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Percutit, eventum viridis quo colligo pannic
Nam si deficeret, mestam attonitamque videres
Hanc urbem, veluti Cannarum in pulvere victis
Consulibus. Spectent juvenes, quos clamor, et audax
Sponsio, quos cultæ decet assedisse puellæ :
Nostra bibat vernum contracta cuticula solem,
Effugiatque 'togam : jam nunc in balriea salvâ
Fronte licet vadas, quanquam solida hora supersit
Ad sextam. Facere hoc 'non possis quinque diebus
Continuis : quia sunt talis quoque tædia vitæ


198. The green cloth.] The four parties, which ran chariot-races in the círcus, were divided in several liveries, viz, green, russet, blue, and white. One of these factions was always favoured by the court, and, at this time, most probably, the green ; which makes Juvenal fancy that he hears the shouts for joy, that their pariy had won the race.

199. Should fail.] If the green cloth should fail of the prize, or if the festival, which occasioned the celebration of these games, should be laid aside, and these shows fail, or cease. .

200.. This city.] The people of Rome would be ready to break their hearts-reflecting on their immoderate fondness for these shows.

- The consuls.] Paulus Æmilius and Terentius Varro

201. Cannæ.] A small town, near which Hannibal obtained a great victory over the Romany. See sat. x. l. 164, note. - Let youths behold.] i. e. Be spectators of these shows.

Whom clamour, &c.] Who may, without any indecency, make as much noise as they please in clapping and hallooing, and day what bets they please on the side they take.

202. By a neat girl, &c.] By this we see that men and women sat promiscuously together on these occasions. See sat. iii. 1. 65, and note.

203. Contracted skin.] Once smooth, but now through age contracted into wrinkles.

--- Drink the vernal sun.] Let us avoid these crowds, and bask in the reviving rays of the sun, which now is bringing on the delightful spring. This was in the beginning of April. See above, note on 1. 193, ad fin.

201. Avoid the gown.] The gown was the common habit of the Romans, insomuch that Virg. Æn. i 286, calls them gentem toga. tam. ' The poet, by togam, here means the people that wore it, by metonym. i. e. the Romans now crowding to the games let us keep out of their way, that we niay enjoy ourselves in quiet. · 204.-5. Safe countenance, &c.] Without fear of being put out of countenance. The Romans used to follow their business till noon, that is, the sixth hour, our twelve o'clock; and then to the ninth bour, our three o'clock in the afternoon, they exercised and bathed


My ear, from whence I gather the event of the green cloth.
For if it should fail, sad and amazed would you see
This city, as when the consuls were conquered in the dust
Of Cannæ. Let youths behold, whom clamour, and a bold
Wager becomes, and to sit by a neat girl.
Let our contracted skin drink the vernal sun,
And avoid the gown : even now to the baths, with a safe
Countenance you may go, tho' a whole hour should remain
To the sixth. You could not do this for five days
Successively : for the fatigues of such a life also


themselves, and then went to their meals : but to do these sooner than the appointed hours was allowed only on festival days, or to persons aged and infirm ; otherwise, to be seen going to the baths before the usual appointed hour was reckoned scandalous. See sat. i. 1. 49, and note.

206. You could not, &c.] i. c. Frequent feasts, and indulge in idleness ; however these may be occasionally pleasant, a continuance of them for a week together would grow irksome.

207. Such a life.] Of case and voluptuousness.

208. Rarer use, &c.] The poet concludes with a general sentie ment, very applicable to all pleasures of sense, which, by continual use, pall and grow tiresome :

For frequent use would the delight'exclude,

Pleasure's a toil when constantly pursued. CONGREVE. Shakespeare, 2nd part of Hen. IV. act i. scene ii. has finely expressed the like sentiment :

If all the year were playing holidays,
To sport would be as tedious as 'to work;
But when they "seldoin come, they wish'd-for come.


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ARGUMENT. The Poet having invited Corvinus to assist at a sacrifice, which he

intended to offer up, by way of thanksgiving for the safety of his friend Catullus from the danger of the seas, professes his disinter

ATALI, Corvine, die mihi dulcior hæc lux,
Quâ festus promissa Deis animalia cespes
Expectat : niveam Reginæ cædimus agnam:
Par vellus dabitur pugnanti Gorgone Maurâ.
Sed procul extensum petulans quatit hostia funem,
Tarpeio servata Jovi, frontemque coruscat :
Quippe ferox vitulus, templis maturis et aræ,
Spargendusque mero ; quem jam pudet ubera matris

Par procul extensjovi, frontenis Maturis et ubera m

Line 1. This day. On which I am going to offer sacrifices, on account of my friend Catullus, the merchant's, escape from the dan. gers of the sea.

--- Corvinus.] Juvenal's friend, to whom this Satire is addressed.

- Birth-day.] Which was a day of great festivity among the Romans; they celebrated it yearly, offering thanksgiving offerings to the gods, and made feasts, to which they invited their friends, who made them presents on the occasion. See sat. xi. I. 84, note. See Hor. ode xi. lib. iv. l. 1--20. Virg. ecl. iii. l. 76.

2. Festal turf.] The altar of green turf, which our poet had built on the occasion, thus suiting his devotion to his circumstances. Comp. Hor. lib. iii. od. viii. l. 2-4.

The animals promised.] i. e. To be offered in sacrifice to the gods.

