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May not repent of your endeavour, and of your accomplished

wish ? The easy gods have overturned whole houses, themselves Wishing it. Things hurtful by the gown, hurtful by warfare, Are asked : a fluent copiousness of speech to many And their own eloquence is deadly.--He, to his strength 10 Trusting, and to his wonderful arms, perished. But money, heap'd together with too much care, destroys More, and an income exceeding all patrimonies, As much as a British whale is greater than dolphins. Therefore in direful times, and by the command of Nero, 15 A whole troop Longinus, and the large gardens of wealthy

Seneca, Surrounded, and besieged the stately buildings of the Late

raniThe soldier seldom comes into a garret. Tho' you should carry a few small vessels of pure silver, 19 Going on a journey by night, you will fear the sword and the pole, And tremble at the shadow of a reed moved, by moon-light. AN EMPTY TRAVELLEK WILL SING BEFORE A ROBBER. Commonly the first things prayed for, and most known at

all temples,

16. Seneca, &c.] Tutor to Nero-sup- not so rich as to become an object of the posed to be one in Piso's conspiracy, but emperor's avarice and cruelty, yet you put to death for his great riches. Sylva- can't travel by night, with the paltry nus the tribune, by order of Nero, sur charge of a little silver plate, without rounded Seneca's magni'cent villa, near fear of your life from robbers, who may Rome, with a troop of soldiers, and then either stab you with a sword, or knock sent in a centurion to acquaint him with you down with a bludgeon, in order to the emperor's orders, that he should put rob you. himself to death. On the receipt of this, 20. Pyle.] Contus signifies a long pole he opened the veins of his arms and legs, or staff—also a weapon, wherewith they then was put into a hot bath: but this used to fight beasts upon the stage. It not finishing him, he drank poison. is probable that the robbers about Rome 17. Surrounded.] Besel-encompassed. armed themselves with these, as ours,

-Laterani.] Plautius Lateranus about London, arm themselves with had a sumptuous palace, in which he large sticks or bludgeons. was beset by order of Nero, and killed 21. Tremble, &c.] They are alarmed so suddenly, by Thurius the tribune, at the least appearance of any thing that he had not a moment's time allowed moving near them, even the trembling him to take leave of his children and and nodding of a bulrush, when its shafamily. He had been designed consul. dow appears by moonlight.

18. The soldier, &c.] Cænaculum signi 22. Empty traveller, &c.] Having nofies a place to sup in-an upper cham- thing to lose, he has nothing to fear, and ber- also a garret, a cockloft in the top therefore has nothing to interrupt his of the house, commonly let to poor peo- jollity as he travels along, though in the ple, the inhabitants of which were too presence of a robber. poor to run any risk of the emperor's 23. Temples, &c.] Where people go sending soldiers to murder them for to make prayers to the gods, and to imwhat they have.

plore the fulfilment of their desires and 19. Tho' you should cari y, &c.] Though wishes.



Divitiæ ut crescant, ut opes ; ut maxima toto
Nostra sit arca foro : sed nulla aconita bibuntur
Fictilibus: tunc illa time, cum pocula sumes
Gemmata, et lato Setinum ardebit in auro.
Jamne igitur laudas, quod de sapientibus alter
Ridebat, quoties 'a limine moverat unum
Protuleratque pedem : flebat contrarius alter ?
Sed facilis cuivis rigidi censura cachinni :
Mirandum est, unde ille oculis suffecerit humor.
Perpetuo risu pulmonem agitare solebat
Democritus, quanquam non essent urbibus illis
Prætexta, et trabeæ, fasces, lectica, tribunal.
Quid, si vidisset Prætorem in curribus altis
Extantem, et medio sublimem in pulvere circi,
In tunicâ Jovis, et pictæ Sarrāna ferentem
Ex humeris aulæa togæ, magnæque coronæ
Tantum orbem, quanto cervix non sufficit ulla?
Quippe tenet sudans hanc publicus, et sibi Consul



