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militia of the campaign he then served, and then proceed to raise a difficulty as to how his allusion to that date can be reconciled with his allusion to B. c. 27 in line 2: the difficulty is however entirely of their own creating. Horace is here speaking quite generally of the ordinary labours of life, possibly, of course, thinking of his own, but certainly not specially alluding to them. Anyhow the Ode cannot have been written any time near B. c. 42, for, putting aside the reference to the Cantabri, (1) all the other Odes in the Book were certainly written much later, (2) the whole tone of the Ode represents Horace as no longer very young.

10. pellitis ovibus Galaesi] The Galaesus was a river near Tarentum: its rich pastures supported a choice breed of sheep, whose wool was so valuable that they were 'covered with skins' (pellitae) to protect it from injury.

11. regnata Phalantho] 'ruled over by Phalanthus.' regnare 'to reign,' an intransitive verb ought not to have a passive, but for convenience sake (and probably to avoid the ambiguous participle of rego, rectus) the past part. is allowed to be used passively. Cf. Virg. Aen. 6. 794, regnata Saturno, and 3. 29. 27, regnata Cyro. For the foundation of Tarentum circ. B. c. 700, see Class. Dict. s. v. Phalanthus.

18. ille...ille (L. 21)...ibi (l. 22)] Notice carefully the guiding words.

14. angulus terrarum] 'corner of the world.' terrarum is used in exactly the same manner as in the phrase orbis terrarum. By the word angulus Horace does not so much wish to imply that Tarentum was in a 'corner of the world' as that it was a snug nook for retirement. For the last syllable of ridet lengthened, cf. 1. 3. 36 n. ridet mihi, lit. 'smiles to me'

takes my fancy.

non Hymetto mella decedunt] 'the honey does not give way before that of Hymettus. Neither Latin nor Greek have a use of the pronoun similar to the word that' in the above sentence: they are therefore obliged either to say 'the honey does not give way before the honey of Hymettus,' or to take a short cut (compendium, whence the phrase comparatio compen diaria applied to this idiom) and avoid such roundabout method by saying the honey does not give way before Hymettus.' So below baca Venafro, and Hom. II. 17. 51, xoual Xapireσow opoîaι, 'locks like those of the Giaces.' Cf. also 2. 14. 28,

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1. amcam. The wwe vris se side by side, even as be my trends VES 17 16.

Ib De

me Üstent des Tarentum The words # neste tres ammire soi specialize the words ille locus, are watering the hilly character of the district and beatae is dealing

simmle when the ashes were being removed In de Te the urn. It was customary to sprinkle them win perfumes and wine (cf. Virg. Aen. 6. 226), the poet naturally praiers "the homage' of a tear. Notice tu emphatic.

25 debits not ‘due by custom,' for custom ordained the winkling with perfumes, but 'due to our friendship,'—'the tributary tear.'

24. vatis amici] I have little doubt that in the summary at the beginning I have not unduly pressed the meaning of these two most emphatic concluding words, which the commentators seem entirely to neglect. Horace has a double claim (cf. debita) on Septimius' tears (1) their long friendship, (2) the fact that that friendship had been hallowed by the presence and favour of the Muses. Theirs had not only been s fair companionship,' but they had also 'with singing cheered the way.' (Tennyson, In Mem. c. 22.)

ODE VII.

'Pompeius, with whom I once saw service under Brutus, with whom I have often joined in revelry, who has thus restored you to your civil rights? How I remember being in the

rout of Philippi with you, when I ran aw
and Mercury spirited me away safe home,'
sucked back into the tempest and tumult of th
offer a sacrifice to Juppiter for your return, and')
hold a reckless revel beneath the laurels here, On t
I should scorn to be sober.'

1. saepe] i. e. during the two years before the 'A Philippi.

tempus in ultimum deducte] Ted down into wit peril when Brutus was our leader! There maana a pl words in deducte...duce. tempus har man wh 'critical period of time,' the whion of “peril' whakama by er from the adjective ultimum, which ithigan Amnight. 14 Phil 6. 17. 48, compare mums reipublicas ='wi wote toket bottel het vand of the moment."

