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mitting it wi th' afforce and trueth to your excellence.'

Affray, sb. i. A fight, or attack. Old Fr. effrei (M.). ; Lat. affraia (N. R. Record Soc. i. 127). ii. Alarm.

i. 1441. Plumpton Corr. lv. Ripon. • The Marchmen were ashamed to come so farr, and not to be noysed with none affray, or they went out of the country.'

. . 1474. Court Roll of Abbot of Selby. 'Patryk and James Glover made affray, and outhir drewe blode of othir.'

1503. York Blouse Book, ix. 10. One Gossell . maid assaut & affray upon the same George, & hym sore hurt & mayhemyd.'

1637. Surtees' Durham, iv. pt. i. 75. Barnard Custle. “No constable of this burrow, upon making any affray, blood-sheddinge, or weapons drawne, shall suffer such a person to departe,' etc.

ii. Sæc, xv. S.S. 63. Of all these cares no thyng thay ken, thay eylle note of our afray.'

1441. Plumpton Corr. lviii. Ripon. To the great prejudice, hurt, and harme of the said Cardinall and Archbishop, and great affray of the King's people.'

Affray, vb. i. To scuffle, enter into a fray. ii. To affright. Old Fr. afrayer (M.).

i. 1441. Plumpton Corr. lvi. Ripon. They knew not of them, nor of their great strengthe, till they sodainly mett and affrrayed togeather.'

1589. Eccl. Proc. Durham, Ponteland, near Newcastle. *Hugh Trew het & the said William Marlew did affray togither.'

1597. Bossevell's Armorie, 52. 'If they see a man comming against them they would not affray him.

1599. Sharpe's Hartlepool, 66. • Whosoever of this towne that .. smyteth or affrayeth upon anie man . , shall paye x s.'

ii. 1441. Plumpton Corr. lxi. Ripon. "The remnant of his said servants (were) greatly affraiedi, & doubted of their lives.'

1524. Raine's North Durham, xiii. Lr from W. Franklyn to Wolsey. "We wish that your Grace wold find meanes that all sacramentes might be denyed to them in Scotlande, which should sorre affray theym.'

1636. S.S. lxii. 10, Ryedale. "My father . , was much affreyd att the sudaine accident.'

, p.

Afore, ailv. and prp. Before. Old Engl. Teesdale and Craven Gloss.

1478. S.S. ix. ccclxvi. The Prior of Durham says in a letter : 'The mater .. hath be right chargeable to our monastery affor this.'

1501-2. Reg. Test. Ebor. Ralph Eyre, of Wickersley, desires to be buryede in the kyrke of Saynt Albon, at Wickesley, afore the crucifix.'

1509. York House Book, ix. 48. Inv. of Chantry goods in York. 'Aveyll mayd with the nedell for to hyng afore the hey altar in Lentti'

1641. S.S. xxxiii. 18. Best's Farming Book, E. R. Y. "The washers are to have warning the night afore.'

1655. Trealise of the Four Last Things, by Simon Birckbek, of Gilling, near Richmond, 8vo, p. 147. "They that afore were most in love with it, list not now look any time on the corps.'

Afore-anents, adv. Right in front of. Usually Foranenst. Old Engl. words. Afornens (Jamieson).

1481. York City Reg. A. Y. 352. Alnwick. We, Sr Henry Percy, lieutenaunt of th'est merches of England affornemptes Scotland.'

Afore-bear, sb. Old form of Forebear. Ancestor.

1542. Survey of the Borders. Their predecessours, or afore-bears, have in tyme paste contynually plowed,' etc.

Aforetimes, adv. Before. 1441-2. S.S. xii. 130. Durham. "As thay have doon afortymez in your nobill progenitoures' day.'

c. 1470. Reg. iii. Parv. Pr. and Conv. Durham, 173. Letter to Archbp. Booth. 'In all thyngis concernyng ye libertez . afforetymez.'

Afraidness, sb. Timidity, fear. 1669. R, Garbutt, of Leeds, Wks. p. 226. "The shyness and afraidness one of another.'

Afrayn, Affrayn, v. To inquire of, ask.

Sæc. xv. S.S. iji, 328. 'My father wakyd at the laste, and her afranyd.'

After-bending, sb. One of the last parts of the process of making a bow, by a York bower or bowmaker. The various stages were, chippyng, thwytyng, dressyng, bendyng, hornyng, boryng, clensyng uppe, after-bendyng, and polyssyng and skynnyng.' The bower was called Arcularius. The first bending was to show whether the wood would bend at all.