25. The greatest, &c.] The forum, or these things, might indeed rea

reasonably market-place, at Rome, was the place fear being poisoned by somebody, in where much money-business was trans order to get their estates. acted, and where money-lenders and 28. Do you approve.] Laudas-praise borrowers met together; and he that or commend his conduct; for while these was richest, and had most to lend, was philosophers lived, many accounted sure to make the greatest sums by in them mad. terest on his money, and perhaps was -One of the wise men, &c.] Meanmost respected. Hence the poet may ing Democritus of Abdera, who always be understood to mean, that it was the laughed, because he believed our actions chief wish of most people to be richer to be folly: whereas Heraclitus of Ephethan others.--Or, he niay here allude to sus, the other of the wise men here the chests of money belonging to the se alluded to, always wept, because he nators, and other rich men, which were thought them to be misery. laid lip for safety in some of the build 29. As oftas, &c.] Whenever he went ings about the forum, as the temple of out of his house-as oft as he stepped Castor, and others. Comp. sal. xiv. I. over his threshold. 258, 9.

30. The other.] Heraclitus. See note -No poisons, &c.] The poorer sort on line 28. of people inight drink out of their coarse 31. The cousure, &c.] It is easy enough cups of earthen ware, without any fear to find matter for severe laughter. Riof being poisoned for what they had. gidi here,as an epithet to laughter, seems 26. Them.) Poisons.

to denote that sort of censorious sneer 27. Set with gems.] See sat. v. 1. 37– which condemns and censures, at the 45. This was a mark of great riches. same time that it derides the follies of

-Setine wine.] So called from Se- mankind. tia, a city of Campania. It was a most 32. The wonder is, &c.] How Heraclidelicious wine, preferred by Augustus, tus could find tears enough to expressbis and the succeeding emperors, to all grief at human wretchedness, guilt, and other. Glows with a fine red colour, woe, the occasions of it are so frequent. and sparkles in the cup.

34. In those cities.) As there is at -Wide gold.] Large golden cups. Rome.The poet here satirizes the ridiThose who were rich enough to afford culous appendages and ensigns of office,

A litre
the centro hlon R




Are, that riches may increase, and wealth; that our chest may be
The greatest in the whole forum: but no poisons are drunk
From earthen ware: then fear them, when


cups 26
Set with gems, and Setine wine shall sparkle in wide gold.
Nor therefore do you approve, that one of the wise men
Laugh’d, as oft as from the threshold he had moved, and
Brought forward one foot; the other contrary, wept ? 30
But the censure of a severe laugh is easy to any one,
The wonder is whence that moisture could suffice for his

With perpetual laughter, Democritus used to agitate
His lungs, tho' there were not, in those cities,
Senatorial gowns, robes, rods, a litter, a tribunal.

What, if he had seen the prætor, in high chariots
Standing forth, and sublime in the midst of the dust of the circus,
In the coat of Jove, and bearing from his shoulders the Tyrian
Tapestry of an embroider'd gown, and of a great crown
So large an orb, as no neck is sufficient for?

40 For a sweating officer holds this, and lest the consul should

which were so coveted and esteemed by ribus, we may understand that he had
the Romans, as if they could convey several for different occasions.
happiness to the wearers.—He would 37. Dust of the circus.] He stood, by
also insinuate, that these things were the height and sublimity of his situation,
made ridiculous by the conduct of the fully exposed to the dust, which the
possessors of them.

chariots and horses of the racers raised. 35. Senatorial gowns.] Prætexta--s0 38. Coat of Jove.] In å triumphal bacalled because they were faced and bor- bit; for those who triumphed wore a dered with purple-worn by the patri- tunic, or garment, which, at other times, cians and senators.

was kept in the temple of Jupiter. - Robes,] Trabea-robes worn by 38,9. The Tyrian tapestry, &c.] Sarra, kings, consuls, and augurs.

