschewe.-Id. Ib. b. iv.

wryteth his destruccion) let them lerne therefore to estiew Whylis the kynge was in his feastinge (the hande of God excesse dronkenes and blasphemies in banketinge and festing.-Joye. The Exposicion of Daniel, c. 5.

These curious doubts which good men doe eschew,
Make many atheists, and doe better few.

Stirling. Doomes-day. The Ninth Houre. Page. Well, what remedy? Fenton, heauen giue thee ioy, what cannot be eschew'd must be embrac'd.

Shakespeare. Merry Wives of Windsor, Act v. sc. 5. Many little neglects I [King Charles] will not take the pains to set down: as her eschewing to be in my company, when I have any thing to speak to her [the Queen], I must manage her servants first, else I am sure to be denied.

Ludlow. Memoirs. Letters & Papers, vol. iii. p. 250.

I suppose there are but few of you but know some such among your acquaintance, and none but may be very serviceable both to God and them, by putting them in mind, as ye have occasion, that they must not only eschew evil but do good in the world. That it is not enough for them to avoid what God hath forbidden, but they must do also what he hath commanded, as ever they expect and hope for his love and favour.-Bp. Beveridge, vol. ii. Ser. 83.

ESCORT, v. Į "Fr. Escorte; a guide, conE'SCORT, n. voy, safe conduct; a direction or safeguard for the way," (Cotgrave.) The word does not appear to be of any long standing in English.

Fr. Escorte; It. Scorta, formed from scorgere, and this from excorrigere, that is, dirigere, to guide or direct, (Menage.)

To day shut out, still onward press,
And watch the seasons of access;
In private haunt, in public meet,
Salute, escort him through the street.

Francis. Horace. Satires, b. i. Having contrived, by making forced stages while the troops of my escort marched at the ordinary rate, to make a stay of five days at Benares, I was thereby furnished with the means of acquiring some knowledge of the state of the province, which I am anxious to communicate to you.

Burke. Works, vol. ii. Letter from W. Hastings. ESCO'T. Fr. Escotter; every one, says Cotgrave, to pay his shot. His shot, is his cast; that which (the money which) he is to cast or throw down. How are they escotted ?" how is their scot or share of the reckoning paid? i. e. how are they paid for or supported? See Scor.

Ham. What are thy children? Who maintains 'em? How are they escotted?-Shakes. Hamlet, Act ii. sc. 2. ESCROW. A scrowl, (qv.) as it is explained

in the example.

A delivery may be either absolute, that is to the party or grantee himself; or to a third person, to hold till some conditions be performed on the part of the grantee: in which last case it is not delivered as a deed, but as an escrow; that is, as a scrowl or writing, which is not to take effect as a deed till the conditions be performed; and then it is a deed to all intents and purposes.-Blackstone. Com. b. ii. c. 20.

ESCRY. To detect or discover. See DESCRY, and ASCRY.

At the same time the Spanish fleete was escried by an English pinasse, captaine whereof was M. Thomas Fleming, after they had bene aduertised of the Spaniards' expedition by their scoutes and espials.-Hackluyt. Voy. vol. i. p. 596.

The very next day, being the 20th of July, about high noon, was the Spanish fleete escried by the English, which with the south-west wind came sailing along, and passed by Plimmouth.-Id. Ib.

ESCUAGE. Fr. Escu, scutum; "Qui silicet clypeos in bello gestare obligantur; those who were bound to carry shields in war," (Skinner.)

The pecuniary satisfaction of which Blackstone speaks, was a compensation for actual service; money paid in lieu of shields or shield-bearers; i. e. of soldiers.

The cheefe cause that mooued the lords to this conspiracie, rose by reason the king demanded escuage of them that refused to go with him into Poictow. Holinshed. King John, an. 1215.

The next was a duty reserved anciently out of every knight's fee: which, at first, was constantly paid as a quitrent, but being very small, came, in time, to be neglected by the kings, that contented themselves with the military attendance of the knights in their wars; and with levying sometimes a greater duty, upon great or urgent occasions, under the name of escuage, which was burthensome and odious, till the proportions and occasions came to be ascertained. Sir W. Temple. Introd. to the History of England.

This pecuniary satisfaction at last came to be levied by assessments, at so much for every knight's fee; and therefore this kind of tenure was called scutagium in Latin, or servitium seuti; scutum being then a well known denomination for money: and, in like manner, it was called in our northern French, escuage; being indeed a pecuniary, instead of a military service.-Blackstone. Commentaries, b. ii. c. 5. E'SCULENT, adj. Lat. Esculentus, that E'SCULENT, n. may be eaten; from esca, food, and esca from edere, es-um, to eat. Any thing eatable, or that can or may be eaten. Thou never hadst in thy house, to stay men's stomachs, A piece of Suffolk cheese or gammon of bacon, Or any esculent, as the learned call it.

Massinger. A New Way to Pay Old Debts, Activ. sc. 2,

Of hearbs and plants some are good to eat raw, others only after they are boyled or have passed the fire, but a Bacon. Naturall History, § 636.

number of hearbs are not esculent at all.

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Scutcheon, from the Lat. ESCUTCHEONed. Scutum, a shield. "Fr. Escusson, a small target or shield."


Escussoner, to defend or cover with a scutcheon or shield," (Cotgrave.)

But this preferment of one before another does not consist in giving secular advantages before the other, temporal honours and precedences in processions, in escutcheons and atchievments, but in doing the duty of that which is incum bent, and making the other minister to that which is more necessary.-Bp. Taylor. Rule of Conscience, b. iii. c. 3.

This folly and profusion so far provoked the people, that they threw dirt in the night on his [Richard Cromwell] escutcheon that was placed over the great gate of Somerset

House.-Ludlow. Memoirs, vol. ii. p. 155.

For what, gay friend, is this escutcheon'd world,
Which hangs out death in one eternal night;
A night, that glooms us in the noon-tide ray,
And wraps our thoughts, at banquets, in the shroud.
Young. Complaint, Night 2.

Hence without blushing (say whate'er we can)
We more regard th' escutcheon than the man;
Yet, true to nature and her instincts, prize
The hound or spaniel as his talent lies.

Cawthorn. Nobility. A Moral Essay, (1752.)

The addition of the escocheon of Edward the Confessor to his own, [Surrey's] although used by the family of Norfolk for many years, and justified by the authority of the heralds. was a sufficient foundation for an impeachment of high treason.-Warton. History of English Poetry, vol. iii.

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