1419. Reg. A. Y. Civ. Ebor, 62. 'Pro afterbendyng cujuslibet centenæ arcuum, xx d.'

After-crop. The grass after mowing, called the fog.

1562. S.S, xxvj. 160. Will of Joan Wicliff, of St. Nicolas, near Richmond. "To my sonne Thomas Wraye my lease and intrest of the aftercroppe of St. Nycolas feld.'

After - dinner, After - drinkings, After-supper. Used as sb. expressing a period of time.

1511-12. Northumbd. Household Book, ed. Nicolas, 309. ‘My Lorde's servauntes . . may at aftir-lynner go aboute their own business,

1595. York House Book, xxxi. 69. Anthony Sandwith is charged with menacing Mr. King, "having his sword in the scabard in his hand in affrighting manner,

Affrightment, sb. Alarm.

Sæc. xvii. S.S. i. 237. Newcastle-on-Tyne. "The man reflecting upon what he had done, was struck with affrightment.'

Affy, vb. obs. To trust or rely. Old Fr. afier (M.).

Saec. XV. York Mystery Plays, 374. 'My frendis that in my faith affies.'

1613. Will of . . Perkinson of Sleningford. 'I much affe myself in Mr. Heughe Best' just & freindlie dealing.'

A-field, To the field. Old Engl. Teesdale Gloss. 1593-94. S.S. 1. 295. Newcastle,

For carryng the gear a-field, xij d.'



The grass

AFT Id. 409. The clerke comptroillour shall dailly calle for the keyes of th' officers into the countinghouse at thies houres . . at iij o'th clocke at after-drinkingis be donne, and also every night immediately

at after-souper.' After-logging, sb. ? Coarse corn, remnants.

1641. S.S. xxxiii. 104. Emswell, E. R. Y. 'In many places they grinde after-logginges of wheate for theire servants' pyes.'

After-matches, sb. Marriages in subsequent generations.

c. 1600. Nichols' Topogr. and Genealogist, ii. 406. Description of Gisbro' in Cleveland. 'Whoe (the Bruces) were ancestors to our Kinge, and whose greatnesse in lyvings, and these after-matches in marryage, apeares by the beautye of the monasterye.'

Aftermath, sb. The grass in the meadow after the mowing. Cf. Thoresby's 'List of Words sent to Ray.'

Cf. Aftercrop. which grows after the mowing is called the fog' in the North. In the Durham Surveys, sæc. xiv., the Latin word for it is Renaynum. Cf. S.S. xxxii, 170, 201, 212, 242.

Again, adv. Back into a former position or state.' Old Engl. (M.).

1484. S.S. xlv. 257. William Scargill, Esq., of Lede Grange, says in his will, 'If God fortune me to cum agayne' (sc. to recover).

Again, Agains, prep. Against. Old Engl. Jamieson.

c. 1415. Yk. MS. Manual, Minster Library, xv. m. 4, p. 166. * All yat is again ye pes, or ye right?

1455. Enrolment Book, City of York, B. 3, 144. Will of Sir Thos. Fulthorpe, co. Durham. • If the said Roger be maried agaynes the will & aggrement of the said Margarete.'

Sæc. xv. S.S. iii. 326. • Amende the, man, whils thou art here, agans thou go an othere gate.'

Poem on the Trinity, by Wm. Nassington,of York, MS. Stowe, 753, 33.

'In yis we aske some steght to se,

Agayne all ille yat may be.' 1499. York House Book, viii. 48. 'ij billes of complaynt agayn ye Maier & Citicens.'

Againcall, vb. To call back, revoke. Jamieson.

1442-3. S.S. xii. 146. Deed about Coldingham. “It sall be lefull to the said Prioure, or his successours, to revoke and agayne call the power.'

Againsay, vb. = .To gainsay, deny. Jamieson.

1428-9. Reg. i. Civ. Ebor. 256 b. "Yf he wald agaynesay this.'

Againstand, vb. To withstand, oppose. Old Engl.

1477-8. Orig. Ordinances of the York Weavers. "Yf any man be obstacle or agaynstandyng our ordinances, our alderman, etc., shal make,' etc.

Againward, adv. In return, or on his return.

c. 1465. Plumpton Corr. 14. Lr from Hugh Pakenham. Trusting that by him againward I shall hastely be ascertained thereof.'

