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EDMUND BURKE was the second Shackleton and the illustrious pupil of son of a respectable attorney at Dublin, his venerable father. and bis mother came of the ancient family Before EDMUND BURKE left this school, of the Nagles. He was born on the Ist his elder brother died; which event, is of January, (old style,) in the year 1730; said to have occasioned his removal to and when very young, was sent to the Trinity College, Dublin ; but this is a school of Balytore, in the north of Ire- mistake, for he was now of an age to be sand, then kept by Abraham Shackleton, transplanted thither, and as his original a member of the Society of Friends, or, destination was the law, the change that as they are commonly called, Quakers. had occurred made no alteration in the Shackleton was a classical scholar of views of his father. At college he had considerable eminence, and a man of en- Goldsmith for one of his cotemporaries, larged mind, who devoted himself to the who lias been frequently heard to de improvement of his pupils with indefati- clare that Burke gave no extraordinary gable application and conscientious in- promise of superior talents while at the . tegrity. His seminary was the nursery university. But veracity was unfortuof many great characters, who have nately not among the leading virtues of figured conspicuously at the bar, in the Goldsmith; and it is well known, that church, and the senate. Here BURKE whenever literary reputation came in the laid in a solid foundation of learning; way of that ingenious, but eccentric, man, and, besides Greek and Latin, his ex- envy always got the better of good nature. ercises in which gave him a decided Goldsmith could not endure the praises superiority over all his contemporaneous bestowed upon another for talents which students, he applied to the reading of the he fancied no one possessed in a higher finest English authors both in prose and degree than himself

. All his intimates Of his early habits or favorite were sensible of this failing, but as it pursuits at this period of his life, however, was a weakness without malevolence, we know but little; for those writers who his harmless vanity only excited their have professed to give the most ample mirth, and no one ever thought it worth and exact memoir of this great man, were his wbile to resent his petulance. The totally ignorant of his private history, observation of Goldsmith, therefore, reand even unacquainted with his person; specting the academical 'honors of his whence their accounts of his youthful friend, is in itself undeserving of notice; occupations may safely be passed over but since it has been brought forward, as the fictions of conjectural biography: truth requires that it should be repelled; Yet it is certain that the attainments of and this is easily done, for the late Dr. Burke, while at the school of Balytore, Thomas Leland, a much better judge of were extensive and valuable; and it is learning than Goldsmith, never mentionequally honorable to him and his precep-ed the name of EDMUND BURKE without tor, that through life they mutually re- a fond recurrence to the brilliant emana. spected each other, which was manifest- tions of his opening, genius, witnessed ed by the correspondence carried on be- inter sylvas academi, when he wa: himsels tween the son and successor of Abraham a fellow and tutor of Trinity College.





A little before he left the university, unsuccessful need not to be wondered BURKE gave a happy display of his ta- at; and it would have been surprising lent for imitative composition, in a series indeed, if the event had proved otherof essays, written so closely in the man- wise, considering the youth of the candiner of Charles Lucas, a political apothe date, and his being a total stranger to the cary of Dublin, that while they imposed university. But though we have not the upon the admirers of that noisy patriot, means of refuting the story, entirely, by they at the same time turned the prin- direct proof, the improbability of it may ciples of their idol into ridicule, by expo- easily be shown; for in the year 1751, sing the consequences

which necessarily Adam Smith was elected professor of flowed from them. This Lucas was a logic, and the year following he removed turbulent demagogue, who affected the to the chair of moral philosophy, then character of a reformer, and so far suc- vacant by the death of Dr. Francis ceeded, as first to become an object of Hutcheson. prosecution, which made him popular; It must have been on this occasion then he procured a doctor's degree from therefore that BURKE became, if ever he a Scotch university ; next got himself did

become, candidate for a professorship chosen an alderman of Dublin ; after at Glasgow, and yet he was at this tinte which he obtained a seat in the Irish only twenty-two years of age, and withic House of Commons, and then sunk again out a degree, in any faculty, to warrant into his original obscurity and contempt.. his pretensions. But farther, when Smith

Victory over such an opponent as this published in 1759, his “Theory of Moral could hardly, be productive of glory, and Sentiments,". Hume wrote him a long therefore it is not to be wondered that letter, in which among other literary inthese early effusions of BURKE's versa- telligence, he speaks of BURKE, as an ingetile powers should long since have been nious young Irishman, hitherto unknown consigned to oblivion: neither perhaps and recently started into notice, yet withis it to be regretted, that hitherto Done out once adverting to his having been a of the hunters of literary relics should competitor for the logical professorship, a have succeeded in bringing them to light. circumstance which he would hardly have It is deserving of remark, however, that omitted to mention, if it had only been the only controversies in which BURKE for the purpose of assisting his friend's has been known to have engaged, had memory.. for their object the detection of sophistry, Early in 1753, BURKE was in London, and the prevention of anarchy.