(from Heb. 73,) a name of Tyre, where - Rods.) Fasces--bundles of birch- hangings and tapestrywere made, as also en rods carried before the Roman magi- where the fish was caught, from whence strates, with an axe bound up in the

the purple was taken with which they middle of them, so as to appear at the were dyed. This must be a very heavy top. These were ensigns of their official material for a gown, especially as it was power to punish crimes, either by scourg- also embroidered with divers colours; ing or death.

and such a garment must be very cum-A liller.)

Lectica.See sat. i. bersome to the wearer, as it hung from 32, note.'

his shoulders. - Tribunal.) A seat in the forum, 40. So large an orb, &c.] Add to this, built by Romulus, in the form of an half

a great heavy crown, the circumference moon, where the judges sat, who had of which was so large and thick, that no jurisdiction over the highest offences: neck could be strong enough to avoid at the upper part was placed the sella bending under it. curulis, in which the prætor sat.

41. A sweating officer.) Publicus signi36. The prælor, &c.] He describes and fies some official servant, in some public derides the figure which the prætor made, office about the prætor on these occawhen presiding at the Circensian games. sions, who sat by him in the chariot, in

In high charits.] In a triumphal order to assist in bearing up the crown, car, which was gilt, and drawn by four the weight of which made him sweat white horses--perhaps, by the plur. cur with holding it op.


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Ne placeat, curru servus portatur eodem.
Da nunc et volucrem, sceptro quæ surgit eburno,
Illinc cornicines, hinc præcedentia longi
Agminis officia, et niveos ad fræna Quirites,
Defossa in loculis quos sportula fecit amicos.
Tunc quoque materiam risûs invenit ad omnes
Occursus hominum ; cujus prudentia monstrat,
Summos posse viros, et magna exempla daturos,
Vervecum in patriâ, crassoque sub aëre nasci.
Ridebat curas, necnon et gaudia vulgi,
Interdum et lachrymas; cum fortunæ ipse minaci
Mandaret laqueum, mediumque ostenderet unguem.
Ergo supervacua hæc aut perniciosa petuntur,
Propter quæ fas est genua incerare Deorum.

Quosdam præcipitat subjecta potentia magnæ
Invidiæ; mergit longa atque insignis honorum



41. Lest the consul, &c.] The ancients citizens,as was uzual at triumphs,dressed had an institution, that a slave should in white robes, walking by the side of ride in the same chariot when a consul the horses, and holding the bridles. triumphed, and should adınonish him to 46. The sportula.] The dole-basket. know himself, lest he should be too vain. See sat. i. 1. 95.

This was done with regard to the præ -Buried in his coffers.] The mean. tor at the Circensian games, who, as we ing of this passage seems to be, that bave seen above, appeared like a victo. these citizens appeared, and gave their rious consul, with the habit and equipage attendance, not from any real value for of triumph-Juvenal seems to use the him, but for what they could get. word consul, here, on that account. He is supposed to have great wealth

43. Add the bird, &c.] Among other hidden, or buried, in his coffers, which ensigns of triumph, the prætor, on the this piece of attention was calculated to above occasion, held an ivory rod, or fetch out, in charity to his poor fellowsceptre, in his hand, with the figure of citizens that attended him on this occaan eagle, with wings expanded, as if sion —4. d. All this formed a scene rising for flight, on the top of it.

which would have made Democritus 44. The trumpeters.] Or blowers of shake his sides with laughing. Comp. the horn, or cornet. These, with the l. 3. 34. tubicines, which latter seem included 47. Then also he.] Democritus in his here under the general name of corni- time. cines, always attended the camp, and, 47, 8. At all mcetings of men.] Every on the return of the conqueror, preceded time he met people as he walked about the triumphal chariot, sounding their in -or, in every company he met with. struments.