Suc. xv. Drake's Eboracum, 194. Rules of

Sheriff's' Court. “In the same manner ward.'

Agate, adv. A-going. (Jamieson) Brockett Craven, Hallamshire, Cleveland, Whitby. I wot not what quaint humour now of late, To write these numbers, set my pen agate.' - Poems by R. Breirly, of Grindleton, c. 1630,

Agateward, adv. Onwards, on the gate or road. Agaitards (Craven), Agaterds (Hallamshire), Agaitward (Jamieson).

c. 1573. S.S. xxi. 239. Ebchester, co. Durham. The said William Hedley came agaytward with the said Agnes.' 1647. S.S. lxv. 101. Haslehead, W. R. Y.

I rid with Robert Eyre to Langsett bank agateward homewards.

Ageman, sb. One advanced in years.

1570. S.S. xxi. 225. Newcastle - on - Tyne. William Walker is an aidgeman, & broken in labour.'

Aght, sh. Perhaps for aught, or aughtand, eight, or eighteen. Eels are sold in the North by number and not by weight (J.C.A.).

c. 1400. Frost's Hull, Appx 13. 'Pro xij aght' anguillarum, etc. vij s. ij d. ob. q.'

Aght, vb. Past tense of Awe or Owe. Old Engl. Aigh, aight, aucht (Jamieson).

Sæc. xv. S.S. iii. 15. 'I aght the a fowlle dispyte.'

1557. S.S. xxvi. 106. Will of Anne Nicholson of Kendal. 'I forgyfe Thomas Warcopp half of the monie yt he aght unto my husbande.'

Aglet, sb. The metal tag of a lace (formerly called point) (M.). Fr. aiguillette.

It fits to an aglet' (Swaledale); aiglet (Jamieson).

1490. S.S. liii. 60. Inv. of John Colan of York. Pro factione ij præducium, Anglice aglettes, iiij d.'

1508. S.S. lxiv. 330. John Preston of Ripon leaves to 'Raufe Battye a par of sylver agglettes gilted.'

1562. S.S. ii. 202. Robert, Lord Ogle of Bothal, leaves to Sir Robert Ughtred my best velvett gowne, and my capp wth aglettes.' Agill, sb.

old form of Eagle. Cf. S.S. liii. 259, and ix. cclxxxviii.

Agnell, sb. Lambs. From Lat. aynelli. ‘xx agnelli de exitu istius anni. Finchale, co. Durham, 1346-7 (S.S. vi. xxvi). Agnellatio was the lambing time in co. Durham, 1362 (S.S. lxxxii, 173).

c. 1538. S.S. xlvi. 167. The tithe3 of agnell of all the parishioners within Hexhamshire is worthe by yere lxvj s. viij u.'

Agnus. (i.) A coin with a lamb stamped upon it, or (ii.) a religious symbol in the form of a lamb. Unum monile vocatum Agnus Dei' (S.S. xxx. 49).

i. 1573. S.S. xxvi. 235, Agnes Leavyns, of

Old Eng.



ALA Crosth waite, Westmerland, leaves a pece of And id. 52, ‘Yf thou fynde awdir lande or mony callyd one agous (agnus) ye I did weare

tree.' on my hatt.

1412. Contract for Catterick Church. ii. 1412 S.S. ii. 56. Inv. of R. de Kirkby, aither ele sall be made of breede of elleven Vicar of Gainford. 'Unum par de bedes de fote.' lambr' et unus Agnus Dei, x s.'

1439. Reg. ii. Pr. & Cono. Dunelm, 102. . . 1477. S.S. xlv. 237. Will of R. Andrew, 'The lenthe of ayther of yaim xvj fote.' Dean of York. 'Domino W. Plumpton, militi, Sæc. xv. Customs, etc., of New Malton. It illas reliquias quas soleo portare circa collum was graunted to the burgeses a wast of ather meum, videlicet, unam crucem auream, et syde of the town.' Cf. S.S. iii. 2, and xxi, 109; unum Agnus Dei.' Cf. S.S. xxx. 122.

lxxix. 42. . . 1490. S.S. liii. 60. Ino. John Colan of York, 1493. York House Book, vii. 39. Lr of Prior goldsmith Pro factione į le3 Agnus Dei, of Bolton-in-Craven. 'He was distemperide ij s. vj d. Pro auriatione ponderis ejusdem lez awther we ale or wyne, and was irke of his Agnus, iij d.'

comppany.' Cf. S.S. ix. cccci. ; xxx 106. Agone, adv. Ago. Old Engl.