3. Queen.] Juno, the queen of the gods. See Æn. i. 1. 50. The fabled wife of Jupiter, the supreme deity of the Romans.

- A snowy lamb.] They offered white animals to the superior gods, black to the inferior. See Hor. lib. i. sat. viii. 1. 27; and Virgil, Æn. iv. l. 61.

4. Equal fleece.] A like fleece-i.e. a white one; or fleece, here, may, by synec. be put for the whole animal offered--a like offering.

Minerva.] Lit. the fighter with the Moorish gorgon. The gorgons were supposed to be three, who inhabited near mount At.


ARGUMENT. estedness on the occasion, and, from thence, takes an opportunity to lash the Hæridepetæ, or Legacy-hunters, who flattered, and paid their court to rich men, in hopes of becoming their heirs.

I HIS day, Corvinus, is sweeter to me than my birth-day,
In which the festal turf expects the animals promised
To the gods: we kill to the queen a snowy lamb:
An equal fleece shall be given to Minerva.
But the petulant victim shakes his long extended rope,
Kept for Tarpeian Jove, and brandishes his forehead:
For it is a stout calf, ripe for the temples and altar,
And to be sprinkled with wine; which is now ashamed to draw


las, in Mauritania. Medusa is said to have been beloved by Nep. tune, who lay with her in the temple of Minerva, at which the goda dess, being angry, changed the hair of Medusa into serpents, and so ordered it, that whoever beheld her should be turned into stone. She was killed by Perseus, the son of Jupiter and Danae, (with the help of Minerva,) as she lay asleep, who cut off her head; this was afterwards placed in the ægis, or shield, of Minerva.

Hyginus says, that Medusa was not slain by Perseus, but by Mi. nerva. Britannic. in loc.

Sometimes the head of Medusa was supposed to be worn in the breast-plate of Minerva. See Æn. viii. l. 435-8.

5. Petulant victim, &c.] The wantonness and friskines3 of the calf leading along in a rope, is here very naturally described.

6. Tarpeian Jove.] On the mons Capitolinus, otherwise called the Tarpeian hill, from the vestal virgin Tarpeia, who betrayed it to the Sabines, Jupiter had a temple, whence his titles-Tarpeian and Capitoline.

7. Ripe, &c.] The beasts were reckoned of a proper age and size for sacrifice, when the tail reached the hough, or joint, in the hinder leg.

8. Sprinkled, &c.] They used to pour wine on the heads of the sacrifices, between the horns. So VIRG. Æn. iv. 1. 60, l.

Ipsa tenens dextrâ parteam pulcherrima Dido,

Candentis vaccæ media inter cornua fundit.
Hence the Greek epigram on the vine and the goat..

Ducere, qui vexat nascenti robora cornu.
Si res ampla domi, similisque affectibus esset,
Pinguior Hispullâ traheretur taurus, et ipsâ
Mole piger, nec finitimâ nutritus in herbâ,
Læta sed ostendens Clitumni pascua sanguis
Iret, et a grandi cervix ferienda ministro,
Ob reditum trepidantis adhuc, horrendaque passi
Nuper, et incolumem sese mirantis amici.
Nam præter pelagi casus, et fulguris ictum
Evasi, densæ cælum abscondêre tenebræ
Nube unâ, şubitusque antennas impulit ignis;
Cum se quisque illo, percussum crederet, et mox
Attonitus nullum conferri posse putaret
Naufragium velis ardentibus. Omnia fiunt
Talia, tam graviter, si quando poëtica surgit
Tempestas. Genus ecce aliud discriminis: audi,

Κ’ην με φαγης, επι ριξαν όμως επι καρποφορησω

Ocean gia diet go, Text, Soosa. ANTHOL. ep. i, " Though thou eatest me down to the very root, yet I shall bear fruit “ Sufficient to pour on thee, O goat, when thou art sacrificed.

8. Is now ashamed, &c.] Hath left off sucking—is grown above it. . 9. Teazes, &c.] It is usual for the young of all horned animals to butt agaiost trees, as if practising for future fight sometimes we see them in sport engaging one another.

10. If my fortune, &c.] The poet, throughout the above account of his sacrifices, as well as of the altar on which they were to be of. fered, shews his prudence and frugality, as well as his friendship for his preserved friend Catullus. He professes to shew his affection, not as he would, but as his fortune could afford it. Instead, therefore, of a white bull to Jupiter, and white cows to Juno and Mi. nerva, he offers a white ewe-lamb to Juno, the same to Minerva, and a calf to Jupiter. 1l. A bull.] The usual sacrifice to Jupiter was a white bull.

Fatter than Hispulla.] A fat, sensual lady, noted as infa. mous for keeping a player. Sat. vi. 1. 74.

Drawn.] Dragged by ropes, fixed to the horns, to the altar, 11-12. With its very bulļe slow.] So faç that he could hardly stir.

12. In a neighbouring pasture. Not bred or fatted in the neighbourbood of Rome.

18. His blood shewing, &c.] By the colour and richness, as well as quantity of it.

Clifumnus.] A river dividing Tuscany and Umbria, whose water, says Pliny, makes the cows, that drink of it, bring white calves :--- whence the Romans, as Virgil and Claudian observe, were plentifully furnished with white sacrifices for Jupiter Capitolinus See Virg. Georg. lib. ii. 146--8.

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