as a student of the Middle Temple, where He was now in his twentieth year, and he applied to the law with his wonted from this period to his settlement in Eng- assiduity; but as his finances were exland, a chasm occurs in his history which tremely narrow, he had recourse to his we have not the means of filling up satis- genius to supply the deficiency of forfactorily. Some of his biographers as- tune, in other words, he laboured for the sert, that he came to London direct from booksellers, and wrote a variety of pieces, college, while others assert, that he went chiefly in the fleeting periodical works of first to Glasgow, where he offered him- the day, though now it would be utterly self as a candidate for the professorship impossible to ascertain any of these fugi. of logic in that university, being induced tive productions of his pen ; for such was so to do by seeing a placard affixed to the the Hexibility of his powers, in adapting gate of the old college, inviting a com- his style to the occasion, that his performpetition for the vacant chair, although the ances, unlike those of his great friend successor was already privately chosen. Johnson, are not to be traced by the artiBurke, it seems, if we are to believe the ficial construction of the sentences or the tale, was ignorant of this esoteric method singular tenuity of the reasoning. While of determining an academical appoint- Burke was thus endeavouring, with laument, and therefore tendered his services, dable diligence to eke out a scanty mainin the mere confidence of his qualifica- tenance by the efforts of his pen, the pubtions for the place, without making any lic attention was drawn to the writings inquiry as to forms, or exerting what in- and character of Bolinbroke, who had terest he could make among the electors. but recently quitted a scene where he That under such circumstances he was had played many parts, with more splendour than credit. This man, as if he had which all men are personally interested, owed mankind a grudge for those disap and of which there are few

who cannot pointments, which were solely owing to form a correct opinion. The sceptical his own want of principle, left behind pretender to philosophy, in his attempts him a magazine of mischief, entrusted to to overthrow all religion, whether natural the care of one of his most hopeful pupils, or revealed, drew his arguments entirely for publication. Mallet, the heir to this from the abuses which superstition, faprecious deposit, gave out such reports naticism, and craft, have, in various ages, of the contents, as by exciting the fears devisod and established as of divine preof the pious, and the expectations of scription. This fallacious modo of reasceptics, were best adapted to fill his soning, indeod, was not new,

but it was pockets at the expense of credulity. On artfully adapted to cheat people of light the day when the cargo of infidelity was minds out of their faith, by persuading to be opened to the public, Mallet, with them that the corruptions so prominently uoblushing impudence, dared to exclaim exhibited, were the necessary consequenin the shop of the publisher, while looking ces of the doctrines which they had been at his watch, "In half an hour, Christian- accustomed to regard as of sacred autho ity will tremble.". Though this impious rity. Bolinbroke's rhetorical genius gave boast soon terminated in disgrace and him many advantages in throwing a de mortification, it is certain that the friends lusive glare over his parodoxes; and it of religion were for a time greatly alarm- was, therefore, ,reasonable to apprehend ed, not for the cause of truth, which they that the boldness of his assertions, and knew to be impregnable, but for the wel. the examples adduced for their support, fare of society. A host of writers, there would furnish the licentious with argufore, came forward to refute the sophistry ments, which though they had not wit contained in the posthumous works of enough to find them out by their own exBolinbroke; which in a short space sunk ertions, they might be able to apply with into contempt. While, however, they yet destructive effect, to stagger the princibovered above the chaos of night, and ap- ples of others. As an antidote to this peared portentous of incalculable evils, poison, therefore, Mr. BURKE adopted Mr. BURKE, then young and unknown Bolinbroke's own plan of reasoning, and to the world, hit upon a method of at- employed it to shew that the same ener tack, that evinced his own incompara-. gies which were used for the destruction ble powers,

