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gradually came in sight, and thus the temple seemed to recede (refugere) from the shore.

533. ab Euroo fluctu: '(sheltered) from the eastern wave,' i.e. the harbor, curved like a bow, seems to withdraw away from the waves driven on by the east wind. Cf. 1. 570. Others make ab fluctu the personal agent in a poetical sense of curtatus.

534. cautes : “eliffs,' or rocky promontories at each extremity of the har. bor. These break the force of the waves, and also conceal the harbor itself (Ipse latet), though they open to the eye (patescunt) of the voyager as he draws near. They are the points of two ridges of towering rocks (turriti scopuli) which run out into the sea, on either side, in two natural walls.

535. gemino — muro: stretch down their arms in two similar walls.' Cf. I, 162.

537. primum omen: 'as the first omen.'

540. Bello: dative, as in II, 315. armenta and Quadrupedes (1. 542) : are here varied terms for equi.

541. olim : 'sometimes.' curru: dative.
542. iugo: “under the yoke'; an ablative of means or instrument.
543. et: ‘also '; a token of peace as well as ' of war.

544. quae prima: the temple of Pallas is the first shrine which presents itself on their arrival, and thus the goddess seems to be the first to greet them.

546. Praeceptis : 'according to the instructions.' See II. 436 sqq. ima : “as the most important.' See note on I, 419.

549. Obvertimus : supply the dative, pelago. CC. VI, 3. The sail yards are turned by the ropes attached to the cornua. Hence, to turn the cornua is to turn the yards; and this, again, is to turn or give direction to the sails, which must receive the wind from aft and belly toward the front; i.e. in the present case, toward the sea.

550. Graiugenum: see 11. 398 sqq.

551. Hinc: “then,'' next.' Herculei: one tradition ascribed the founding of Tarentum to Taras, son of Neptune, another to Hercules, and still another to Phalantus, a descendant of Hercules.

552. diva Lacinia : the temple of Tuno Lacinia, one column of which is still standing, was on the promontory of Lacinium in Bruttium, six miles southeast of Croton. contra : opposite' to the Tarentine shore.

553. navifragum : on account of frequent gales and the lack of harbors.

554. Tum: ‘then,' after having coasted the southern extremity of Italy, and doubled the Heracleum promontory, they come in sight of Aetna. e fluctu : far off on the sea and rising therefrom.

556. fractas ad litora voces: roar of the breakers on the shore.'
558. haec illa : 'this certainly is that Charybdis,' that, namely, which
Helenus described to us.


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559. canebat: see 11. 420 sqq. 560. Eripite: sc. vos.

561. rudentem: describes the noise made by the water as the prow rushes through.

565. ad Manes: a bold figure to signify down to the very bottom. desedimus : 'we have sunk.' The perfect, used with the present above (tollimur), makes the contrast still more striking Page compares Psalm cvii. 26: –

"They mount up to heaven, they go down again to the depths: their soul is melted because of trouble.'

566. clamorem: 'a resounding echo.' Clamor, voces, and gemitus are all applied here to the noise of waves.

567. elisam: “dashed forth.' rorantia astra : 'the dripping stars.' The expression is bold, but justified by the appearance of objects at the moment through the spray.

568. reliquit: ‘has left.' This action precedes adlabimur: we foat to the shores of the Cyclops, after we have been deserted both by sun and wind.

570, 571. So far as regards the haven itself, it is capacious and safe; but the noises and fires of the neighboring mountain suggest danger. ruinis: ' with desolation,' referring to the destruction caused by the eruption of stones and ashes.

573. Turbine fumantem, etc.: “smoking with pitchy eddies and with glowing ashes.'

576. sub auras: is not high into the air, but simply up into the open air, as opposed to the inner depths of the mountain.

577. glomerat : 'rolls,' 'gathers up,' at the mouth of the crater. 579. insuper : cf. 1, 61.