1498-9. S.S. liii. 160. Wighill. To ayder 1509. Reg. iv. Paro. Dunelm. 176.


of them a silver spone.' doubted and fered not long agone.'

1537. Survey of Bambrough Castle. NewAgree, v. To please or content.

castle vol. Arch. Institute, ii. 245. The said

two chamberys must have two newe royffes of Old Fr. agréer (M.).

balkes . . for ather of the said two chamc. 1490. Plumpton Corr. 82. * The daye's berys.' men cannot agre us, so Mr. Mydleton to make 1541. S.S. xxvi. 25. Will of Thos. Lasynbe the end.'

par. Bolton-on-Swale. "To Jorge my son, and Agrudges, sb. Grudges, points of to Jayms my soyn, and to ader of thaym, difference.

xl s.' 1491. York House Book, vii. 111. Certein

Ake, sb. Old form of Oak. Old matiers of varyance, and aggruges be lately Engl. Aik, ayk (Jamieson); aik fallen betwixt you.'

(Teesdale); aak, uik (Craven); yak Agrudgement, sb. A difference;

(Whitby and Cleveland). a grudge.

c. 1200. S.S. vi. 106. Softley, co. Durham. 1487. York House Book, vi. 54.

*To pacify

H. Waleys gives to Finchale Priory 'quatuor yaggrugement in this behalve.'

acras terræ quæ jacent circa Cat-hol-ake' (i.e. Aguiler, sb. A needler, Fr. a hollow oak haunted by wild cats). In the

15th cent. there was close to Finchale a tree aiguille, a needle. 1296. York Freemen's Book. "Robertus de

called 'love-ake' (id. 118), sacred, no doubt, to

sweeter sounds. Knapton, aguiler' free. 1353. Ibid. 'Petrus Musket, aguiler' free.

1227. S.S. xlvi. 92. Archbp. Gray gives to

Hexham Priory a right of road per medium Agy, adv. Atwist, awry. Agee, hayæ nostræ de Ak-wod.' aglee, agley (Jamieson); agee (Tees 1374. Reg. Civ. Ebor. A.Y. 7. Near Fulford dale, Whitby, Cleveland); aglee,agley

'est communis pastura civibus Ebor. usque

Pele brig, citra le Abbot-ake.' (Brockett); agee, ague (Craven).

1408. Raine's North Durham, 287. Norham. 1685. Meriton's Praise of Yorkshire Ale, etc., For the carriage of 'vj fother de ake spires,' 59. 'Els he'l leauk all agye when he comes

X S. in.'

1439. Reg. ii. Prior. Dunelm, 102 b. 'ij Aim, vb. To intend. Craven, trees of ake for ribbes.' Cf. S.S. xlv. 196, xxvi, Whitby and Cleveland Gloss.

42, lxxxi. 283. 1754. Snaith Marsh (W. R. Y.). A Poem. Akenay, 8b. An old form of

* And Roger aims e'er Ladyday to wed.' Air, vb. To be left to grow,

Hackney, or riding-horse. Cf. S.S. and

xxix. 24, 76, and vi. 211. the stock taken off.

Aketon, sb. Cf. Acton. 1641. S.S. xxxiij. 83. Emswell, E. R. Y. "These closes weare : : ayred and kept fresh Alablaster, Alabaustre, etc. Alafrom Munday the 28th of February til Mun baster, a kind of marble. Cf. S.S. day the 4th of Aprill.'

ix. 131. Old Fr. Alabastre (M.). Airing, sb. Breathing, taking air into the lungs.

Teesdale, Craven, and Hallamshire

Gloss. c. 1700. The Yorkshire Racers : a Poem (by

1381. S.S. iv. 114. Mr. Plarton), p. 3.

Will of Sir

Wm. 'His feeding's good, his airing's clear and

de Latimer. 'Je l'ay devise .. que mon corps

soit porte et enterre illoeques, et que la tombe pure; He moves with order, and his steps are sure.'

d'alabaustre q'est en le dit esglise soit surmys Airish, adj. Windy, cold. Jamieson.

come j'ay autrefois devise.'

