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Iron : for the wickedness of which, nature itself has not
not 34 What a laugh your simplicity may stir up in the vulgar, when You require from any not to forswear, and that he should
think, that to any
when a knaye has other people's money means the Golden Age, (comp. sat. vi. in his power?
1. 1, et seq. where Juvenal speaks of the 35. What a laugh, &c.] How the whole simplicity of those times,) which the town will laugh at your simplicity. poets place during the reign of Salurn.
35, 6. When you require, &c.] q. d. If -Rustic sickle.] Or scythe, which Sayou expect that people won't forswear turn is said to have invented, and to themselves, when perjury is so common. have taught the people husbandry, after
36. Should think.] i. e. And require his expulsion from his kingdom; for that they should think, &c.
during the Golden Age, the earth brought 37. Some deity, &c.] Should believe forth every thing without culture. See that religion is not all a farce, but that OviD, Met. lib. i. fab. iii. really there is not any of the temples -His diadem, &c.] His kingdom being without some deity which notices the seized by his son Jupiter-and he being actions and behaviour of men, so as to driven out of it, punish perjury and breach of faith. 40. When Juno, &c.] The daughter of
- The reddening altar.) i. 6. Red with Saturn, sister and wife to Jupiter--a little the blood of the sacrifices, or with the girl-i. e. before she was grown up, and fire upon it.
marriageable. In sat. vi. 1. 15, he speaks 9. d. How childish would you appear, of Jupiter in a state of impuberty, in the and what a laughter would be raised time of the Golden Age. against you, if you professed to expect 41. Idwan caves.] Jupiter, when born, either religion or morals in the present was carried to mount Ida, in Crete,
where he was concealed, and bred up, 38. Natives.] Indigenæ. The first na lest his father Saturn should devour him. tives and inhabitants of Italy, our home. See Ainsw. Saturnus. bred ancestors.
42. No feasts, &c.] No carousing, as -Lived in this manner.) Avoiding per- in after times there was supposed to be. jury and fraud, and believing the pre- Comp. 1. 45. sence of the gods in their temples, and 43. Iliacan boy.] Ganymede, the son at their altars.
of Tros, king of Troy, or Ilium, whom 39. Saturn flying.] Saturn was expelJupiter, in the form of an eagle, snatched led from Crete by his son Jupiter, and up from mount Ida, and, displacing fed into Italy, where he hid himself, Hebe, made cup-bearer at the feasts of which from thence was called Latium, a
the gods. Jatendo, and the people Latins. See -Wife of Hercules.] Hebe, the daughVIRG. Æn. viii. l. 319, 20. The poet ter of Juno, and cup-bearer to Jupiter;
Ad cyathos: et jam siccato nectare, tergens
she happened to make a slip at a ban the wickedness of the times; they had a quet of the gods, so was turned out of god for every vice, both natural and unher place, and Ganymede put into it : natural. The awful origin of all this, she was afterwards married to Hercules. as well as its consequences, is set down
44. The nectar, &c.] Nectar, a pleasant by St. Paul, Rom. i. ver. 21-32. liquor, feigned to be the drink of the - The stars.] The heavens, per megods. Siccato nectar, the nectar being tonym. all drunk up, the feast now over, (see 48. Urged miscrable Allas.] A high hill sat. v. 1. 47, siccadis calicem,) Vulcan in Mauritania, feigned by the poets to retired to his forge. All this happened bear up the heavens. See sat. viii. 32, after the Golden Age, but not during note. the continuance of it.
49, Shared the same empire, &c.] The 45. Wiping his arms.] From the soot world as yet was not divided by lot and dirt contracted in his filthy shop. among the three sons of Saturn, by
-Liparwan.] Near Sicily were several which Neptune shared the dominion of islands, called the Lipary Islands; in the sea-Jupiter heaven-and Pluto the one of which, called Vulcania, Vulcan's infernal regions. forge was fabled to be. See VIRG. viii. 50. His Sicilian wife.] Proserpine, the 416, et seq.