580. flammam exspirare, etc.: 'that huge Aetna piled above (him) emits flame from its broken cavities.' caminis : the openings forced (ruft) by the flames through the sides of the mountain.

582. subtexere: “overspreads. The subject is Trinacriam, though we should have expected Aetnam.

583. monstra: ‘prodigies'; the noises of the volcano, which the Trojans do not comprehend.

588–654. In the morning the Trojans discover a stranger approaching from the woods. He describes himself as a follower of L'lysses, lately deserted by his companions, who had fled in haste from the island, after escaping from the cave of the Cyclops, Polyphemus. The cave of Polyphemus and his bloody feasts are described by Achaemenides, the stranger.

588. primo Eco: ‘at the first dawn.' H. 486; LM. 630; A. 256; B. 230; G. 393; (H. 429).

590. macie: ablative of manner.
591. cultu: refers to his clothing and external appearance.
593. With the nominatives supply erat illi.

594. tegumen: for vestis. cetera : ‘as for the rest. Apart from his squalid appearance, the other indications of language, dress, and equipment proved that he was a Greek, and, indeed, he had been engaged in the Trojan


599. testor: equivalent to precor.
600. lumen : for aëra.
601. terras : for ad terras. See note on I, 2.
602. Scio: is by synizesis pronounced as a monosyllable.
605. Spargite me: equivalent to me discerptum spargite.

606. pereo: retains its final vowel before hominum, without shortening it; i.e. this is a case of hiatus. hominum : emphatic; of men'; not by the hands of monsters like Polyphemus.

607. genibus : ablative of place; 'prostrating himself (volutans sc. se), at our knees, he clung there.'

608, 609. fari, fateri : for the infinitive, see note on I. 134. deinde: belongs to hortamur understood. It does not always stand at the beginning of its clause. See I, 195. agitet: ‘is (now) pursuing him.'

610. multa : cf. I, 465, and note.
611. pignore: the pledge is the giving of the right hand.

614. Nomine: ablative of specification. genitore -— Paupere: ‘my father Adamastus being poor,' denotes the reason why Achaemenides had engaged in the Trojan war.

615. fortuna: the poverty to which he was born.

616. crudelia limina: several of his companions had been killed and devoured by the Cyclops, Polyphemus, who had confined the whole party in his cave, until they escaped through the artifice of L'lysses. linquunt: see note

on I, 494.

618. sanie dapibusque cruentis : '(the house) of blood and gory feasts.' Ablatives of quality or description. Sanie has no modifying adjective, contrary to usage (1.473, 2; LM. 643; A. 251; B. 224; G. 400 (II. 419, II)), but the influence of cruentis extends to sanie also.

619. Ipse: Polyphemus. See note on I, 40. Sc. est.

621. Nec visu, etc.: no one can endure to behold him or to speak to him. ulli: limits the predicates visu facilis and dictu affabilis. For the supine, see note on I, III. 629. -ve: see note on II, 602. 630. simul: for simul atque ; as soon as.'

631. per: denotes extension, and suggests the enormous length of the giant's body.

633. Per somnum : join with eructans. mero: the wine given to him by Ulysses.

634. sortiti vices: “having determined our parts by lot '; i.e. the parts, more or less dangerous, which each should take in the transaction.

635. telo: the instrument used was a sharp-pointed stake.

637. Phoebeae lampadis: cf. IV, 6. instar: properly, an indeclinable noun in apposition with quod. See note on II, 15.

641. qualis: refers to his appearance and his features, quantus to his size.

645. Tertia iam — complent: already the moon is coming to the full for the third time.

646. Cum : .since.'
647. ab rupe: with prospicio.

651. primum: after long watching, now, for the first time,' he has caught sight of ships, and these the Trojan fleet.

652. Huic — Addixi: “whatever it should prove to be, I resolved to give myself up to it. Fuisset (after addixi) stands for the future perfect indicative of direct discourse. At the moment when he made the resolution his form of expression would have been addicam, quaecumque fuerit.

