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Who are childless, begin to perceive heat, every porch
Is clothed with tablets fixed according to law.

There exist who would promise an hetacomb.
Forasmuch as there are no elephants to be sold, neither here
Nor in Latium ; nor any where in our climate is such
A beast conceived, but, fetched from a dusky nation,
Is fed in the Rutulian woods, and in the field of Turnus, 105
The herd of Cæsar, procured to serve no private
Man : the ancestors of these, indeed, used to obey Tyrian
Hannibal, and our generals, and the Molossian king,
And to carry cohorts on their back,
Some part of the war, and a tower going to battles. 110
Therefore there is no delay by Novius, no delay by
Ister Pacuvius, but that that ivory should be led to the altars,
And fall a sacred victim before the Lares of Gallita,

107, 8. Tyrian Hannibal.] Who got that elephants are not offered, but them from India,with persons to manage because they can't get them. If these and train them up. Hannibal is called legacy-hunters could procure elephants Tyrian, because Dido, who built Car to sacrifice for the recovery of the people thage, came from Tyre : for this reason whom they have a design upon, they Virgil calls Carthage, Tyriam urbem. would not hesitate a moment about The Carthaginians, Tyrii. In the second doing it. Punic war, when he came over the Alps 112. Ivory.] Elephants, per meton. into Italy, he brought elephants with Here elephants are called ivory, froni him. See sat. x. I. 157, note.

their large teeth of ivory. Georg. iii. 108. Our generals.) Who took vast 26. Æn. vi. 895. Virgil, on the connumbers of them. Metellus had two trary, calls ivory, elephant, by synec. hundred and four elephants which fol 113. Before the Lares of Gallita.] In lowed his triumph after the defeat of order to procure their assistance and faAsdrubal the Carthaginian general. vour towards him, that they may recover Scipio, the father in law of Pompey, had him from his sickness. also elephants in his army in Africa. The word Lares, in the largest sense, Appian says, thirty.

denotes certain demons, genii, or spirits, 108. Molossian king.) Pyrrhus, king of believed to preside on various occasions, the Molossians, first used elephants in distinguished by their epithets. As, Italy, when he came to help the Taren- Lares cælestes, some of the Dii majorum tines against the Romans,

gentium; Larcs marini, as Neptune, 109. Cohorts.] A cohort was a tenth Palæmon, Thetis, &c.; Lares urbium, part of a legion ; several of these were who were guardians of cities. The Lares in towers on the backs of elephants, and also were public, as compitales, or viales, made part of the warlike force-partem which were worshipped in the highways; belli.

or private, as the Lares domestici, or 110. A tower, &c.] Towers, made of familiares, household or family deities, wood, and filled with armed men, were household gods, the protectors of the put on the backs of elephants, and thus house and family. These last are usually carried into battle, where, partly by the intended by the word Lares, when used trampling of elephants, parily by the ar- singly. See l. 89, note. See Ainsw. rows, javelins, and other missile wea Lar. pons, discharged from the towers, great The notæ selectæ on this line suppose havoc was made.

this Gallita to have been some rich 111. Therefore —no delay, &c.] There- childless matron, whom Tacitus calls fore it is not the fault of Novius, &c. Cruspelina. Others believe it to be a


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Tantis digna Deis, et captatoribus horum.
Alter enim, si concedas mactare, vovebit
De grege servorum magna, aut pulcherrima quæque
Corpora ; vel pueris, et frontibus ancillarum
Imponet vittas : et, si qua est nubilis illi
Iphigenia domi, dabit hanc altaribus, etsi
Non speret tragicæ furtiva piacula cervæ,
Laudo meum civem, nec comparo testamento
Mille rates : nam si Libitinam evaserit æger,
Delebit tabulas, inclusus carcere nassæ,
Post meritum sane mirandum ; atque omnia soli
Forsan Pacuvio breviter dabit. Ille superbus
Incedet victis rivalibus. Ergo vides, quam
Grande operæ pretium faciat jugulata Mycenis.
Vivat Pacuvius, quæso, vel Nestora totum :


rich old man of that name. It matters both of the priests and of the victims, not to the subjeot which is right. See 118, 19. Marriageable Iphigenia.] Any Juv. edit. 410. 1695.

daughter in the prime of youth and 114. Worthy, &c.] The poet ironically beauty. Matura virgo-Hor. lib. iii. styles these elephants worthy victims od. vi. I. 22. Comp. Hor. lib. i. od. for such important deities as the Lares, xxiii. 1. 11, 12. who presided over the safety of such This alludes to the story of Agamemmen, and worthy to express the huge non sacrificing his daughter Iphigenia, friendship which the offerers bore them. in order to procure a favourable wind Or, perhaps, by the word tantis, we may for the departure of the Grecian fleet understand an humourous contrast, be- from Aul wher rough the anger of tween the hugeness of the animal of the goddess Diana, it had been windfered, and the littleness of the figures of bound for a considerable time, because the Lares before which they were of the Greeks had called an hind belonging fered; for the images of these were very to the goddess. small. See l. 87, note. Captatores The oracle was consulted, and the anwere people who fattered rich men, in swer was returned, that no wind could hopes of being their heirs, legacy-hun- be had for their purpose,unless Agamemters. See sat. x. l. 202, note; and see non, the chief in ihe expedition, would Hor. lib. ii. sat, v. 1, 23, &c.

offer up his daughter Iphigenia to ap115. The one.) Pacuvius. Alter, where pease the anger of Diana. Agamemnon, two have been mentioned, means one of for the public good, brought his daughter them. That Pacuvius is here meant, to the altar, but the goddess, relenting, appears froin what follows, 1. 125–8. conveyed her away, and put an hind in

-If you allow, &c.] If he could have his own will, and could be permitted to 119. Give her, &c.] Offer her up as a do such a thing.

sacrifice. - Vow.] i. c. Devote to death.