1467. S.S. xlv. 160. Robert Este of York 1641. S.S. xxxiij. 18. Emswell, E. R. Y.


unam ymaginem S. Joh. Evang. de "To have the sheepe ready to throwe into the white alablastre.' dyke betwixt 8 and 9 of the clocke; and not

1509. S.S. lxxix. 16. Will of Sir John Gillafore, because the morninges are airish.'

iott of York. 'I yeve to by a tabill of alblaster Aither, Ather, Awther, Ayder, to the high awter in Saint Saviour Kirk, v Ayther. Obsolete forms of Either. marc.' old Engl. Aither (Teesdale); ather,

1567. S.S. Ixxxi. 344. Ripon. "Ther is .

reserved vj great tables of alablaster full of auther, ayther (Craven).

imageis.' Scec. xv. York. Myst. Plays, 7. 'But ather c. 1600. Nichols' Topogr. and Genealogist, ii. in a kynde courese thaire gates for to go.' 413. Description of Cleveland. * Within the



ALB sea-marke, on Wilton-side, lyeth a rocke of excellent plaister, cankered by the salte-water; but if yt were searched in the fyrme lande, yt is probable that yt would prove rare alablaster.'

Alblasterer, Alblasterman, Ayleblaster, Ayleblasterer, Awblaster (Jamieson). Cf. Arblast. A maker of arbelests or crossbows. Fr. Lat. Albelastarius. Circa 1220. Robertus albelastarius de Gevildale,' E. R. Y., gives his nativus, Wm. son of Gerard, to Walter de Wisbeach (Reg. Magn. Alb. D. & C. Ebor. iv. 37). In the York Freemen's Book, the trade of each person admitted is given, so that these were not bowmen, but bowyers.

1459. Freemen's Book, York. Willelmus Warde, ayleblasterer. Willelmus Cowelrygge, ayleblaster. 1463. Id. Johannes Roper, alblasterer, 1464. Id. Johannes Aylde, alblasterer. 1489. Id. Thomas Roper, alblasterman.

Alacking, pres. pple. Missing, wanting.

1609. S.S. lxxxiv. 60. Pittington, co. Durham. *To Robert Gibson for gitting of a weather that was alacking iij d.'

Alane, adj. Distinct. Old Engl. Jamieson, Brockett, Teesdale, and Craven Gloss.

1357. Metrical Catechism of Archbp. Thoresby at York. 'Halikirk our modir is haly and allane thurgh oute the world.' Cf. S.S. iii. 272.

Alanely, Alonely, adv. Only. Allanerly (Jamieson).

1357. Metrical Catechism of Archbp. Thoresby at York. 'Ne alanely in traist of our gode dedis.'

1417. Reg. i. Civ. Ebor. 59 a. "Yt na man of ye gyrdeler-crafte passe oute of yis citie unto na market, but alanely unto cried, open faires.'

1446. S.S. ix. cclxxxiii. Durham. I lete never other man have knawledge thereof bod him in grett councell allonly.'

1455. York Enrolment Book, B.Y. 144. Will of Sir Thos. Fulthorp, co. Durham. 'I will that he have alonely the profettes and revenues,' etc.

Sæc. xv. Customs of Burgesses of Malton. 'It is usyd yt noo man yt holdes of thame schall haffe noo

cowrte bot alonly ye burgese cowrte.'

1533. York House Book, xii. 17. ‘Alonly to do as my Lord Mayer . . useth & doth.'

Alarum, sb. An alarm, summons to arms. Old Fr. alarme (M.).

1566. Guild Book, Berwick-on-Tweed, ii. 123. At the laste alarum beinge within this towne, Mr Jackson, with others, cam not dewtyfullie to accompanie Mr Mayor.'

1591. Book of Presentments, Ibid. "We think it fitt that when any allarum or affray doth rise in the night, that every one ought to sett a light in their windowes for the better passage of men to their charge.'

1599. S.S. xvii. 147. Lr to Archbp. Hutton. You cannot but here what alarams we have had, and yet have, of the Spanyerds approching.'

c. 1700. Nichols' Topogr. and Genealogist, ii. 417. Description of Cleveland. On the outer

moste rocke one greate seale or more keepes sentynell, which, upon the first inklinge of any danger, giveth the alarum to the reste.'

1655. Treatise of the Four Last Things, by Simon Birckbek of Gilling near Richmond, 123. "They fear no colours, no alarums, no beating up of quarters: it is a kingdom of peace.

