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Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1889,

BY DAVID H. CRUTTENDEN,
In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States, for the

Southern District of New York.

Re-Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1866,

BY DAVID H. CRUTTENDEN,
In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States, for tho

District of Michigan.

Re-Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1869,

BY DAVID H. CRUTTENDEN,
In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States, for the

Southern District of New York,

NOCREA & MILLER, STEREOTYPERS.

PREFAOE.

The Works, composing The AMERICAN Series y Text Books, are arranged according to the following Theory

In the first place, Knowledge is to be gained; in the second place, this Knowledge is to be made useful.

Now the order, in which knowledge is gained, is exactly the opposite of the order, in which it is used. Just as gaining is exactly the opposite of giving.

In gaining knowledge, we go from the art to the science; from the object concerning which we would learn, to what we would learn about that object. For instance; a new object is found-new being another name for the unknownwe observe it, and by so doing we learn all that we finally know about it. In short, knowledge is gained in the order of discovery.

You will see the order of its development in the comparison below, under the First Course.

To make knowledge useful we go from the science to the art. Something is to be done. We recall what we know about it; if that be insufficient, we ask aid from those who possess either more knowledge than we do; or, from those who know better how to apply their knowledge. A temple is to be built. He, who knows how to plan it, what materials should be used, how the parts should be shaped and how properly joined, is first employed. His is knowledge applied to artmauseful, or practical knowledge.

You will see the order of its development in the comparison below, under the Second Course.

The following comparison may assist in distinguish

Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1867, by D. H. Cruttenden, in the Clerk's Office

of the District Court of the United States, in and for the Southern District of New York.

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ing the Course, by which knowledge is to be gained, from the Course, by which knowledge is to be made useful.

COMPARISON.
First Course.

Second Conse.

1. This Course is in the order of 1. This is the Course, through discovery; through it knowledge is which knowledge is to be used, or to be gained, or acquired; hence, applied; hence, this should be call. it is called, The First or Primary ed, The Second or Secondary Course. Course.

2. The PRIMARY COURSE begins 2. The SECONDARY COURSE bewith objects; hence, it also is call- gins with the science or knowledge ed, The Objective Course.

of a subject; hence, it is called,

The Subjective Course. 3. This PRIMARY or OBJECTIVE 3. The SECONDARY or SCBJECTIVE COURSE begins with the parts, COURSE begins with our knowledge which it puts together, or " builds of a subject, taken as a whole; up;" hence, it is called “ the putting this it applies or uses in parts; together" or Synthetic Course. hence, it is called, the "taking

apart” or Analytic Course. 4. Knowledge contributes to the 4. Using knowledge gives growth or development of mind, strength and vigor to the mind, as food contributes to the growth as exercise gives strength and or development of the body. vigor to the body.

5. In gaining knowledge, the 5. In using knowledge, the acmind is influenced by the state of tivity of the mind is affected by the feelings; just as the body is the importance, which we attach to affected in its growth by the light that, which is to be gained; just as and air which surround it.

the greatest bodily powers are exerted when the end to be secured

is most earnestly desired. 6. In the Primary, Objective or 6. In the Subjective or Analytic Synthetic Course knowledge is Course, knowledge is used or applied gained in the following order; in the following order;

First. DOING OR ART. First. KNOWLEDGE, OR AB

STRACT SCIENCE. THINGS, material and immaterial. Nomenclature-names or terms, Anything from which we gain or abbreviations or contractions, sigus learn ideas, notions or perceptions. | or symbols.

SERIES OF TEXT BOOKS.

V.

Models, pictures, maps, charts, Truths-expressed in rules or in diagrams.

principles. Second. CONCRETE SCIENCE. Second. DOING OR ART.

Nomenclaturenames or terms, Suppositions or theory, diagrams, abbreviations or contractions, signs charts, maps, pictures, models, or symbols.

THINGS or OBJECTS. Truths-expressed in principles or in rules.

7. Knowledge, gained by the 7. Knowledge gained by the Primary, Objective or Synthetic Second, Subjective or Analytic Course is not power.

It is the Course is power. It is the superfoundation of power only. It is structure itself. It is the means contained in books—in libraries. by which mind fulfils its purposes. Human beings have it. It is It is active knowledge. He who passive knowledge. He who has can use what he knows for good it, and does not use it, is simply the ends, is the man of wisdom. man of knowledge.

By the Primary, Objective or By the Secondary, Subjective or Synthetic Course, we become men Analytic Course, we become men of of knowledge.

wisdom. “To one, he giveth knowledge by the “ To another, he giveth wisdom by the same spirit."

same spirit." Now, in order to enable the pupil to gain knowledge, and also to make it useful, the instructions in each lesson must be addressed to, and arouse every one of the mental faculties, and each in its natural order; FIRST, The Perceptives or Receptives—Sensation, Attention, Per

ception. SECOND, The RetentivesMemory, Suggestion, (?) Association. Third, The Inventives or Reflectives—Imagination, Reason, Judgment.

In the construction of every lesson in these Works, the above law has been as carefully observed as was possible.

The above general outline of the plan of “The American Series of Text Books," is all that our present space permits. Farther details may be found in The Philosophy of Language," Book Sixth.

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It is the intention of the Publishers and of the Author to present to the public complete setts of Text Books on the different studies, arranged on the above plan, to be called The American Series of Text Books," because the plan was originated in America.

The first of this series issued, will be the Works heretofore known as “Cruttenden's Series of Arithmetics," consisting of

The Young Pupil's Arithmetic. No. I (First Course.) The Objective or Synthetic Arithmetic. No. II. (Second Course.) The Subjective or Analytic Arithmetic. No. III. And also the Works on Language, by the same Author, consisting of The Rhetorical Grammar. Part I. The Philosophy of Language. Part II.

These works will be carefully revised and improved, and will be re-stereotyped. They will contain the best and latest improvements in these Sciences.

The first Primary or Objective Arithmetic, arranged according to the above plan, was “The New Primary

, Arithmetic," of which Prof. D. II. Cruttenden is the author. It was first published in 1849, and enlarged in 1852. Our present No. II., is that of 1852 revised and enlarged by its author. A Teacher's Copy is published containing Directions for teaching Arithmetic objectively.

The first purely Subjective or Analytic Arithmetic, arranged according to the above plan, was “The Systematic Arithmetic,” published by its author, in 1845, and revised and enlarged in 1850. Our present Subjective or Analytic Arithmetic is that of 1850, again revised, enlarged and improved by its author, aided by the suggestions of experienced and eminent teachers.

The Rhetorical Grammar or Part I., is a complete Primary or Objective Course on Language in general,

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