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malinm! sed of somrades # minginant' ‚A (AKAAR. kt. 19th he ines which follow,

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mero...pontificum potiore cenis, and 3. 6. 46, aetas parentum pejor avis.

15. decedere is used of one who quits the footpath to make way for another, hence to yield to. Probably however here, considering the use of the word certat immediately after, the notion is rather of a vanquished competitor quitting the arena.

16. baca] 'the berry,' par excellence, i. e. the berry of the

olive.

18. Iuppiter] i. e. the god of the atmosphere, cf. 1. 1. 25 n. brumas] bruma=brevima, i. e. 'the shortest day,' then generally 'winter.'

Aulon] a valley (avλ) near Tarentum. For Falernis cf. 2. 3. 8.

21. te mecum] The two words are side by side, even as the two friends were to be.

ille locus] i.e. the district near Tarentum. The words et beatae arces complete and specialize the words ille locus, arces referring to the hilly character of the district and beatae to its fertility.

22. calentem] i.e. when the ashes were being removed from the pyre to the urn. It was customary to sprinkle them with perfumes and wine (cf. Virg. Aen. 6. 226), the poet naturally prefers 'the homage' of a tear. Notice tu emphatic.

23. debita] not 'due by custom,' for custom ordained the sprinkling with perfumes, but 'due to our friendship,'—'the tributary tear.'

24. vatis amici] I have little doubt that in the summary at the beginning I have not unduly pressed the meaning of these two most emphatic concluding words, which the com. mentators seem entirely to neglect. Horace has a double claim (cf. debita) on Septimius' tears (1) their long friendship, (2) the fact that that friendship had been hallowed by the presence and favour of the Muses. Theirs had not only been a fair companionship,' but they had also 'with singing cheered the way.' (Tennyson, In Mem. c. 22.)

ODE VII.

'Pompeius, with whom I once saw service under Brutus, with whom I have often joined in revelry, who has thus restored you to your civil rights? How I remember being in the

rout of Philippi with you, when I ran aw
and Mercury spirited me away safe home,
sucked back into the tempest and tumult of th
offer a sacrifice to Juppiter for your return, and
hold a reckless revel beneath the laurels here. On-
I should scorn to be sober.'

1. saepe] i. e. during the two years before the Philippi.

tempus in ultimum deducte] 'Led down into utte peril when Brutus was our leader.' There seems a pl: words in deducte...duce. tempus here means 'a specia 'critical period of time,' the notion of 'peril' attaches to from the adjective ultimum, which implies danger. Cf. Cic. Phil. 5. 17. 46, tempore summo reipublicae = 'at an extreme crisis of the commonwealth.'

2. Bruto] M. Brutus, the murderer of Caesar, commanded, along with Cassius, at Philippi (B. C. 42).

3. redonavit Quiritem] 'given thee back a full citizen.' After Philippi a large proportion of the republican party were pardoned by Octavian, Horace among them: Pompeius, however, seems still to have remained in arms with the relics of the beaten faction; possibly he joined his namesake, Sex. Pompeius, whose piratical career only ended in B.C. 35. Anyhow he had only just been amnestied.

Quirites signifies a Roman citizen in full possession of his civil rights, or, according to the legal phrase, capite non deminutus. Hence in public documents the phrase, populus Romanus Quiritium, and among the jurists, jus Quiritium. The word was only applied to Roman citizens in a civil capacity, never to soldiers; hence the point of Caesar's beginning a speech to the mutinous 10th legion with the word Quirites. The word deserves study in a good dictionary.

5. sodalium] used of 'comrades in enjoyment' in connection with the lines which follow.

6. morantem...fregi] 'I have often with (the aid of) wine defeated a wearisome day.'

Wickham explains fregi of 'breaking the continuity of business hours,' comparing 1. 1. 2, partem solido demere de die, but the interpretation seems forced and gives no sense to morantem. Orelli simply says fregi, breviorem reddidi, which

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