This was in the neigh- daughter of Ceres, whom Pluto ravished bourhood of mount Ætna. See sat, i. out of Sicily, and made her his wife. 1. 8.
51. A wheel.] Alluding to the story 46. Every god dined by himself.] The of Ixion, the father of the Centaurs; poet here, and in the whole of this pas. Jupiter took him up into heaven, where sage, seems to make very free with the he would have ravished Juno, but Jupitheology of his country, and, indeed, to ter formed a cloud in her shape, on satirize the gods of Rome as freely as he which he begat the Centaurs. He was does the people.
cast down to Hell, for boasting that he -Crowd of gods.] The number of gods had lain with Juno, where he was tied to which the Romans worshipped might a wheel, and surrounded with serpents. well be called turba deorum, for they -Furies.] Of which there were three, amounted to above thirty thousand. Alecto, Megæra, Tisiphone. These were
47. This day.) The Roman polytheism sisters, the daughters of Acheron and and idolatry went hand in hand with Nox; they are described with torches
45 Every god dined by himself, nor was the crowd of gods Such, (as it is at this day,) and the stars content with a few Deities, urged miserable Atlas with a less Weight. Nobody as yet shared the sad empire Of the deep, or fierce Pluto with his Sicilian wife.
50 Nor a wheel, nor furies, nor a stone, or the punishment of the
black Vulture: but the shades happy without infernal kings. Improbity was in that age to be wonder'd at. They believed this a great crime, and to be punish'd by death, If a youth had not risen up to an old man, and if A boy to any who had a beard: tho' he might see At home more strawberries, and greater heaps of acorn. So venerable was it to precede by four years, And the first down was so equal to sacred old age. Now, if a friend should not deny a deposit,
60 If he should restore an old purse with all the rust;
in their hands, and snakes, instead of same in the presence of a youth, now hair, on their heads,
arrived at the age of puberty, which was 51. A stone.] Alluding to Sisyphus, the indicated by having a beard. son of Æolus ; he greatly infested At 56. Tho' he might sec, &c.] Strawbertica with his robberies, but being slain by ries, acorns, and such-like, are here supTheseus, he was sent to hell, and con posed to be the first food of mankind in demned to roll a great stone up an hill, ihe Golden Age. The poet's meaning which stone, when he had got it to the here is, that superiority in age always top, rolled back again, so that his labour challenged the respect above mentioned, was to be constantly renewed.
from the younger to the elder, though 51, 2. Black vulture.) Prometheus the former might be richer, in the poswas chained to mount Caucasus for sessions of those days, than the latter, stealing fire from heaven, where a black 58. So venerable, &c.] So observant vulture was continually preying on his were they of the difference paid to age, liver, which grew as fast as it was de that even a difference of four years was voured.
to create respect, insomuch that the first 52. But the shades.] The ghosts of the appearance of down upon the chin was departed—were
10 be venerated by younger persons, as -Happy without inf nal kings.] For the venerablc beard of old age was by there being, at that time, no crimes, those grown to manhood ; so there was there wanted no laws nor kings to en an equal and proportionate subordination force them ; of course no punishments. throughout.
53. Improbity, &c.] Villainy of all 60. Now.) In our day. kinds was scarcely known; any crime -Should not deny.] Either deny that would have been a wonder.
he received it, or should not refuse to 55. If a youth, &c.] In those days of deliver it. purity and innocence, the highest subor -A deposil.] Something committed to dination was maintained. It was a ca his trust. pital crime for a young man even to have 61. With all the rust.] i. e. The coin, sitten down in the presence of an old which has lain by so long as to have conone, or if sitting, not to have risen up on tracted a rust, not having been used. his approach. Comp. Job xx 8. Meton. So for a boy not to have done the
Prodigiosa fides, et Thuscis digna libellis :
62. Prodigious faithfulness ! ] Such a heads of the victims. d she-lamb was thing would be looked upon, in these the offering on such an occasion. times, as a prodigy of honesty.