Alate, adv. Of late. Alatt (Craven).

1556. York House Book, xxii. 34. 'We ever have beyn accustomyd to have withoute any mane's denyer unto now alate.'

Alaying, sb. Putting fresh metal to an instrument. The vb. Lay is now used in the North in the same sense.

1409-10. Roll for Building the Cloisters at Durham. Pro alayng securium, chysells, wegges, etc.'

Albe, conj. = Albeit. Siec. xv. York Mystery Plays, 2. 'Allbe at ones erthe haly & helle.'

Alcomy, sb. Alkamye (Prompt. Parv.). Alchemy. A mixed metalsupposed to be produced by alchemy. Accomie, accumie (Jamieson).

1631. Inv. at Snaith, W. R. Y. V silver spoones, a dozen tin spoones, a pewter basin, & ij alcumy spoones, j l. ij s.'

1641. Inv. of Matt. Rathmell of Barton, Richmond Wills, etc. One bason & ewer of alcomye.'

Ald, adj. Early form of Old ; common in the North.

Old Engl. Jamieson.

1429. S.S. xii. 104. Durham. "Wyth thar reghtewyse and alde boundes als ther charters shewys.

1433. Enrolment Bk., City of York, B. Y. 125. "We may be so demened yat we may contynue furth in our ald possession.' Cf. S.S. xxxv. 299.

1491. S.S. xxix. 12. Jarrow, co. Durham. 'xij dublers novæ, xiij dublers alde.'

c. 1530. Arch. Æl. n. s. i. 89. Survey of Berwick-on-Tweed. Of the same part is the distaunce of yxx yerdes of ald wawil.'

Aldermanship, sb. The office of alderman.

1499. York House Book, viii. 42. Mr Scotton, late alderman, hath discharged hymself of aldermanship.'

1634. Id. xxxv. 258. 'If he will give over his aldermanshipp, the citty will allow him fortie markes per ann.'

Alderwoman, sb. The wife of an alderman.

1587. Feb. 1. H. Trin. Church, Hull, P. R. Elizabeth Dalton, alderwoman, bur.

1668. Dec. 29, Ibid. Mrs. Priscilla Lindley, alderwoman, bur.

Aldress, sb. The wife of an alderman.

1607–8. Reg. Ebor. Will of John Bramhall of Pontefract, Alderman. "To be buried in the middle alley within the churche of Allhallowes in P. under the greate blewe through, at the end of the Maior's & Aldresses' stall.'

1630-1, Jan. 22. Doncaster Par. Reg. 'Mrs. Jane Barwicke, alderesse, bur.'

1701-2, Mar. 4. Holy Trin., Hull. Par, Reg. *Aldress Anne Bloom, vida, bur.'

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1713-14, Jan 19, Leeds. Thoresby's Diary, ii. 180. Madam Nevill was this day buried with great state; yesterday also was another aldress (Mrs Armitage) interred' (at Leeds).

Ale, sb. A merry meeting, often beginning with business of some kind. Old Engl. Brockett.

1595. Eccl. Proc. York (Manchester). John Grene made an ale upon Sonday the 25th of May last, where was greate fighting & disordler.

1647. S.S. lxv. 40. Hazlehead, W. R. York. . This morne I went to Shorehall, and so ... to bid guests to an ale to Catchaw.'

Ale-draper, sb. A publican or alehouse-keeper.

Whitby and Clereland Gloss.Common in York in the last century.

1735. May 7. John, the son of William Slack, ale lraper, bur.' (Doncaster Par. Reg.)

Ale-finer, sb. An official examiner of ale.

1581. Court of Earl of Shrewsbury for Selby. . In paine yt the brewsters doe sende for the ale fyners before ye tyme, iij s. iiij d.'

Ale-grave, sb. Ale-taster, Alefiner, and Ale-conner.

1479. S.S. xlvi. 73. At Salton, in Ryedale, the Prior of Hexham eliget ale-graves, wateregraves, et iiij juratos.'

Ale-knight, sb. A haunter of alehouses, a drunkard. 1575. Eccl. Proc. at York from Chester.

The Vicar of Whalley is charged with being 'a common drinker and ale-knight.'

Ale-rod, sb. A pole or sign for selling ale. Ale-pole in • Phil. Dicty.'