and completely exposed the of religion, might be directed with equal empty pretensions of the deceased infi- success for the subversion of governinent; del. Early in 1756, he published, “A and that specious arguments might be adVindication of Natural Society; or a duced against those things, which they View of the Miseries and Evils arising who doubt of everything else, will never to Mankind from every species of Arti- permit to be questioned. ficial Society. In a letter to Lord With this view the “Vindication of By a late Noble Writer.” The style of Natural Society” came out, to convince Bolinbroke, lofty, declamatory and rapid, mankind, that if Revelation is an imposis not easy of imitation, yet so closely ture, the association of men in greater or was it caught in the present instance, lesser communities is an evil; and that that many persons were deceived into if the one be, as the unbelievers say it is, the belief, that the pamphlet was a genu- a tyranny over minds, the other is, in an ine production of this celebrated noble- equal or rather a greater degree, a perniman; and some there were who actually cious despotism over persons. praised it above his best performances. To support this paradox, which reduIt was soon discovered, however, by men ces mankind at once to the savage state, of deeper judgment, that the anonymous it wasindispensable that the author should author had a better object in view, than be dogmatic in his assertions, vehement that of availing himself of a popular name in his language, and copious in his illus, to impose an ingenious fraud upon the trations, otherwise he would have failed public. They saw in this imitation of in his design, and his imitation, instead Bolinbroke, the best confutation of his of counteracting, would rather have delusive mode of reasoning, by the appli- strengthened the sophisms of Bolinbroke. cation of it to a point of experience, in Yet it is too remarkable to be passed

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over in silence, that at a subsequent pe- Hence it is inferred that the former is the
riod, when the French anarchists were source of the Sublime, as the latter is of
busily engaged in the work of demoraliza- the Beautiful.
tion, some of their ardent admirers in this Under the head of Society, the author
country, presumed to republish the “Vin- considers three passions, as those which
dication of Natural Society," as a piece cause the greatest part of the pleasure,
of serious argument, and thus endeavour- which we take in the fine arts, namely,
ed to pervert the irony into a weapon of Sympathy, Iinitation, and Ambition. The
deadly, malignity against the principles second part of the inquiry opens with a
which it was constructed to defend. The definition of the passion, caused by the
ravages of war, and the other calamities great and sublime in nature, and which
which the author of the tract has so forci. in its highest degree is astonishment, or
bly pourtrayed, these visionaries, to call “that state of the soul wherein all its mo-
them by no worse a name, would fain as- tions are suspended, with some degree of
cribe to the social state and the legislative horror." This leads the author to the
principle, as the necessary results of what consideration of Terror, as being in some
they are pleased to dcem an unnatural mode or other, the great instrument in

, and an arbitrary imposition. producing the Sublime, by exalting small, All this might have passed as the dream and increasing the effects of large, objects. of political madness, had it not been This position is illustrated by many apfor the barefaced impudence of pressing posite examples, particularly by the noble BURKE into a service which no man ever description of Death, in Milton, a portrait held in greater abhorrence, and which he, which is justly said to "astonish with its in this early production of his pen, actually gloomy pomp and expressive uncertain. held up to public ridicule.

ty.” The inquirer then enters more fully While the imitation of Bolinbroke en- and minutely, into a discussion of the difgaged the public attention, and continued ference between Clearness and Obscurito be the subject of general discourse, the ty, for the purpose of proving that the latter Author was busily employed in conduct- generates more sublime ideas than the ing through the press, a performance of former. “It is our ignorance of things," another description, entitled, “ A Philoso- says he, that causes all our admiration, phical Inquiry into the Origin of our Ideas and chiefly excites our passions. Knowof the Sublime and Beautiful." This ledge and acquaintance make the most elegant disquisition which appeared with striking causes affect but little. It is thus out a name at the beginning of 1757, is with the vulgar, and all men are as the divided into five parts; the first is devoted vulgar in what they do not understand. to an examination of the passions imme- The ideas of eternity, and infinity, are diately connected with, and excited by, among the most affecting we have; and the two objects of investigation ; in the yet perhaps there is nothing of which we second and third the Author enters into really understand so little, as of infinity & minute discussion of the properties of and eternity." Having fixed this princithose things in nature, which produce in ple firmly by uncontested experience, and us ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful. an appeal to universal feeling, the author The fourth is directed to the physical resolves all general privations into causes cause by which those properties in things of the Sublime; such as Vacuity, Dark. are fitted to raise correspondent affections ness, Solitude, Silence, and Extent. To in the mind; and in the last he considers the idea of Vastness, he refers in some the operation of words.

degree another impression, that of Infinity The inquiry opens by establishing the which arises when we do not see the doctrine of a distinction between positive bounds of any large object, or when its and relative pain and pleasure; after which parts are so continued to any indefinite the passions are reduced to two heads, number, that the imagination meets no those of self-preservation, and those of so- check to hinder its extending them at ciety. To the first of these principles are pleasure. referred all the passions which have their Having cxamined extension, the amhor origin in positive pain, and relative plea- proceeds to consider Light and Colours, sure ;, while to the latter are assigned all He observes that in general, Darkness is the relative pains and positive pleasures. a more sublime idea than Light, because

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