64. An excellent.] Egregium-ex toto A like sentiment occurs in TER. grege lectum-i. c. as we say, one taken Phorm. act i. sc. ii. where Davus returns out of the common herd of mankind10 Geta some inoney which he had bor. choice - singular for great and good quarowed,
lities. Dav. Acccpe, hem;
65. A boy of two parts.] A monstrous Lectum est,conveniet numerus; quantum birth, as prodigious as a child born with debui.
parts of two different species : hence the Get. Anno te, et non reglerisse habeo Centaurs were called bimembres. gratiam.
-Wonderful fishes, &c.] A wondrous Dav. Prescrtim ut nunc sunt mores: shoal of fish unexpectedly turned up in adeo res redit,
plowing the ground. Si quis quid reddit, magna habenda est 66. A mule with foal.] Which was gratia.
never known to happen. Though Ap62. Worthy the Tuscan books !] To be pian, lib. i. says, that before the coming recorded there among other prodigies. of Sylla, a mule brought forth in the It is said, that the art of soothsaying city. This must be looked on as fabufirst came from the Tuscans, which con lous. sisted in foretelling future events from 67. Anxious.] Solicitous for the event. prodigies; these were recorded in books, -As if a shower, &c.] Asif the clouds and were consulted on occasion of any rained showers of stones. thing happening of the marvellous kind, 68. A swarm, &c.] It was accounted as authorities for the determinations of ominous if a swarm of bees settled on an the auspices, or soothsayers, thereupon. house, or on a temple.
63. Expiated, &c.) When any prodigy -Long Innch.] Wben bees swarm happened, the custom of the Tuscans and settle any where, they all cling to was to make an expiation by sacrifice, in one another, and hang down, a consi. order to avert the consequences of ill derable length, in the form of a bunch omens, which were gathered from prodi- of grapes. Hence Virg. Georg. iv. gies. This the Romans followed. 557, 8. -A crowned she-lamb.] They put
-Jamque arbore summa garlands of flowers, or ribbands, on the Conflucre,et lentis uvam demittere ramis.
Prodigious faithfulness ! and worthy the Tuscan books !
76 A voice he denies it, what steadiness there is of feigned coun
tenance. By the rays of the sun, and the Tarpeian thunderbolts he
69. A river, &c.] All rivers run into Calvinus. the sea, and many with great violence ; 74. Which the corner, &c.] Another, therefore the poet cannot mean that there says hc, may have lost so large a sum of is any wonder in this; but in flowing money, as even to be greater than could with unusual and portentous appear- be easily contained in a large chest, ances, such as being mixed with blood, though stuffed at every corner, in which which Livy speaks of, lib. xxiv. c. 10. he had stowed it. or the like.
75. So easy and ready, &c.] So prone 70. Rushing.) Torrens-violent, head are men to despise the gods, who are long, running in full stream, like the witnesses to all their actions, that if they rushing of a land-flood, with dreadful can but hide them from the eyes of violence, eddying in whirlpools of milk. men, they make themselves quite easy When we consider what has been said under the commission of the greatest in the last seven lines, what an idea frauds. does it give us of the state of morals at 76. Behold with how great, &c.] This Rome in the time of Juvenal !
contempt of the gods is carried so far, 71. Ten sestertiums.) About 801. 14s. that men will not only defraud, but, 7d. of our money.
with a loud unfaltering voice, and the -Intercepted.] i. e. Prevented from most unembarrassed countenance, deny coming to your hands,
every thing that's laid to their charge; 72. What if another, &c.] The poet and this by the grossest perjury. endeavours to confort his friend under 77. Feigned countenance.] Putting on, his loss, and to keep him from indulging in his looks, a semblance of truth and too great a concern about it, by wishing honesty. him to consider that he is not so great a 78. By the rays of the sun.] This was sufferer as many others perhaps might an usual oath. See Æn. iii. 599, 600, be by a like fraud.
and note. Delph. edit. --Secret, &c.] Arcana-q. d. bis cen - Turpeiun thunderbolts.] i. c. The tum sestertia arcana-i. e. delivered or thunder of Jupiter, who had a temple of lent secretly, when no witnesses were by, the Tarpeian rock. See sat. vi. I. 47, as had been the case of Juvenal's friend note.