18. Whose prudence. ] Wisdom, disThe preceding offices, &c.] Of. cernment of right and wrong. ficium signifies sometimes a solemn at. 50. Of blockheads.] Vervex literally tendance on some public occasion, as on signifies a wether-sheep, but was proinarriages, funerals, triumphs, &c. (see verbially used for a stupid person : as sat. ii. 1. 132.) Here it denotes, that we use the word sheepish, and sheepishthe prætor was attended, on this occa ness, in something like the same sense, sion, by a long train of his friends and to denote an aukward, stupid shyness. dependents, who came to grace the so The poet therefore means, a country lemnity, by marchiog in procession be of stupid fellows. Plaut. Pers. act ii. fore his chariot.

has, Ain' vero vervecum caput ? 45. Snowy citizens, &c.] Many of the 50. Thick air. ] Democritus was born

Please himself, a slave is carried in the same chariot.
Now add the bird which rises on the ivory sceptre,
There the trumpeters, here the preceding offices of a long
Train, and the snowy citizens at his bridles,

Whom the sportula, buried in his coffers, has made his friends.
Then also he found matter of laughter at all
Meetings of men ; whose prudence shews,
That great men, and those about to give great examples,
May be born in the country of blockheads, and under thick air.
He derided the cares, and also the joys of the vulgar, 51
And sometimes their tears; when himself could present a halter
To threat'ning fortune, and shew his middle nail.
Therefore, these (are) unprofitable, or pernicious things, (which)

are ask'd, For which it is lawful to cover with wax the knees of the gods. Power, subject to great envy, precipitates some,

56 A long and famous catalogue of honours overwhelms,

same manner.

at Abdera, a cily of Thrace, where the tition the gods for, that they are superair, which was foggy and thick, was sup- fuous and unnecessary. It likewisc posed to make the inhabitants dull and follows, that they are injurious, because stupid.

they expose people to the fears and danSo Horace, speaking of Alexander the gers of adverse fortune; whereas De. Great, as a critic of little or no discern- mocritus, who had them not, could set ment in literature, says, Bæotum in cras the frowns of fortune at defiance, posso jurares aere natum. Epist. i. lib. ii. sessing a mir which carried him above 1. 244. By which, as by many other worldly cares or fears. testimonies, we find that the inhabitants 55. Lawful.] Fas signifies that which of Bæotia were stigmatized also in the is pernitted, therefore lawful to do.

Hence Bæoticum inge -To cover with wax, &c.] It was the nium was a phrase for dulness and stu manner of the ancients, when they made pidity.

their vows to the gods, to write them on 52. Present a halter, &c.] Mandare paper, (or waxen tables,) seal them up, laqueum alicui, was a phrase made use and, with wax, fasten them to the knees of to signify the utmost contempt and of the images of the gods, or to the indifference, like sending a halter to a thighs, that being supposed the seat of person, as if to hid him hang himself. mercy. When their desires were grant. Democritus is here represented in this ed, they took away the paper, tore it, light as continually laughing at the cares and offered to the gods what they had and joys of the general herd, and as promised. See sat. ix. 1. 139. The gods himself treating with scorn the frowns permit us to ask, but the consequences of of adverse fortune.

having our petitions answered are often 53. His middle nail.] i. e. His middle fatal. Comp. 1. 7, 8. finger, and point at her in derision. To 56. Precipitates some.) viz. Into ruin hold out the middle finger, the rest being and destruction. contracted, and bent downwards, was an 57. Catalogue, &c.] Pagina, in its proact of great contempt; like pointing at per and literal sense, signifies a page of a person among us. This mark of con a book, but here alludes to a plate, or tempt is very ancient. See Is. lviii. 9. table of brass, fixed before the statues of

54. Therefore, &c.] It follows, there- eminent persons, and containing all the fore, from the example of Democritus, titles and honours of him whose statue it who was happy without the things which people so anxiously seek after, and pe -Overwhelms.) With ruin, by ex




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