1613. N. Riding Record Soc. ii. 31. At Malton a woman is presented for cominge forth of her house with a pitchforke and beating awaie a man that was cutting down her ale-rodd.'

Ale-stand, sb. A rack or frame on which the casks of ale or beer lay when they were in use, or abroach. In the Finchale Inv., in 1411, there were 'y pipæ pro servisia, ij cadi, et ij stands' (S.S. vi. clvi).

1562. S.S. xxvi. 168. Inv. of Joan Wycliffe of Richmond. 'j ale stand j d.

Ale-taster, sb. An examiner or taster of ale. Gustator cerevisiæ. Brockett.

1368. S.S. lxxxii. 68. Coupen, co. Durham. Johannes Pulter et Rob. Fauks electi sunt pro tastatoribus cervisiæ.'

Saec. xv. Customs of the Burgesses of Malton. 'It is usyd yt the sayd Burgese schall chese in ye cowrte two ale tastars, ye qwhyche two tastars, wt j sub ballyffe, schall taste the ale of all common Brewers every weke. And yai fynde any ale not sufficiant for j peny a galon, than ye sayd taşturs schall sett it at iij farthynges i galon. And iff so be ye brewers wyll sell it abown yt price, they schall be amersyd, and ye ale schall be forfett.'

1518-19. York House Book, ix. 99. It is enacted ther shalbee too ayle-taisters sworne in every parishe. The brewsters shall send for the seid ayletaisters to take a taste of ther ayl at the tyme of the tunnyng of the same.'

1631. Darlington Borough Book. Longstapfe's

Darın, 287. “We ly a paine that the searchers of aile taisters . . shall taiste ayle & beare evry monneth & that they present the offender that kepeth not the true assyse of ale & beare.'

Algate, Algates, adv. Always, everywhere. Jamieson and Brockett.

Sæc. xv. S.S. iii. 12. 'Syn that we shalle algates go.'

Id. 228. "Thou wold alle gaytt be kyng of Jues.'

Aliaunt, sb. Old form of Alien, Alienigena (Reg. Ebor. A. y. 60, sæc. xv.). Old Fr. alien (M.).

1594. York Barber Surgeons' Book, in Br. Museum. 'All aliauntes and straungers to be contributorie to the companie, yearlie, vj s. viijd.'

Alicant, sb. Wine made at Alicante in Spain (M.).

1620. S s. lxviij. 138. Ld William Howard's Account Book. 'v pintes of Aligant, ij s. vj d.'

Alicer, sb. Alegar Ale-aigre, or sour (M.). Alegar is to ale, what vinegar is to wine (Leicestersh. Gloss ). A kind of vinegar made out of sour ale.

1680. Inv. Snaith, W. R. Y. "A fiaskitt with ij vessels full of alicer, j 1. iij s. iiij d.'

Alie, sb. Old form of Ally. Old Fr. alier ; Lat. alligare (M.). Alliance or connection, probably through marriage.

1481. York House Book, ii, 25. •The said William Brown was nather of alie, ne of blode to eny Scotishman.'

Alinger, sb. A forme of Alnager. Old Fr. aulnegeor (M.). An officer to examine into the quality, make, etc., of woollen goods. It was his duty to seal them. Some of these seals bave been found in York. Cf. N. R. Record Soc. iv. 73.

1614-15. York House Book, xxxiv. 49. A letter from London says that ‘two commissions have been graunted unto the Duke of Linox, makeing hym generall alinger of England.'

Alisa nder, Alexander, adj. Alexandrine, or Alexandrian work. A species of striped silk (M.) of different colours, and common in England in the 15th and 16th centuries. I believe, very stout in substance.

1392. S.S. iv. 174. York. 'Lego dim. peciæ burd Alysaunder ad ornationem summi altaris eccl. meæ parochialis. Cf. id. 251, and xxx. 34.

1401. Status domus de Holy Island. 'Item j casula cum alba et paruris de burd-Alisander, per Dominum Robertum Claxton.'

1448. S.S. xlv. 110. Inv. of Thos. Morton, Canon of York. De j vestimento de burde Alysaundre, viridis coloris, v s.'

1457. Status domus de Farne. 'j casula de burd-Alexander ex dono Johannis Oll.'

c. 1460. Id. 163. Sewerby. De j vestimento pro sacerdote de rubio bourd Alexandre, vj s. viij d.

1543. S.S. xxxv. 282. York Minster. One vestment of read Alixander; one vestment of

It was,

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