654. potius: rather than leave me to be destroyed by the Cyclops.

655-681. Polyphemus, who has been deprived of his eye by the artful Ulysses, descends to the shore to wash the blood from the socket. He overhears the Trojans as they attempt to sail away, pursues them far into the water, and then utters loud cries which call forth all his giant brethren. They stand about on the hills casting threatening looks in vain at the Trojans, who are already beyond their reach.

658. Observe the ponderous line adapted in sound to the object described.

659. Trunca — firmat: “a lopped-off pine tree (held) in his hand guides and assures his steps. Cf. VI, 30.

660. ea: see note on hoc, I, 17. 662. ad aequora: ‘to the open sea'; where he could most easily bathe

The expression elaborates the idea contained in altos fluctus. Some, however, take the line as an example of hysteron proteron.

663. inde: refers to aequora ; he washes it with the water dipped with his hand from the sea.

664. gemitu: for et gemens : cf. II, 323. It denotes the manner of the act expressed in dentibus infrendens, while dentibus itself expresses the means or instrument of infrendens.

666. inde: of place. celerare : historical infinitive. 667. sic merito: 6so deserving; i.e. to be received into our ships. 669. vocis : cf. I. 556. It refers here to the “plashing noise' of the oars.

his eye.

671. Ionios : i.e. coming from the direction of the Ionian Sea. potis : sc. est and ille. aequare sequendo: 'to match the waves in pursuing '; i.e. to overtake those who are borne on the swift waves.

673. penitus exterrita (est): ‘far within (its borders) was terrified.' 676. For the difference of number in the verbs here, see note on II, 31. 677. nequiquam : qualifies the whole phrase, adstantes lumine torvo. 679. vertice: local ablative.

681. Constiterunt: see note un II, 774. The perfect of this verb often has the force of a present. The oak was sacred to Jupiter, and the cypress to llecate, the Diana of Hades.

682-715. They leave the shores of the Cyclops, and coasting by the mouth of the river Pantagia, the towns of Megara and Thapsus, the bay of Syracuse, then by the river Helorus and the promontory of Pachynum, they sail westerly by Camarina, Gela, Mount Acragas, or Agrigentum, and doubling Lily. baeum, the western cape of Sicily, arrive at Drepanum, where they are received by king Acestes, and where Anchises dies.

682. Praecipites : agrees with nos. quocumque rudentes Excutere: 'to lousen our sheets for any course whatever.' Cf. I. 267

683. ventis secundis : dative; “to the guiding winds'; to whatever course they may be favorable.

684-686. A perplexing passage. The sense, however, is perfectly clear. The wind was bearing the fleet to the northward, and directly toward the straits of Scylla and Charybdis. The warning of Helenus is opposed to this course, yet the danger from the Cyclops seems at the moment so much greater than

any other that they resolve to sail back (certum est, etc.) toward the straits; but then suddenly a breeze is sent by a favoring divinity from the north, and thus they escape both the perils of the straits and of the Cyclops. The passage from Scyllam to cursus is in indirect discourse dependent upon an idea of saying implied in monent; hence the third person in teneant. utramque viam : subject of esse understood. Scyllam and Charybdim are governed by inter. discrimine parvo: ablative of description with viam ; 'with small distance (of death).' Translate thus: “On the other hand, the instructions of Helenus warn them that between Scylla and Charybdis the path on either side is but little distant from death, if they fail to hold their course.' dare lintea retro: must be understood of their return toward the straits, for the wind was then in that direction. 687. angusta : narrow '; because Pelorus is situated on the straits.

688. Vivo: see note on I, 167. The Pantagia flows into the sea below Leontini between rocky banks. Hence its mouth is of natural rock.'

689. Thapsum : a 'level' peninsula bounding the Megarean Gulf on the south side.

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