120. Furtire expiation.] Alliding to 116. Flock of servants, &c.] He would Diana's stealing away Iphigenia, and pick out, from the number of his slaves, substituting the hind in her place." the stoutest of the men, or every one - Tragic hind.) Which had become a (quæque) of the most beautiful of either subject for the tragic writers, as Sophosex, to sacrifice.

cles, Euripides, and others. 117. His boys, &c.] He would even Pacuvius would consent to offer his sacrifice those who were the instruments daughter, though he were certain that of his abominable pleasures,

nothing of this sort would happen to 118. Put fillets.] The vittæ ver rib save her, bands, or garlands, put on the foreheads 121. I praise my citizen.) I highly

her place.

Worthy of deities so great, and of the flatterers of these men. For the one, if you allow him to slay, will vow

From his flock of servants, the great, or all the most beautiful
Bodies; or on his boys, and on the foreheads of his maids
Would put fillets : and if he has any marriageable
Iphigenia at home, he will give her to the altars, although
He may not expect the furtive expiation of the tragic hind. 120
I praise my citizen, nor do I compare with a last will

A thousand ships : for if the sick man should escape Libitina,
He'll cancel his will, inclosed in the prison of a net,
After desert truly wonderful: and every thing, perhaps,
Will give shortly to Pacuvius alone. He proud will 125
Strut, his rivals overcome. Therefore you see, how
Great a reward of service she slaughter'd at Mycenæ may

Let Pacuvius live, I beg, even all Nestor.

commend my fellow-citizen Pacuvius fairly hampered int he net which Pacufor his wisdom and address.

vius had laid for him thoroughly taken -Nor do I compare, &c.] To be sure in, as we say. the safety of a thousand ships, which 124. Desert truly wonderful.] On accould bring no peculiar and immediate count of such wonderful merit towards profit to Agamemnon, and only answer him, as Pacuvius had shewn, in Javisha public purpose, is not to be compared ing such sacrifices for his recovery. with the last will and testament of a 125. Will give shortly, &c.] Having rich man, by which Pacuvius was to be cancelled his will, and erased all the le. come so richly benefited as to possess his gacies which he had left in it lo other whole estate. Pacuvius therefore is cer- people, he now in a few words (breviter) tainly more justifiable than Agamemnon, makes Pacuvius his sole heir. in being willing to sacrifice his daughter. 125, 6. Will strut, &c.] Incedo someA strong irony !

times means to walk or go in state. (Di122. Escape Libitina.] i e. Should vùm incedo regina, says the haughty recover from his sickness. Libitina was Juno, Æn. i. 1. 50.) The poet here a name given to Proserpine, as presiding means, that this fellow will take state over funerals; in her temple at Rome upon him, and strut with an insolence all things pertaining to funerals were in his look and gait, triumphing over all sold, and the undertakers were called those who had been his competitors for Libitinarii ; hence, Libitina sometimes Gallita's favour. signifies death itself.

126. Therefore you see, &c.] q.d. You 123. Cancelhis will.] Lit. blot out theta see of what use the example of Agamembles. It has been before observed (sat. ii. non was to Pacuvius; for if that king 1. 58.) that the Romans wrote on thin of Mycenæ had not offered his daughter planks of wood, called tabulæ: these were to have her throat cut, Pacuvius had smeared over with wax, on which the never thought of sacrificing his daughter letters were made with the point of a sort for the recovery of the rich man who of bodkin, called stylus, which was flat made him heir to all his estate. at one end, in order to blot out, or erase, 128. Let Pacuvius live, &c.] Long live such of the writing as they meant to can Pacuvius ! say I; (iron.) for the longer cel or alter. See HoR. sat. x, lib. i. 1. 72. such a man lives, the more miserable

-Prison of a net.] Nassa signifies a must be be. net made of twigs, with a bait put into -All Nestor.] Even to Nestor's age. it, to catch fish.

See sat. x. 1. 246, 7, note. The rich man is here represented as

Possideat, quantum rapuit Nero: montibus aurum
Exæquet : nec amet quenquam, nec ametur ab ullo.


129. Nero plunderd.] Who, contrary are most incredible. He gave no office to all laws, human and divine, not only without this charge to the person who plundered the people, but even the tem- filled it, “ You know what I want ; let ples of the gods. The prodigious sums “us make it our business that nobody which he extorted from the provinces, by “ may have any thing." unreasonable laxes, confiscations, &c. -May gold, &c.] May heaps of ill-got

May he possess as much as Nero plunder'd—may gold equal Mountains; nor let him love any body, nor be loved by any body.


ten wealth be his torment, and make hini completely the poet's imprecatory climax a prey to others, as others have been to --for how thoroughly miserable must he him.

be, who lives and dies a total stranger to 130. Vor lct him love, &c.] This finishes the sweets of friendship.

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